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Greek “ taxis” arrangement or division, “ nomos” lawOther common forms of classification:: Other common forms of classification: Ontology FolksonomyOntology: Ontology An ontology in computer science and information science is a formal representation of a set of concepts within a domain and the relationships between those concepts . It is used to reason about the properties of that domain, and may be used to define the domain. ...an ontology defines a set of representational primitives with which to model a domain of knowledge or discourse. (Tom Gruber, to appear in the Encyclopedia of Database Systems , Ling Liu and M. Tamer Özsu (Eds.), Springer-Verlag, 2008 http://tomgruber.org/writing/ontology-definition-2007.htm) Very relevant in computing for: OWL (Web Ontology Language - designed for use by applications that need to process the content of information; facilitates greater machine interpretability of Web content. http://www.w3.org/TR/owl-features/) RDF (The Resource Description Framework - a language for representing information about resources in the World Wide Web. www.w3.org/RDF/) Semantic Web ( http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/ ) e.g. Wolfram¦Alpha - long-term project to make all systematic knowledge immediately computable by anyone Ontology in Philosophy Different to computing Study of the nature of being, existence or reality in general, Deals with questions concerning what entities exist or can be said to exist and how such entities can be grouped, related within a hierarchy, and subdivided according to similarities and differences. Part of the major branch of philosophy, metaphysics.Ontology: Ontology http://www.jfsowa.com/ontology/ Beverage types classified according to the attributes alcoholic, nonalcoholic, hot, sparkling, caffeinic, madeFromGrapes, and madeFromGrain .Connecting People Via Wikipedia and Term Extraction - Blogoscoped: Connecting People Via Wikipedia and Term Extraction - Blogoscoped Matt Biddulph found a very cool way to create a meaningful “people network” via the Yahoo API. In a nut-shell, here’s how it works: You have a flat list of names, like Margaret Thatcher, Roy Jenkins, David Marshall, Tony Blair, Winston Churchill etc., and you want to know which of these persons share a connection. For every name, you search Yahoo for the top Wikipedia page; for Margaret Thatcher, the query would be “margaret thatcher” site:wikipedia.org (you can use the Yahoo REST API for this). You take the text from the resulting Wikipedia page (like “en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_Thatcher”) and apply Yahoo’s Term Extraction API on it. You’ll end up with a list of extracted terms, like baroness thatcher, woman, tony blair, political philosophy , and some of these map back to the original list of names... and voila, you got the connection! I assume this works with other things than just people... like movie titles, TV shows, band names and so on. Another approach would be to calculate the Googleshare to find the relation between any two things; I wonder if the results for the two approaches are somewhat similar in their structure. http://blogoscoped.com/archive/2005-12-02-n25.htmlConnecting People Via Wikipedia and Term Extraction - Blogoscoped: Connecting People Via Wikipedia and Term Extraction - BlogoscopedFolksonomy: Folksonomy Groups of people organizing information into categories; user generated categories, e.g. meta tagging, social classification, social indexing, and social tagging phrase coined by Thomas Vander WalPowerPoint Presentation: Gene Smith (2005) http://atomiq.org/archives/2005/01/visual_folksonomy_explanation.html [ `furl ( F ile U niform R esource L ocators) - social bookmarking website. Rolled into Diigo.com in 2009.]Bloom’s Taxonomy: Bloom’s TaxonomyBloom’s Taxonomy: Bloom’s Taxonomy Benjamin Bloom formulated a classification of "the goals of the educational process” (1948 Convention of the American Psychological Association) 3 "domains" of educational activities identified: Cognitive Domain (knowledge, comprehension, and critical thinking) Affective Domain (the way people react emotionally) Psychomotor Domain (ability to physically manipulate a tool or instrument )The Cognitive Domain: The Cognitive Domain Involves knowledge and the development of intellectual attitudes and skills A hierarchy of educational objectives Subdivisions ranging from the simplest behaviour to the most complexBloom’s Taxonomy: Bloom’s Taxonomy Knowledge/Remembering Understanding Applying Analysising Evaluation CreatingKnowledge / Remembering: Knowledge / Remembering Knowledge/Remembering is defined as the remembering of previously learned material. This may involve the recall of a wide range of material , from specific facts to complete theories, but all that is required is the bringing to mind of the appropriate information. Learning outcomes: Knowledge represents the lowest level of learning outcomes in the cognitive domain. Examples of learning objectives at this level are: know common terms know specific facts know methods and procedures know basic concepts know principles Bloom’s Taxonomy University of Cape Town http://web.uct.ac.za/projects/cbe/mcqman/mcqappc.htmlKnowledge / Remembering: Knowledge / Remembering Exam Question Cues: List Define Tell Describe Identify Show Label Collect Examine Tabulate Quote Name Who When Where Bloom’s Taxonomy University of Cape Town http://web.uct.ac.za/projects/cbe/mcqman/mcqappc.htmlUnderstanding: Understanding Understanding is defined as the ability to grasp the meaning of material. This may be shown by translating material from one form to another (words to numbers), by interpreting material (explaining or summarizing), and by estimating future trends (predicting consequences or effects). These learning outcomes go one step beyond the simple remembering of material, and represent the lowest level of understanding. Examples of learning objectives at this level are: understand facts and principles interpret verbal material interpret charts and graphs translate verbal material to mathematical formulae estimate the future consequences implied in data justify methods and procedures Bloom’s Taxonomy University of Cape Town http://web.uct.ac.za/projects/cbe/mcqman/mcqappc.htmlUnderstanding: Understanding Exam Question Cues: Summarize Describe Interpret Contrast Predict Associate Distinguish Estimate Differentiate Discuss Extend Bloom’s Taxonomy University of Cape Town http://web.uct.ac.za/projects/cbe/mcqman/mcqappc.htmlApplying: Applying Applying refers to the ability to use learned material in new and concrete situations. This may include the application of such things as rules, methods, concepts, principles, laws, and theories . Learning outcomes in this area require a higher level of understanding than those under comprehension. Examples of learning objectives at this level are: apply concepts and principles to new situations apply laws and theories to practical situations solve mathematical problems construct graphs and charts demonstrate the correct usage of a method or procedure University of Cape Town http://web.uct.ac.za/projects/cbe/mcqman/mcqappc.html Bloom’s TaxonomyApplying: Applying Exam Question Cues: Apply Demonstrate Calculate Complete Illustrate Show Solve Examine Modify Relate Change Classify Experiment Discover University of Cape Town http://web.uct.ac.za/projects/cbe/mcqman/mcqappc.html Bloom’s TaxonomyAnalysing: Analysing Analysing refers to the ability to break down material into its component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. It is one of the key scienfitic instuments that we use in computer science. This may include the identification of parts, analysis of the relationship between parts, and recognition of the organizational principles involved . Learning outcomes here represent a higher intellectual level than comprehension and application because they require an understanding of both the content and the structural form of the material. Examples of learning objectives at this level are: recognize unstated assumptions recognises logical fallacies in reasoning distinguish between facts and inferences evaluate the relevancy of data analyse the organizational structure of a work (art, music, writing) can the student distinguish between the different parts? University of Cape Town http://web.uct.ac.za/projects/cbe/mcqman/mcqappc.html Bloom’s Taxonomy Key scienfitic instuments that we (comp sci’s) useAnalysis: Analysis Exam Question Cues: Analyse Separate Order Explain Connect Classify Arrange Divide Compare Select Explain Infer University of Cape Town http://web.uct.ac.za/projects/cbe/mcqman/mcqappc.html Bloom’s TaxonomyEvaluating: Evaluating Evaluating is concerned with the ability to judge the value of material (statement, novel, poem, research report) for a given purpose. The judgments are to be based on definite criteria. These may be internal criteria (organization) or external criteria (relevance to the purpose) and the student may determine the criteria or be given them. Learning outcomes in this area contain elements of all the other categories, plus conscious value judgments based on clearly defined criteria. Examples of learning objectives at this level are: judge the logical consistency of written material, judge the adequacy with which conclusions are supported by data judge the value of a work (art, music, writing) by the use of internal criteria judge the value of a work (art, music, writing) by use of external standards of excellence Bloom’s Taxonomy University of Cape Town http://web.uct.ac.za/projects/cbe/mcqman/mcqappc.htmlEvaluating: Evaluating Evaluating Assess Decide Rank Grade Test Measure Recommend Convince Select Judge Explain Discriminate Support Conclude Compare Summarize Bloom’s Taxonomy University of Cape Town http://web.uct.ac.za/projects/cbe/mcqman/mcqappc.htmlCreating: Creating Creating refers to the ability to put parts together to form a new whole. This may involve the production of a unique communication (theme or speech), a plan of operations (research proposal), or a set of abstract relations (scheme for classifying information). Learning outcomes in this area are highest in the cognitive hierarchy because they stress creative behaviours, with major emphasis on the formulation of new patterns or structure. Examples of learning objectives at this level are: write a well organized theme gives a well organized speech writes a creative short story (or poem or music) propose a plan for an experiment integrate learning from different areas into a plan for solving a problem formulates a new scheme for classifying objects (or events, or ideas) can the student justify a stand or decision? Bloom’s Taxonomy University of Cape Town http://web.uct.ac.za/projects/cbe/mcqman/mcqappc.htmlCreating: Creating Exam Question Cues: Combine Integrate Modify, Rearrange Substitute Plan Create Design Invent, What if? Compose Formulate Prepare Generalize Rewrite Bloom’s Taxonomy University of Cape Town http://web.uct.ac.za/projects/cbe/mcqman/mcqappc.htmlPowerPoint Presentation: by John M. Kennedy T. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Bloom%27s_Rose.pngClass excercise: Exploring Batteries with Bloom’s Taxonomy: Class excercise: Exploring Batteries with Bloom’s Taxonomy Knowledge/Remembering List as many uses for household batteries as you can think of. Name as many different sized batteries as you can. Write down all the places where you can buy batteries. Understanding Describe the composition of a battery. Draw and label the parts of a battery. Describe how a battery works. Applying Draw a rough diagram illustrating how to properly insert a battery into a torch, a tape recorder or alarm clock. Analysing Determine ways the battery has changed the following markets: toys, small appliances, and health aids. Evaluating What criteria would you set up to evaluate a particular brand of battery? How would you use these criteria to select your next battery? Creating Invent a new toy that operates on batteries. Draw your design and indicate how and where the batteries are to be installed. Based on: Forte, Imogene and S. Schurr. (1997). The All-New Science Mind Stretchers: Interdisciplinary Units to Teach Science Concepts and Strengthen Thinking Skills . Cheltenham, Vic.: Hawker Brownlow.Excercise for next week: Excercise for next week Apply and discuss Bloom’s Taxonomy in relation to your educational journey (1st – 4th Year) 500-1000 words Name & Student # on all pages Knowledge/Remembering Understanding Applying Analysing Evaluating Creating You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.