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McLaughlin Stresses : Stresses External conditions that adversely affect growth, development, or productivity Stresses trigger a wide range of plant responses: altered gene expression cellular metabolism changes in growth rates and crop yields Types of Stress : Types of Stress Biotic - imposed by other organisms Abiotic - arising from an excess or deficit in the physical or chemical environment Biotic and abiotic stresses can reduce average plant productivity by 65% to 87%, depending on the crop Plant Response to Abiotic Stress : Plant Response to Abiotic Stress arising from an excess or deficit in the physical or chemical environment Environmental conditions that can cause stress : Environmental conditions that can cause stress water-logging drought high or low temperatures excessive soil salinity inadequate mineral in the soil too much or too little light Phytotoxic compounds : Phytotoxic compounds Ozone Resistance or sensitivity of plants to stress depends on: : Resistance or sensitivity of plants to stress depends on: the species the genotype development age How plants respond to environmental stress : How plants respond to environmental stress Stress resistance mechanisms : Stress resistance mechanisms Avoidance mechanisms prevents exposure to stress Tolerance mechanisms permit the plant to withstand stress Acclimation alter their physiology in response stress Stress resistance : Stress resistance Changes in gene expression to stress : Changes in gene expression to stress A stress response is initiated when plants recognizes stress at the cellular level Stress recognition activates signal transduction pathways that transmit information within the individual cell and throughout the plant Changes in gene expression may modify growth and development and even influence reproductive capabilities Plant response to stress : Plant response to stress Regulation of plant stress responses : Regulation of plant stress responses Abscisic acid (ABA) Jasmonic acid Ethylene Calcium Gene expression results in: : Gene expression results in: Increase amounts of specific mRNA Enhance translation Stabilize proteins Altered protein activity A combination of the above Stresses involving water deficit : Stresses involving water deficit Water related stresses could affect plants if the environment contains insufficient water to meet basic needs Environmental conditions that can lead to water deficit : Environmental conditions that can lead to water deficit drought hypersaline conditions low temperatures transient loss of turgor at midday Factors that can affect the response of a plant to water deficit : Factors that can affect the response of a plant to water deficit duration of water deficiency the rate of onset if the plant was acclimated to water stress Tolerance to drought and salinity : Tolerance to drought and salinity Osmotic adjustment a biochemical mechanism that helps plants acclimate to dry and saline conditions Many drought-tolerant plants can regulate their solute potentials to compensate for transient or extended periods of water stress by making osmotic adjustments, which results in a net increase in the number of solutes particles present in the plant cell Osmotic adjustment : Osmotic adjustment Osmotic adjustment : Osmotic adjustment Osmotic adjustment occurs when the concentrations of solutes within a plant cell increases to maintain a positive turgor pressure within the cell The cell actively accumulates solutes and as a result the solute potential (?s) drops, promoting the flow of water into the cell Solutes that contribute to osmotic adjustments : Solutes that contribute to osmotic adjustments Compatible solutes (osmolytes) : Compatible solutes (osmolytes) Compatible solutes tend to be neutrally charged at physiological pH, either non-ionic or zwitterionic, and are excluded from hydration shells of macromolecules. In contrast, many ions can enter the hydration shells of a protein and promote its denaturation Compatible ions : Compatible ions Osmolytes : Osmolytes Membrane-associated carriers and transporters are probably involved in differentially distributing osmolytes within the cell and throughout the plant Proline : Proline distribution of proline in osmotically stressed plants involves a transporter two Arabidopsis cDNA encoding proline transporters were cloned by functional complementation Proline & glycine betaine : Proline & glycine betaine Glycine betaine accumulation in osmotically stressed plants resulted from increased rates of synthesis, whereas, with proline, synthesis and catabolism appears to be co-ordinately regulated in response to water stress Glycine betaine is synthesised and accumulated by many algae and higher plants and is not broken down by plants Genetic evidence indicates that accumulation of glycine betaine promotes salt tolerance Mannitol : Mannitol the reduced form of the sugar mannose and is broadly distributed among plants salt stress inhibits sucrose synthesis and promotes accumulation of mannitol mannitol concentrations increase in response to osmotic stress Mannitol : Mannitol mannitol accumulation appears to be regulated by competing pathways and decreasing rates of mannitol consumption and catabolism In celery, salt stress inhibits sucrose synthesis but does not seem to affect the enzymes that synthesise mannitol Salt stress also down-regulate NAD+ -dependent mannitol dehydrogenase, the enzyme that oxidises mannitol in celery Transgenic plants : Transgenic plants transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis plants engineered to express the E. coli gene for NAD+-dependent mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase, which converts fructose 6-phosphate to mannitol-1-phosphate, synthesised mannitol, although at low concentrations In transgenic tobacco salt tolerance was improved, and seeds able to germinate in the presence of salt D-Pinitol : D-Pinitol cyclic sugar alcohol, is a major solute in members of the Pine Family and Bean Family its concentrations are higher among halophytic species and those adapted to drought. in leaves, pinitol is localised to the chloroplast and cystol but not in the vacuoles Osmotin : Osmotin abundant alkaline protein discovered in cultured tobacco cells that had been acclimated to 428 mM NaCl molecular size of 26-kDa localised in the vacuole classified as a pathogenesis-related (PR) protein Osmotin : Osmotin Transcription of an osmotin gene is induced by at least 10 signals: ABA, ethylene, auxin, infection by TMV, salinity, lack of water, cold, UV light, wounding, and fungal infection Many of the stress-induced genes are regulated by ABA ABA plays a role in stomata closure and induction of gene expression Oxidative Stress : Oxidative Stress Oxidative stress results from conditions promoting the formation of active oxygen species that damage or kill cells Environmental factors that cause oxidative stress : Environmental factors that cause oxidative stress air pollution (increased amounts of ozone or sulfur dioxide) oxidant forming herbicides e.g. paraquat dichloride heavy metals drought heat and cold stress wounding UV light intense light that stimulate photoinhibition Oxidative stress : Oxidative stress Reactive oxygen species (ROS) : Reactive oxygen species (ROS) Formed during certain redox reactions and during incomplete reduction of oxygen or oxidation of water by the mitochondrial or chloroplast electron transfer chain Singlet oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, hydroxyl and perhydroxyl radicals Ozone and oxidative stress : Ozone and oxidative stress Hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen (NO, NO2) and sulfur (SOx) react with solar UV radiation to generate ozone (O3). Ozone is a highly reactive oxidant The negative effects of ozone on plants : The negative effects of ozone on plants decreased rates of photosynthesis leaf injury reduced growth of shoots and roots accelerated senescence reduced crop yield Ozone Damage : Ozone Damage alters ion transport increases membrane permeability inhibits H+-pump activity collapses membrane potential increases Ca2+ uptake from the apoplasm Oxidative damage to biomolecules Resistance to ozone : Resistance to ozone Utilizes either avoidance or tolerance Avoidance involves physically excluding the pollutant by closing the stomata, the principal site at which ozone enters the plant Tolerance - biochemical responses that induce or activate the antioxidant defence system and possibly also various repair mechanisms Tolerance to oxidative stress : Tolerance to oxidative stress Salicylic acid and ethylene : Salicylic acid and ethylene Ozone exposure results in increased amounts of H2O2, which stimulate the production of SA Results in a transient increase in the number of transcripts that encode defence-related secondary metabolites e.g. phytoalexins, cellular barrier molecules e.g. lignins, callose, and extensins, PR proteins e.g. (1?3) ?-glucanase, chitinase, gluthatione S-transferase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase Increases ethylene production by inducing increases in ACC synthase and ACC oxidase gene transcription Heat Stress : Heat Stress The typical response to heat stress is a decrease in the synthesis of normal proteins, accompanied by an accelerated transcription and translation of new proteins known as heat shock proteins (HSPs) Heat shock proteins : Heat shock proteins Heat shock : Heat shock may arise in leaves When transpiration is insufficient when stomata are partially or fully closed and irradiance is high may arise in germinating seedlings When the soil is warmed by the sun may arise in organs with reduced capacity for transpiration e.g. fruits Resistance or sensitivity of plants to heat stress : Resistance or sensitivity of plants to heat stress Duration Severity of the stress Susceptibility of different cell types Stage of development Acclimation to heat stress : Acclimation to heat stress Classes of HSPs : Classes of HSPs Plant Response to Biotic Stress : Plant Response to Biotic Stress imposed by other organisms Pathogen attack strategies : Pathogen attack strategies necrotrophy, in which the plant cells are killed biotrophy, in which the plant cells remain alive hemibiotrophy, in which the pathogen initially keeps cells alive but kills them at later stages of infection Failure of a pathogen to cause disease : Failure of a pathogen to cause disease The plant species attacked is unable to support the life-strategy of the particular pathogen The plant possesses preformed structural barriers or toxic compounds Defence mechanisms are activated such that the invasion remains localized Environmental conditions change and the pathogen perish Successful pathogen infection & disease occurs: : Successful pathogen infection & disease occurs: Only if the environmental conditions are favourable If the preformed plant disease defenses are inadequate If the plant fail to detect the pathogen If activated defense responses are ineffective Preformed defense: Secondary metabolites : Preformed defense: Secondary metabolites Plants possess different secondary metabolites with antimicrobial properties may be present in their biological active form or may be store as inactive precursors that are converted to their active forms by host enzymes in response to pathogen attack or tissue damage Secondary metabolites : Secondary metabolites pre-formed inhibitors are the saponins and the glucosinolates Saponins : Saponins Glycosylated compounds, classified as either triterpinoids, steroids, or steroidal glycoalkaloids A biologically active triterpinoid saponin found in the roots of oat plants, avenacin A-1, is highly effective against the root infecting Take-all fungus, a major pathogen of cereal roots This pathogen affects wheat and barley, but not oat plants Avenacin A-1 : Avenacin A-1 Hypersensitive response : Hypersensitive response 1st line of activated defence, occurs within 24hr Recognition of a genetically incompatible pathogen Creates unfavourable conditions for pathogen growth and reproduction Impair the spread of harmful enzymes & toxins Leads to localised cell and tissue death HR of barley epidermal cells : HR of barley epidermal cells Reactive oxygen species (ROS) : Reactive oxygen species (ROS) the production of ROS is often the first response detected, occurring within 5 min superoxide and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The mechanism plants have for producing superoxide from molecular oxygen probably involves a plasma membrane-associated NADPH oxidase Role of ROS in plant defence : Role of ROS in plant defence H2O2 maybe directly toxic to pathogens may contribute to the structural reinforcement of plant cell walls, either by cross-linking various hydroxyproline and proline rich glycoprotein to the polysaccharide matrix or by increasing the rate of lignin polymer formation by way of peroxidase enzyme activity make the plant cell wall more resistant to microbial perpetration and enzymatic degradation Role of ROS in cell signalling : Role of ROS in cell signalling H2O2 induces benzoic acid 2 hydrolase (BA 2-H) enzyme activity, which is required for biosynthesis of SA H2O2 is known to induce genes for proteins involved in certain cell protection mechanisms e.g. glutathione S-transferase Nitric oxide synthesis (NO) : Nitric oxide synthesis (NO) In plants, rapid de novo synthesis of NO accompany the recognition of avirulent pathogenic bacteria NO has the capacity to potentiate induction of plant cell death by ROS NO is known to bind heme and could inhibit catalase and ascorbate peroxidase, which detoxifies H2O2 Nitric oxide : Nitric oxide In the presence of inhibitors of NO production, the HR diminishes, disease symptoms become more severe, and bacterial growth is increased NO and ROS play an important synergistic role in the rapid activation of a wide repertoire of defence responses after pathogen attack Benzoic acid and salicylic acid : Benzoic acid and salicylic acid Both SA and BA are derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway and have many roles in plant defence responses Accumulate to high concentrations in the vicinity of incompatible infection sites Slide 67: (A) TMV necrotic lesions forming on N gene-expressing resistant tobacco leaves - total SA contents are greatest in the centre of the lesion and rapidly diminish with distance from the centre Slide 68: (B) Constitutive expression in tobacco plants of the P. putida nahG gene (encodes the enzyme salicylate hydrolase and hydrolyses SA to catechol) leads to continual removal of induced SA. This causes substantial increase in TMV multiplication in the tobacco leaves through a weakening of several N gene-mediated resistance to TMV Jasmonic acid and Ethylene : Jasmonic acid and Ethylene Jasmonic acid (JA) is an oxylipin-like hormone derived from oxygenated linolenic acid Increases in JA in response to pathogen/insect attack occur both locally and systematically Spraying methyl-JA onto plants increases their resistance to some (but not all) necrotrophic fungi, but not to biotrophic fungi or bacteria Jasmonic acid and ethylene : Jasmonic acid and ethylene Ethylene is frequently synthesised during both incompatible and compatible interactions Ethylene is required to mediate both resistance against necrotrophic fungal pathogens and against soil borne fungal species that are not ordinarily plant pathogens Ethylene and JA are required for activation of proteinase inhibitor (PI) genes and certain PR and chitinase genes Pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins : Pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins fungal cell wall-degrading enzymes chitinases glucanases lipoxygenase anti-microbial polypeptides components of signal transduction cascades PR proteins : PR proteins SA-mediated signal transduction cascades regulate the transcriptional activation of many PR genes Ethylene and SA have been shown to act synergistically, further enhancing the expression of PR genes Ethylene & SA on PR accumulation : Ethylene & SA on PR accumulation Plant defensins : Plant defensins Type of defence-related genes with demonstrated antimicrobial activity small (<7 kDa) cysteine-rich peptides that accumulate in the periphery of the plant plasma membrane frequently found in dry plant seeds induction of the defensin PDF1-2 gene transcript require ethylene or Me-jasmonate Slide 75: PR-1 activated by dichloro-isonicotinic acid (INA) and SA Pytoalexins : Pytoalexins Low-molecular-mass, lipophilic antimicrobial compounds that accumulate rapidly at sites of incompatible pathogen infection Biosynthesis occurs only after primary metabolic precursors are diverted into a novel secondary metabolic pathway e.g. phenylalanine is diverted into the synthesis of various flavonoid phytoalexins by the de novo synthesis of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL). Systemic plant defence responses : Systemic plant defence responses Defence responses elaborated in tissues far from the invasion site and even in neighbouring plants The type of response is determined by the attacking organism Responses to fungi, bacteria, and viruses are distinct from the response to insect Nematodes appear to induce a mixture of responses Root colonising non-pathogenic bacteria induce another type of response Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) : Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) Fungi, bacteria, and viruses activate systemically a specific subset of PR-type gene by a mechanism known as systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in which local necrosis formation at the initial site of pathogen invasion triggers both a local increase in SA accumulation and the formation of a phloem-mobile signal SAR : SAR For SAR to occur, the initial infection must result in formation of necrotic lesions, either as part of the HR or as symptom of disease SA concentrations increase and volatile methyl-SA is released in distal plant tissue PR proteins in the non-invaded parts of the plants are synthesised resulting in reduction in disease symptoms after subsequent infection of many pathogenic species Induced systemic resistance (ISR) : Induced systemic resistance (ISR) Non-pathogenic root-colonizing rhizobacteria cause induced system resistance Rhizobacteria that promote specific plant growth, for example P. fluorescens, induce a systemic resistance response that does not depend on SA or PR protein accumulation Instead, ISR requires both JA and ethylene signalling and also the SAR regulatory protein NPRI Reference : Reference Buchanan, Gruissem and Jones (2000) Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants. 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