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Selection is picking up right people for right jobs Selection is the process by which an organization chooses the person(s) who best meets the selection criteria for the position available Selection programs try to identify applicants with the best chance of meeting or exceeding the organization’s standards of performance Selection is significant because it determines work performance heavy costs are incurred Introduction

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Selection: “An exercise in prediction” Selection Process The process of screening job applicants to ensure that the most appropriate candidates are hired. What is Selection? An exercise in predicting which applicants, if hired, will be (or will not be) successful in performing well on the criteria the organization uses to evaluate performance. Selection errors: Reject errors for potentially successful applicants Accept errors for ultimately poor performers

Recruitment Vs Selection :

Recruitment Vs Selection Recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization WHEREAS selection involves the series of steps by which the candidates are screened for choosing the most suitable persons for vacant posts. The basic purpose of recruitments is to create a talent pool of candidates to enable the selection of best candidates for the organization, by attracting more and more employees to apply in the organization WHEREAS the basic purpose of selection process is to choose the right candidate to fill the various positions in the organization.

Recruitment Vs Selection:

Recruitment Vs Selection Recruitment is a positive process i.e. encouraging more and more employees to apply WHEREAS selection is a negative process as it involves rejection of the unsuitable candidates. Recruitment is concerned with tapping the sources of human resources WHEREAS selection is concerned with selecting the most suitable candidate through various interviews and tests. There is no contract of recruitment established in recruitment WHEREAS selection results in a contract of service between the employer and the selected employee.

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Selection Criteria Understanding the characteristics essential for high performance The characteristics are identified during job analysis They must be reflected in the job specification The goal of any selection system is to: Determine which applicants possess the knowledge, skills, abilities, and KSAOs dictated by the job The system must distinguish between characteristics that are: Needed at the time of hiring , acquired during training , and developed on the job

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Categories of Criteria Criteria for making selection decisions fall into these broad categories: Education Experience Physical characteristics Other personal characteristics



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Step 1: Preliminary Screening The first step in most selection processes involves completing an application form Application blanks vary in length and sophistication Nearly all ask for enough information to determine minimal qualifications The application eliminates the need for interviewers to gather basic information Application blanks are subject to the same legal standards as any other selection method They generally limit questions that imply something about the applicant’s physical health

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Sample Application Blank

Weighted application blank:

Weighted application blank It is a printed form completed by candidate wherein each item is weighted and scored based on its importance as a determinant of job success It helps a company to cross-compare candidates having more or less similar qualifications and reject those not meeting the job criteria strictly On the negative side, it is difficult to develop an appropriate WAB, the exercise could be quite costly, and it needs frequent updating so as to be in line with changing job requirements.

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Step 2: Employment Tests An employment test attempts to measure certain characteristics, such as: Aptitudes Manual dexterity Intelligence Personality It can be expensive to develop an employment test, so many employers purchase existing tests

Selection Tests::

Selection Tests: Intelligence test Aptitude test Personality test Projective test Interest test Achievement test Simulation test Graphology test

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Validity and Reliability Validity (of Prediction) A proven relationship between the selection device used and some relevant criterion for successful performance in an organization. High tests scores equate to high job performance; low scores to poor performance. Reliability (of Prediction) The degree of consistency with which a selection device measures the same thing. Individual test scores obtained with a selection device are consistent over multiple testing instances.

Standards For Selection Tests:

Standards For Selection Tests Reliability: the ability of a selection tool to measure an attribute consistently; When a test is administered to the same individual repeatedly, he should get Approximately identical scores. Validity: the extent to which an instrument measures what it intends to measure; In a typing test, validity measures a typist’s speed and accuracy. Standardization: norms for finalizing test scores should be established Qualified people: tests demand a high level of professional skills

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Job Sample Performance Tests This test requires the applicant to do a sample of the work that the job involves in a controlled situation Programming for computer programmers Auditions at an orchestra or ballet company Applicants are often asked to run the machines they would run on the job The quantity and quality of their work is compared with the work of other applicants

Step 3: Employment Interview:

Step 3: Employment Interview Formal , in-depth conversation conducted to evaluate applicant’s acceptability for the job in consideration. an important source of information about job applicants. Several types of interviews are used , depending on the nature and importance of the position to be filled within an organization.

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Types of Interviews Interviews vary along two important dimensions: How structured it is Whether it focuses on historical information or hypothetical situations An unstructured interview has no predetermined script or protocol Structured interviews are more reliable and valid than unstructured interviews Standardization lowers the possibility that biases have been introduced by the interviewer

Types Of Selection Interviews :

Types Of Selection Interviews The nondirective interview: the recruiter asks questions as they come to mind The directive or structured interview: the recruiter uses a predetermined set of Questions that are clearly job-related The situational interview: the recruiter presents a hypothetical incident and asks The candidate to respond The behavioral interview: the focus here is on actual work related incidents and The applicant is supposed to reveal what he or she did in a given situation Stress interview: the recruiter attempts to find how applicants would respond to aggressive, embarrassing, rule and insulting (at times) questions The panel interview: three or four interviewers pose questions to the applicant and Examine the suitability of the candidate

Effective Interviewing:

Effective Interviewing Conducting an Effective Interview Planning the interview Controlling the interview Using proper questioning techniques Question types to avoid in interviews Yes/No questions Obvious questions Questions that rarely produce a true answer Leading questions Illegal questions Questions that are not job related

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Step 4: Reference Checks When applying for a job, you may be asked for a list of references Rarely does someone knowingly include the name of a reference who will give a negative impression This built-in bias is why references are criticized Equally important are concerns over the legality of asking for, and providing, such information Giving out confidential information could be a violation of the employee’s right to privacy Giving a negative recommendation opens the reference up to a defamation lawsuit

Step 5: Physical Examinations:

Step 5: Physical Examinations After the selection decision and before the job offer is made, the candidate is required to undergo a physical fitness test. A job offer is contingent upon the candidate being declared fit after the physical examination.

Step 6 :Making the Job Offer:

Step 6 :Making the Job Offer Offer Guidelines Formalize the offer with a letter to the applicant clearly stating the terms and conditions of employment. Avoid vague, general statements and promises. Require return of a signed acceptance of the offer.

Selection of Managers:

Selection of Managers The employment tests used vary with the type of employee being hired Organizations frequently spend more time, effort, and money hiring middle- to upper-level executives Uses a variety of testing methods, including: Interviews Work samples and simulations Paper-and-pencil tests of abilities and attitudes

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Selection of Managers Assessors then evaluate each individual on a number of dimensions, such as: Organizational and planning ability Decisiveness Flexibility Resistance to stress Poise Personal style Rater’s judgments are consolidated and developed into a final report

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Selection Cost-Benefit Analysis Utility: the degree to which using a selection system improves the quality of the individuals being selected Statistical utility: the extent to which a selection technique allows a company to predict who will be successful Organizational utility: a matter of costs and benefits.

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