NOISE POLLUTION by Engr Shahzad Shaikh

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NOISE POLLUTION:

NOISE POLLUTION BY Engr. Shahzad Shaikh Mehran UET Jamshoro Pakistan

NOISE POLLUTION:

NOISE POLLUTION Contents Background Noise Pollution – All About Sources of Noise Pollution Effects of Noise Pollution Control of Noise Pollution

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NOISE POLLUTION Background Noise pollution is traditionally not placed among the top environmental problems facing the society; however, it is one of the more frequently encountered sources. Sources of noise pollution are extremely diverse and are constantly increasing as more and more noise-generating products become available to consumers. An estimated 6% citizens are exposed to noise that poses a threat to their hearing. In today's mechanized world it is virtually impossible for an active person to avoid exposure to potentially harmful sound levels.

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NOISE POLLUTION Exposure of people or animals to levels of sound which are annoying, stressful or damaging to ears as known s noise pollution. Noise is an excessive sound which displease human and animal in the environment. When the normal level of noise increases and become unsafe for human and animals that noise level is called as noise pollution.

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NOISE POLLUTION Noise Pollution – All About The word noise comes from Latin word nauseas which means sickness. In common use, noise means unwanted sound or sound which is loud, undesirable and unpleasant. Noise can block, distort or interfere with the meaning of the message in human, animal and electronic communication. Noise is different from voice. Voice is sound produced by vocal cords in the voice box (larynx), which vibrate like the strings in guitar. Modification of voice as it asses through nose, mouth, throat is called as resonance. Resonance varies in children, young and elders

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NOISE POLLUTION Noise Levels Noise level is usually defined as the amplitude of various sounds that are occurring within a given area. In order to accurately measure levels of noise generated under specific circumstances, various sounds are evaluated and assigned what is known as a decibel level. Categorizing noise level into several different classes makes it possible to determine the potential for damage to the ears, as well as provide information that is helpful in selecting ear protection for those who must remain in the area for an extended period of time. There are five levels of noise.

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NOISE POLLUTION 1. Faint Noise Level This is a first Class Noise Level. This noise level includes weak noise. Usually carries a range of no more than 30 decibels (dB). These are considered to be completely safe and pose no threat at all to the ears. An example of a faint level would be a whispering exchange in a public library or class room.

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NOISE POLLUTION 2. Moderate Noise Level This is a second class noise level also known as the moderate class noise level. Like the faint category, moderate noises also pose no threats to the human ear, and are common. This level of noise is usually between 40 and 50 decibels. This is often pleasant and ideal for various reasons. A steady rain or a room that is more or less quiet are examples of a moderate sound level.

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NOISE POLLUTION 3. Very Loud Noise Level This is a third class level and known as very loud. This class usually involves a range between 60 and 80 decibels. However, noises of this type are still considered acceptable, and do not pose any real threat to hearing capability. Typical street noise in a mid-sized city is an example of very loud noise, as is the ringing of an alarm clock, or a running vacuum cleaner at home etc are example of very loud noise.

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NOISE POLLUTION 4. Extremely Loud Noise Level This includes noises that do have some potential for causing damage to the ear. This noise has a range of 90 to 110 decibels. For example, loud machinery in a manufacturing plant can cause hearing loss, unless earplugs are used to muffle the sounds. Tools like a chain saw or large drills can also emit noises loud enough to cause damage, if the exposure is ongoing.

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NOISE POLLUTION 5. Painful Noise Level The most serious type of noise level is generally known as painful. The range of this noise is 120 decibels. Sounds in this category are capable of causing temporary or even permanent loss of hearing in one or both ears. The classic example of an event that creates sounds at this level is a rock and roll concert. Along with loud music, close proximity to a jet engine for takeoff, an air-raid siren, jackhammer use at a construction site are also good examples of noise levels capable of causing a loss of hearing ability.

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NOISE POLLUTION Types of Noise Acoustic Noise When speaking of noise in relation to sound, what is commonly meant is meaningless sound of greater than usual volume. Thus, a loud activity may be referred to as noisy. However, conversations of other people may be called noise for people not involved in any of them. Noise can be any unwanted sound such as the noise of dogs barking, neighbours playing loud music, road traffic sounds, aircraft, spoiling the silence of the countryside.

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NOISE POLLUTION 2. Electronic Noise Electronic noise exists in all circuits and devices as a result of thermal noise. It is caused by random variations in current or voltage caused by the random movement of charge carriers (usually electrons) carrying the current. Thermal noise can be reduced by reducing the temperature of the circuit. 3. Audio Noise In audio, recording and broadcast systems audio noise refers to the residual low level sound (usually hiss and hum) that is heard in quiet periods of programs.

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NOISE POLLUTION Other Types of Noise Physical Noise Physical noise is external to the speaker and listener. It includes things such as the sounds of road construction outside your window that make it difficult to hear what is being said. 2. Psychological Noise Psychological noise is mental interference that prevents you from listening. If your mind is wandering when someone is speaking to you, the noise in your head is preventing communication.

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NOISE POLLUTION 3. Physiological Noise Physiological noise is any physiological issue that interferes with communication, it may be difficult to speak to others or listen to them when they speak to you. 4. Semantic Noise Semantic noise occurs when there is no shared meaning in a communication. This often occurs when someone is dealing with medical professionals, lawyers, scientists or others who use terminology that lay people may not understand

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NOISE POLLUTION Sources of Noise Pollution There are various sources of noise pollution but following are important. Transportation Industries Household Public Address system Agricultural Machines Defence equipment Miscellaneous sources

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NOISE POLLUTION 1. Transportation Automobiles revolution in urban areas has proved to be a big source of noise pollution. Increasing traffic has given rise to traffic jams in congested areas where the repetition of blowing horn by impatient drivers penetrate the ears of all road users. Noise from aeroplanes constitute an increasing serious problem in big cities. Airports situated at vicinity of population centres and the air lanes pass over residential areas produce noise pollution. Heavy trucks, buses, trains, jet planes, motor cycles, jeeps and cars produce noise pollution. Thus the list of vehicles is endless but the outcome is same that is noise pollution.

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NOISE POLLUTION 2. Industries Industries produce all types of pollution including noise pollution. There are so many equipments an machineries used including boilers, compressors, generators, fans, blowers, pumps, motors, heavy duty turbines etc, all these produce noise pollution . 3. Household the household is itself an industry and is a source of noise pollution. Banging of doors, noise of playing children, crying of infants, moving of furniture, loud conversations, playing of audio – video movies in high volume etc contribute in noise pollution.

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NOISE POLLUTION Besides these, there are domestic appliances such as mixers, juicers, grinders, blenders, pressure cookers, air conditioners, refrigerators, fans, vacuum cleaners, sewing and washing machines are all indoor sources of noise pollution. 4. Public Address System In public places or residential areas, use of loud speakers on the occasions like religious functions, birthdays, deaths, marriages, elections, demonstrations or commercial advertisements, all these contribute much in noise pollution.

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NOISE POLLUTION 5. Agricultural Machines Tractors, threshers, harvesters, tube wells etc have made all agriculture highly mechanical but at the same time much noisy. 6. Defence Equipment A lot of the noise is added to the atmosphere by artillery equipments, tanks, launching of rockets, explosions, military air planes practices, shooting practices etc have contributed a lot in noise pollution. 7. Miscellaneous Sources These include automobile repair shops, construction machinery, blasting and many more.

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NOISE POLLUTION Effects of Noise Pollution Noise is generally harmful and a serious health hazard. There are many physical, physiological and psychological effects of noise pollution. 1. Physical Effects Effects on hearing ability Acute and chronic effects on hearing Misunderstanding in communication Doubling of sound sensation in ears Impairment of hearing ability Total deafness

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NOISE POLLUTION 2. Physiological Effects Head ache by dilating / expanding the blood veins of brain Narrowing of arteries (tubes carrying blood) Increase in the rate of heart beat Decrease the heart out put Pain in the heart Impairment of night vision Decrease in the rate of colour perception Lowering concentration in every work Affecting memory Nervous breakdown

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NOISE POLLUTION 3. Psychological Effects Depression and fatigue which reduces the efficiency of person Insomnia as a result of lack of undisturbed and refreshing sleep Straining of senses and annoyance as a result of slow but persistent / continual noise from motorcycles, alarms, call bells and etc. Affecting psychomotor performance of a person by sudden loud noise. Emotional disturbances Harsh attitude of person with everyone Overall psychological effects

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NOISE POLLUTION Noise Pollution Control It is evident from a discussion that noise is not only a nuisance but is a serious environmental and health hazard. So, like all other pollutions, noise pollution needs to be controlled. Noise can be effectively controlled by following measures. 1. Control at Receivers end For people working in noisy installations, ear protection aids like ear plugs, ear muffs, noise helmets, headphones etc must be provided to reduce occupational exposure.

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NOISE POLLUTION 2. Suppression at Noise source This is possible if working methods are improved by: Designing, fabricating and using some machines to replace noisy ones. Proper lubrication and better maintenance of machines. Installing noise creating machines in sound proof chambers. Covering noise producing machines parts with sound absorbing materials. Reducing noise produced from vibrating machines by vibration damping. Using silencers to control noise from automobiles etc. Using glass wool or mineral wool covered with a sheet of perforated metal for the purpose of mechanical protection.

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NOISE POLLUTION 3. Acoustic Zoning The distance from noise sources must be increased. Noisy industrial areas, bus terminals, railways stations, airports, must be away from residential areas to minimize exposure of noise pollution on people. There should be silence zones near the residential buildings, educational institutes and hospital areas. 4. Planting of Trees Planting green trees along roads, hospitals, educational institutes etc help in noise reduction to a considerable extent.

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NOISE POLLUTION 5. Sound Insulation at Construction Stage Sound travels through the cracks that get left between the doors and walls. For reducing noise, this space (jamp frame gape) should be packed with sound absorbing materials at contraction stage. Sound insulation can be done by constructing windows with double or triple panes of glass and filling the gapes with sound absorbing materials. Acoustical tiles, hair felt, perforated ply wood etc can be fixed on walls, ceilings, floors etc to reduce noise.

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NOISE POLLUTION 6. Legislative Measures Strict legislative measures need to be enforced to curb the menace / danger of noise pollution. These measures could be as following: Minimum use of loud speakers Ban on pressure horns in automobiles Noise pollution effects awareness programs Framing a separate noise pollution act.

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