FLUID FLOW
A fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress. Fluids are a subset of the phases of matter and include liquids, gases.
Fluid flow may be defined as the flow of substances that do not permanently resist distortion
The subject of fluid flow can be divided into fluid static's and fluid dynamics SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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FLUID STATICS
Fluid static's deals with the fluids at rest in equilibrium
Behavior of liquid at rest
Nature of pressure it exerts and the variation of pressure at different layers
Pressure differences between layers of liquids h1 h2 Point 1 Point 2 SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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Consider a column of liquid with two openings Which are provided at the
wall of the vessel at different height
The rate of flow through these opening s are different due to the
pressure exerted at the different height
Consider a stationary column the pressure ps is acting on the surface of
the fluid, column is maintained at constant pressure by applying pressure
The force acting below and above the point 1 are evaluated
Substituting the force with pressure x area of cross section in the above
equation Force acting on the liquid
At point 1 = Force on the surface + Force excreted by the liquid
Above point 1 Pressure at point 1 x Area = Pressure on the surface x area
+ mass x acceleration SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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P1s = P2s + volume x density x acceleration
= P2s + height x area x density x acceleration
P1s = P2s + h1 S ρ g
Since surface area is same
P1 = Ps + h1 ρ g
Pressure acting on point 2 may be written as
P2 = Ps + h1 ρ g
Difference in the pressure is obtained by
P2 - P1 = g (Ps + h2 ρ ) – ( Ps + h1 ρ) g
∆P = (Ps + h2 ρ – Ps - h1 ρ ) g
= ∆ h ρ g SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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FLUID DYNAMICS
Fluid dynamics deals with the study of fluids in motion
This knowledge is important for liquids, gels, ointments which will change their flow behavior when exposed to different stress conditions MIXING FLOW THROUGH PIPES FILLED IN CONTAINER SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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TYPES OF FLOW
Identification of type of flow is important in
Manufacture of dosage forms
Handling of drugs for administration
The flow of fluid through a closed channel can be
viscous or turbulent and it can be observed by Reynolds experiment
Glass tube is connected to reservoir of water, rate of flow of water is
adjusted by a valve, a reservoir of colored solution is connected to one
end of the glass tube with help of nozzle. colored solution is introduced
into the nozzle as fine stream SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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water valve Colored liquid LAMINAR OR VISCOUS FLOW TURBULENT FLOW SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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Laminar flow is one in which the fluid particles move in layers or laminar with one layer sliding with other
There is no exchange of fluid particles from one layer to other
When velocity of the water is increased the thread of the colored water disappears and mass of the water gets uniformly colored, indicates complete mixing of the solution and the flow of the fluid is called as turbulent flow
The velocity at which the fluid changes from laminar flow to turbulent flow that velocity is called as critical velocity SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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REYNOLDS NUMBER
In Reynolds experiment the flow conditions are affected by
Diameter of pipe
Average velocity
Density of liquid
Viscosity of the fluid
This four factors are combined in one way as Reynolds number
Reynolds number is obtained by the following equation
Inertial forces are due to mass and the velocity of the fluid particles trying to diffuse the fluid particles
viscous force if the frictional force due to the viscosity of the fluid which make the motion of the fluid in parallel. D u ρ
η INERTIAL FORCES
= ------------------------------ =
VISCOUS FORCES MASS X ACCELERATION OF LIQUID FLOWING
----------------------------------------------------------
SHEAR STRESS X AREA SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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At low velocities the inertial forces are less when compared to the frictional forces
Resulting flow will be viscous in nature
Other hand when inertial forces are predominant the fluid layers break up due to the increase in velocity hence turbulent flow takes place.
If Re < 2000 the flow I said to be laminar
If Re > 4000 the flow is said to be turbulent
If Re lies between 2000 to 4000 the flow change between laminar to turbulent SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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APPLICATIONS
Reynolds number is used to predict the nature of the flow
Stocks law equation is modified to include Reynolds number to study the rate of sedimentation in suspension
Variations in the velocity of flow across the cross section
When velocity is plotted against the distance from the wall following
conclusions can be drawn
The flow of fluid in the middle of the pipe is faster then the fluid near to the wall
The velocity of fluid approaches zero as the pipe – wall is approached
At the actual surface of the pipe – wall the velocity of the fluid is zero SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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Pipe wall Relative distance from
the center of the pipe U / U max Viscous flow Turbulent flow The velocity of the fluid is zero at the wall surface there should be some
layer in viscous flow near the pipe wall which acts as stagnant layer
if the flow is turbulent at the center and viscous at the surface a buffer
layer exist, this buffer layer changes between the viscous to turbulent flow SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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BERNOULLI'S THEOREM
When the principals of the law of energy is applied to the flow of
the fluids the resulting equation is called Bernoulli's theorem
Consider a pump working under isothermal conditions between points A and B
Bernoulli's theorem states that in a steady state the total energy per unit mass consists of pressure, kinetic and potential energies are constant Pump Friction energy = F Kinetic energy = u2 / 2g Pressure energy = Pa / ρAg SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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At point a one kilogram of liquid is assumed to be entering at this point, pressure energy at joule can be written as
Pressure energy = Pa /g ρ A
Where Pa = Pressure at point a
g = Acceleration due to gravity
ρ A = Density of the liquid
Potential energy of a body is defined as the energy possessed by
the body by the virtue of its position
Potential energy = XA
Kinetic energy of a body is defined as the energy possessed by the
body by virtue of its motion,
kinetic energy = UA2 / 2g
Total energy at point A = Pressure energy + Potential energy+ Kinetic energy SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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Total energy at point A = Pa /g ρ A +XA + UA2 / 2g
According to the Bernoulli's theorem the total energy at point
A is constant
Total energy at point A = Pa /g ρ A +XA + UA2 / 2g = Constant
After the system reaches the steady state, whenever one kilogram of
liquid enters at point A, another one kilogram of liquid leaves at point B
Total energy at point B = PB /g ρ B +XB + UB2 / 2g
INPOUT = OUT PUT
Pa /g ρ A +XA + UA2 / 2g =PB /g ρ B +XB + UB2 / 2g
Theoretically all kids of the energies involved in fluid flow should be
accounted, pump has added certain amount of energy
Energy added by the pump = + wJ

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During the transport some energy is converted to heat due to frictional
Forces
Loss of energy due to friction in the line = FJ
Pa /g ρ A +XA + UA2 / 2g – F + W = PB /g ρ B +XB + UB2 / 2g
This equation is called as Bernoulli's equation
Application
Used in the measurement of rate of fluid flow
It applied in the working of the centrifugal pump, in this kinetic energy is converted in to pressure. SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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ENERGY LOSS
According to the law of conversation of energy, energy
balance have to be properly calculated
fluids experiences energy losses in several ways while f
lowing through pipes, they are
Frictional losses
Losses in the fitting
Enlargement losses
Contraction losses SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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FRICTIONAL LOSSES
During flow of fluids frictional forces causes a loss in pressure. Type of
fluid flow also influences the losses.
In general pressure drop will be
PRESSURE DROP α VELOCITY (u)
α Density of fluid(ρ)
α Length of the pipe (L)
α 1 / diameter of the pipe (D)
These relationships are proposed in Fanning equation for calculating
friction losses
Fanning equation ∆p = 2fu2Lρ / D
F = frictional factor
For viscous flow pressure drop Hagen –Poiseullie equation
= 32 Luη / D2 SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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LOSSES IN FITTING
Fanning equation is applicable for the losses in straight pipe. When
fitting are introduced into a straight pipe, They cause disturbance in the
flow, Which result in the additional loss of energy
losses in fitting may be due to
Change in direction
Change in the type of fittings
Equivalent fitting = Equivalent fitting x internal diameter
For globe valve = 300 x 50
= 15 meter
That means globe valve is equal to 15 meters straight line, so this
length is substituted in fanning equation Tee fitting
Equivalent length = 90 Globe valve equivalent length = 300 SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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ENLARGEMENT LOSS
If the cross section of the pipe enlarges gradually, the fluid adapts itself
to the changed section with out any disturbance. So no loss of energy
If the cross section of the pipe changes suddenly then loss in energy is
observed due to eddies. These are greater at this point than straight line
pipe
Than u2< u1
For sudden enlargement = ∆ H = u1 – u2 / 2g
∆ H = loss of head due to sudden enlargement SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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CONTRACTION LOSSES
If the cross section of the pipe is reduced suddenly the fluid floe is
disturbed, the diameter of the fluid stream is less than the initial colume this
point is known as vena contracta SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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MANOMETERS
Manometers are the devices used for measuring the pressure difference
Different type of manometers are there they are
Simple manometer
Differential manometer
Inclined manometer SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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SIMPLE MANOMETER
This manometer is the most commonly used one
It consists of a glass U shaped tube filled with a liquid A- of density ρA kg /meter cube and above A the arms are filled with liquid B of density ρB
The liquid A and B are immiscible and the interference can be seen clearly
If two different pressures are applied on the two arms the meniscus of the one liquid will be higher than the other
Let pressure at point 1 will be P1 Pascal's and point 5 will be P2 Pascal's
The pressure at point 2 can be written as
= P1+ (m + R ) ρ B g
(m + R ) = distance from 3 to 5 SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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P1 P2 m R 1 2 3 4 5 Liquid A LIQUID B SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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Since the points 2 and 3 are at same height the pressure
at 3 can be written as
Pressure at 3 =P1+ (m + R ) ρ B g
Pressure at 4 can be written as
= P2 + gm ρ B
or
= P1+ ρ B ( m + R ) g- ρ a R g
Both the equations should be equal
P2 + gm ρ B = P1+ ρ B ( m + R ) g- ρ a R g
P1 – P2 = gm ρ B - ρ B ( m + R) g + ρ A R g
∆P = gm ρ B - gm ρ B - R ρ B g + R ρ A
=R (ρ A- ρ B )g SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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DIFFERENTIAL MANOMETERS
These manometers are suitable for measurement of small pressure differences
It is also known as two – Fluid U- tube manometer
It contains two immiscible liquids A and B having nearly same densities
The U tube contains of enlarged chambers on both limbs,
Using the principle of simple manometer the pressure differences can be written as
∆P =P1 –P2 =R (ρc – ρA) g SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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P1 P2 Liquid A Liquid B Liquid C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 a b R SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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INCLINED TUBE MANOMETERS
Many applications require accurate measurement of low pressure such as
drafts and very low differentials, primarily in air and gas installations.
In these applications the manometer is arranged with the indicating tube
inclined, as in Figure, therefore providing an expanded scale.
This enables the measurement of small pressure changes with increased
accuracy. P1 –P2 = g R (ρ A - ρ B) sin α SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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MEASUREMENT OF RATE OF FLOW OF FLUIDS
When ever fluid are used in a process it is necessary to measure the
rate at which the fluid is flowing through the pipe,
Methods of measurement are
Direct weighing or measuring
Hydrodynamic methods
Orifice meter
Venturi meter
Pitot meter
Rotameter
Direct displacement meter SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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DIRECT WEIGHING OR MEASURING
The liquid flowing through a pipe is collected for specific
period at any point and weighed or measured, and the rate of flow can be determined.
Gases can not be determined by this method
ORIFICE METER
Principle:
Orifice meter is a thin plate containing a narrow and sharp aperture.
When a fluid stream is allowed to pass through a narrow constriction the velocity of the fluid increase compared to up stream
This results in decrease in pressure drop and the difference in the pressure may be read from a manometer
The velocity of the fluid at thin constriction may be written as
U0 =C 0 √ 2g ∆H SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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∆H = can be measured by manometer
C0 = constant
U0 = velocity of fluid at the point of orifice meter
CONSTRUCTION
It is consider to be a thin plate containing a sharp aperture through which fluid flows
Normally it is placed between long straight pipes
For present discussion plate is introduced into pipe and manometer is connected at points A and B
WORKING
Orifice meter is referred as the variable head meter, i.e it measure the variation in the pressure across a fixed construction placed in the path of flow SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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When fluid is allowed to pass through the orifice the velocity of the fluid at point B increase, as a result at point A pressure will be increased.
Difference in the pressure is measured by manometer
Bernoulli's equation is applied to point A and point B for experimental conditions
√U02 – UA2 =C0 √2g. ∆H
U0 = velocity of fluid at orifice
UA = velocity of fluid at point A
C0 = constant
If the diameter of the orifice is 1/5 or less of the pipe diameter then UA is neglected
Applications
Velocity at either of the point A and B can be measured
Volume of liquid flowing per hour can be determined SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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VENTURI METER Inlet section Throat of Venturi manometer SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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U v = C v √ 2g . ∆H
DISADVANTAGES
Expensive
Need technical export
Not flexible it is permanent
Advantages
Power loss is less
Head loss is negligible SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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PITOT TUBE SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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Construction
It is also known as insertion tube
The size of the sensing element is small compared to the flow channel
One tube is perpendicular to the flow direction and the other is parallel to the flow
Two tubes are connected to the manometer
∆Hp = u2 /2g
Working
Tube are inserted in the flow shown is the figure
U2 = Cv √2g. ∆H
coefficient of Pitot tube SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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ROTAMETER SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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Construction
It consists of vertically tampered and transparent tube in which a plummet is placed
During the flow the plummet rise due to variation in flow
The upper edge of the plummet is used as an index to note the reading
Working
As the flow is upward through the tapered tube the plummet rises and falls depend on the flow rate
Greater the flow rate higher the rise
DIRECT DISPLACEMENT METER
Used for the measurement of domestic water supply
PRINCIPLE
In this a stream of water enters meter and strikes the moving meter,
the rate of rotation of the moving membrane is proportional to the velocity
of the fluid. SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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Valves
Valves are used to control the rate of fluid in a pipe
Valves should withstand
Pressure
Temperature
Distortion
it should made up of brass, iron, bronze, and cast iron
E.X
Plug clock valve
Globe valve
Gate valve
Diaphragm valve
Quick opening valve
Check valve SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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PLUG CLOCK VALVE Cylindrical bore Conical plug Stem SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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It consists of casting body in to which a conical plug is fixed
The plug has an opening through liquid will flow
Packing material is included around the stem to close it
Uses
Used for handling of gases
Used for wide opening or complete closing
Dis advantages
Not suitable for water due to the material of which made
Some times plug will come out easily
For slight rotation also grate change in the flow so difficult to operate SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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GLOBE VALVE disc Globular body SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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Globe valve consists of a globular body with a horizontal internal portion
Passage of fluid is through a circular opening which can be opened and closed by inserting the disc
Disc is called as seating disc
It can be rotated freely on the stem
Uses
This should be used in pipe with size not more than 50 millimeters
Disadvantage
Rust, discomfort in opening of valve due to sludge SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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GATE VALVE SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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Wedge shaped inclined seat type of gate is commonly used, pressure on the gate is controlling factor in large valves.
Two type of gate valves are there
in non rising stem valve thread of the valve stem engages the gate. Gate can be raised and lowered without movement of the stem.
In rising stem valve length of the stem is more and gate and stem are single piece.
Advantages
Available in large sizes, different designs.
In minimizes the differential pressure during opening and closing. SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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Diaphragm valves
It consists of flexible physical barrier, valves are made of natural rubber or synthetic rubber faced with Teflon
These are more suitable for fluids containing suspended solids and it can be easily sterilized.
Quick opening valves SHAIK. FIROZ Sree Vidyanikethan College of Pharmacy

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By: Mastrokunal (63 month(s) ago)

awesome............thank you