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Maintenance of river channel for navigation . Reclamation of submersible land . Protection of surrounding land from flooding. Protection of important hydraulic structures . Common types of river training works are:- embankments Guide banks Spurs or groynes Cut offs Bed pitching and bank reactmentSlide 3: Guide bunds or banks Alluvial rivers in flood plains spread over a very large area during floods and it would be very costly to provide bridges or any other structure across the entire natural spread. It is necessary to narrow down and restrict its course to flow axially through the diversion structure. Guide bunds are provided for this purpose of guiding the river flow past the diversion structure without causing damage to it and its approaches. They are constructed on either or both on the upstream and downstream of the structure and on one or both the flanks as required. Classification of Guide Bunds Guide bunds can be classified according to their form in plan as ( i ) divergent, (ii) convergent, and (iii) parallel and according to their geometrical shape as straight and elliptical. In the case of divergent guide bunds, the approach embankment gets relatively less protection under worst possible embayment and hence divergent guide bunds require a longer length for the same degree of protection as would be provided by parallel guide bunds. They also induce oblique flow on to the diversion structure and give rise to tendency of shoal formation in the centre due to larger waterway between curved heads. However, in the case of oblique approaching flow, it becomes obligatory to provide divergent guide bunds to keep the flow active in the spans adjacent to them. The convergent guide bunds have the disadvantage of excessive attack and heavy scour at the head and shoaling all along the shank rendering the end bays inactive. Parallel guide bunds with suitable curved head have been found to give uniform flow from the head of guide bunds to the axis of the diversion structure. cal with circular or multi-radii curved head.Slide 5: In the case of elliptical guide bunds, due to gradual change in the curvature, the flow is found to hug the bunds all along their lengths whereas in the case of straight guide bunds, separation of flow is found to occur after the curved head, leading to obliquity of flow. Elliptical guide bunds have also been found to provide better control on development and extension of meander loop towards the approach embankment Design of guide bunds After fixing up the layout of the guide bunds in accordance with the guidelines, the details of the guide bund sections have to be worked out. The various dimensions worked out are top width, free board, side slopes, size of stone for pitching, thickness of pitching, filters and launching apron. The guide lines for the same are given below. Top width of guide bund At the formation level, the width of the shank of guide bunds is generally kept 6 to 9 m to permit carriage of material and vehicles for inspection. At the nose of the guide bunds, the width is increased suitably in a bulb shape to enable the vehicles to take turn and also for stacking reserve of stone to be dumped in places whenever the bunds are threatened by the flow.Slide 7: Free board for Guide Bund A free board of 1 to 1.5 m above the following mentioned two water levels has to be provided and the higher value adopted as the top level of the upstream guide bund: (i) Highest flood level for 1 in 500 years flood (ii) Affluxed water level in the rear portion of the guide bank calculated after adding velocity head to HFL corresponding to the design flood (1in 100 year frequency) at the upstream nose of the guide bank. On the downstream side also, a free board of 1 to 1.5 m above the highest flood level for 1 in 500 years flood is to be adopted. Side slopes of guide bund The side slopes of guide bund have to be fixed from stability considerations of the bund which depend on the material of which the bund is made and also its height. Generally the side slopes of the guide bund vary from 2:1 to 3:1 (H:V). .Slide 8: Size of stone for pitching The sloping surface of the guide bund on the water side has to withstand erosive action of flow. This is achieved by pitching the slope manually with stones. It is desirable to place the stones over filters so that fines do not escape through the interstices of the pitching. For average velocities up to 2 m/sec, burnt clay brick on edge can be used as pitching material. For an average velocity up to 3.5 m/sec, pitching of stone weighing from 40 to 70 kg (0.3 to 0.4 m in diameter) and for higher velocities, cement concrete blocks of depth equal to the thickness of pitching can be used. On the rear side, turfing of the slope is normally found to be adequate Thickness of Pitching The thickness of pitching is to be kept equal to the size of the stone for pitching determined. However, it should not be less than 0.25m. wherever the velocities are high for which the size of stone is greater than 0.4 m, cement concrete blocks of thickness 0.4 to 0.5 or 0.6 m may be used. Provision of filter It is always desirable to provide an inverted (graded) filter below the pitching stones to avoid the finer bund materials getting out through the interstices. The thickness of the filter may be 20 to 30 cm. Filter has to satisfy the criteria with respect to the next lower size and with respect to the base material:Slide 10: Launching apron Just as launching apron is provided for the main structure both on the upstream and downstream it has to be provided for guide bunds also in the bed in continuation of the pitching. The different aspects to be looked into are the size of the stones, depth of scour, thickness, slope of launched apron, shape and size of launching apron. The required size of stone for the apron can be obtained from the curves. In case of non-availability of required size of stones, cement concrete blocks or stone sausages, prepared with 4 mm GI wire in double knots and closely knit and securely tied, may be used. The scour depths to be adopted in the calculations for the launching apron would be different along the length of the guide bund from upstream to downstream, as given in the following table. The value of R, that is the normal depth of scour below High Flood Level may be determined according to Lacey’s scour relations. While calculating the scour values, the discharge corresponding to 50 to 100 years frequency may be adopted. However, after construction and operation of the diversion structure, the portions of the guide bund coming under attack of the river flow should be carefully inspected and strengthened as and when necessary.Slide 11: The thickness of apron of the guide bund should be about 25 to 50 percent more than that required for the pitching. While the slope of the launched apron for calculation of the quantity can be taken as 2:1 for loose boulders or stones, it may be taken as 1:5:1 for c.c blocks or stone sausages. From the behavior of the guide bunds of previously constructed diversion structures, it has been observed that shallow and wide aprons launch evenly if the scour takes place rapidly. If the scour is gradual, the effect of the width on the launching of apron is marginal. Generally a width of 1.5 R has been found to be satisfactory. For the shank or straight portions of the guide bunds, the thickness of the apron may be kept uniform at 1.5 T where T is the thickness of the stone pitching. To cover a wider area, for the curved head, the thickness is increased from 1.5 to 2.25 T with suitable transition over a length of L 1 equal to one fourth of the radius of the curved head and provided in the shank portion only. On the rear side of the curved head and nose of the guide bund, the apron should be turned and ended in a length equal to about one fourth of the respective radius.Slide 12: Groynes or Spurs Groynes or spurs are constructed transverse to the river flow extending from the bank into the river. This form of river training works perform one or more functions such as training the river along the desired course to reduce the concentration of flow at the point of attack, creating a slack flow for silting up the area in the vicinity and protecting the bank by keeping the flow away from it. Classification of Groynes or spurs Groynes or spurs are classified according to (i) the method and materials of construction (ii) the height of spur with respect to water level (iii) function to be performed and (iv) special types which include the following: These are (i) Permeable or impermeable (ii) Submerged or non-submerged (iii) Attracting, deflecting repelling and sedimenting and (iv) T-shaped (Denehey), hockey (or Burma) type, kinked type, etc .Slide 14: Impermeable spurs do not permit appreciable flow through them whereas permeable ones permit restricted flow through them. Impermeable spurs may be constructed of a core of sand or sand and gravel or soil as available in the river bed and protected on the sides and top by a strong armour of stone pitching or concrete blocks. They are also constructed of balli crates packed with stone inside a wire screen or rubble masonry. While the section has to be designed according to the materials used and the velocity of flow the head of the spur has to have special protection. Permeable spurs usually consist of timber stakes or piles driven for depths slightly below the anticipated deepest scour and joined together to form a framework by other timber pieces and the space in between filled up with brush wood or branches of trees. The toe of the spur would be protected by a mattress of stones or other material. As the permeable spurs slow down the current, silt deposition is induced. These spurs, being temporary in nature, are susceptible to damage by floating debris. In boulder or gravelly beds, the spurs would have to be put up by weighing down timber beams at the base by stones or concrete blocks and the other parts of the frame would then be tied to the beams at the base.Slide 15: Design of groynes or spurs The design of groynes or spurs include the fixation of top width, free board, side slopes, size of stone for pitching, thickness of pitching, filter and launching apron. Top width of spur The top width of the spur is kept as 3 to 6 m at formation level. Free board The top level of the spur is to be worked out by giving a free board of 1 to 1.5 m above the highest flood level for 1 in 500 year flood or the anticipated highest flood level upstream of the spur, whichever is more. Side slopes The slopes of the upstream shank and nose is generally kept not steeper than 2:1 the downstream slope varies from 1.5 : 1 to 2:1. Size of stone for pitching The guide lines for determining the size of stone for pitching for guide bunds hold good for spurs also. Thickness of pitching The thickness of pitching for spurs may be determined from the formula T = 0.06 Q 1/3 where Q is the design discharge in cumecs. The thickness of stone need not be provided the same through-out the entire length of the spur. It can be progressively reduced from the nose.Slide 17: Cut-offs Cut-offs as river training works are to be carefully planned and executed in meandering rivers. The cut-off is artificially induced with a pilot channel to divert the river from a curved flow which may be endangering valuable land or property or to straighten its approach to a work or for any other purpose. As the cut-off shortens the length of the river, it is likely to cause disturbance of regime upstream and downstream till readjustment is made. A pilot cut spreads out the period of readjustment and makes the process gradual. Model tests come in handy in finalizing this form of river training works wherever needed.Slide 18: Afflux bund Afflux bunds extend from the abutments of guide bunds (usually) or approach bunds as the case may be. The upstream afflux bunds are connected to grounds with levels higher than the afflux highest flood level or existing flood embankments, if any. The downstream afflux bunds, if provided, are taken to such a length as would be necessary to protect the canal/approach bunds from the high floods. Afflux bunds are provided on upstream and downstream to afford flood protection to low lying areas as a result of floods due to afflux created by the construction of bridge/structure and to check outflanking the structure. Layout of afflux bund The alignment of the afflux bund on the upstream usually follows the alluvial belt edge of the river if the edges are not far off. In case the edges are far off, it can be aligned in alluvial belt, but it has to be ensured that the marginal embankment is aligned away from the zone of high velocity flow. Since the rivers change their course, it is not necessary that a particular alignment safe for a particular flow condition may be safe for a changed river condition. Hence the alignment satisfactory and safe for a particular flow condition (constructed initially) has to be constantly reviewed after every flood and modified, if necessary.Slide 19: Top width of afflux bund Generally the top width of the afflux bund is kept as 6 to 9 m at formation level. Free board for afflux bund The top level of the afflux bund is fixed by providing free board of 1 to 1.5 m over the affluxed highest flood level for a flood of 1 in 500 years frequency. Slope pitching and launching apron Generally the afflux bunds are constructed away from the main channel of the river. Hence they are not usually subjected to strong river currents. In such cases, provision of slope pitching and launching apron are not considered necessary. However, it is desirable to provide a vegetal cover or turfing. In reaches where strong river currents are likely to attack the afflux bunds, the slopes may be pitched as for the guide bunds. A typical layout and section of afflux bund are shown in FigureSlide 21: Approach embankment Where the width of the river is very wide in an alluvial plain, the diversion structure is constructed with a restricted waterway for economy as well as better flow conditions. The un-bridged width of the river is blocked by means of embankments called Approach embankments or tie bunds. Layout of approach embankment In case of alluvial plains, the river forms either a single loop or a double loop depending upon the distance between the guide bunds and the alluvial belt edges. Hence the approach embankments on both the flanks should be aligned in line with the axis of the diversion structure up to a point beyond the range of worst anticipated loop. Sometimes the approach embankments may be only on one flank depending on the river configuration. Top Width of approach embankments The top width of the approach embankment is usually kept as 6 to 9m at formation level. Free Board of approach embankment Free board for approach embankment may be provided similar to that for guide bunds.Slide 22: Side slopes of approach embankment The side slopes of the approach embankment have to be fixed from stability considerations of the bund which depend on the material of which the bund is made and also its height. Generally the side slopes of the guide bund vary from 2:1 to 3:1 (H:V). Size of stone for pitching Velocities for 40 percent of the design discharge would be estimated and the size of stone for pitching would be determined as for guide bunds discussed in Section 6.1.1. Thickness of pitching The Guide lines for determining the thickness of pitching would be the same as for guide bunds in Section 6.1.1. The velocities would be estimated for 40 percent of the design discharge. Provision of filter Generally filters are not provided below the pitching stones in the case of approach embankments. However, if the section of embankment is heavy, filter may be provided as mentioned for guide bunds discussed in Section 6.1.1. Launching apron The provisions of size of stone, thickness of apron and slope of launched apron would be similar to those of guide bunds mentioned in above paragraphs. But the depth of scour for the approach embankment may be taken as 0.5 to 1.0 D max and beyond that the width may be increased to 1.0 D max with suitable transition in the former reach.Slide 23: Pitched island It is an artificial island built in a river channel. It is protected by stone pitching the island attracts the river flow and a deep channel is formed in its vicinity . The pitched island also helps in directing the river flow along a particular direction . This river training work is constructed in conjunction with other works like marginal embankments and guide banks. Techniques for bank stabilization There could be two broad ways of stabilizing banks – firstly the direct methods of protecting the slope, and secondly the indirect way by providing structures that extend into the stream channels and redirect the flow so that hydraulic forces at the channel boundary are reduced to a non - erosive level. Amongst the direct methods available for bank stabilization, the following broad categories are as follows: • Self-adjusting armour made of stone or other materials • Rigid armour • Flexible mattressSlide 24: The advantages of this type protection are that armoring the surface of the bank is a proven approach which can be precisely designed for a given situation, and which provides immediate and effective protection against erosion. Also, existing or potential problems from erosion by overbank drainage can be effectively addressed integrally with the design of the stream bank armor work. Disadvantages for these types of bank protection include preparation of the bank slope is usually required, either for geotechnical stability or to provide a smooth surface for proper placement of the armor. This may result in high cost, environmental damage, and disturbance to adjacent structures. The extent of earthwork associated with an armor revetment will be especially significant if the existing channel alignment is to be modified either by excavation or by placing fill material in the channel. The following sections describe the three types of bank protection works. As for the indirect methods for bank stabilization, these may be classified into the following categories. • Dikes - Permeable or Impermeable • Retards - Permeable or Impermeable • Other flow deflectors, like Bend way weirs, Iowa vanes, etc.Slide 25: The advantages of this type of protection are that little or no bank preparation is involved. This reduces costs of local environmental impacts, and simplifies land acquisition. However, the main disadvantage is that these are not very effective where geotechnical bank instability or erosion from overbank drainage are the main causes of bank erosion. Further the construction of these are not very effective where geotechnical bank instability or erosion from overbank drainage are the main causes of bank erosion. Further, the construction of these structures induce significant changes in flow alignment, channel geometry, roughness and other hydraulic factors, which have to be carefully checked to find out any adverse implication of the river’s geomorphology. Some types of indirect protection may also pose safety hazard if the stream is used for recreation or navigation. Lastly, since indirect methods require structures to be constructed deep into the stream channel, their construction may become practically difficult, especially during high flows. Details about these indirect methods of bank protection are not presented in this lesson, but may be obtained from references such as “The WES Stream Investigation and Stream bank Stabilization Hand book”, published by the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) in 1997.Slide 26: Self-adjusting armour of stone or other material Stone armour can be placed in four general configurations, the most common being a “riprap blanket”. Other forms, known as “trench fill”, “longitudinal stone toe,” and “windrow” (referred to in some regions as “falling apron”), can be very useful in certain situations. A stone armor usually consists of “graded” stone, which is a mixture of a wide range of stone sizes; the largest sizes resist hydraulic forces, and the smaller sizes add interlocking support and prevent loss of bank material through gaps between larger stones. Hand-placed stone in a smaller range of sizes is occasionally used. The various types of stone armours are discussed below: Riprap Blanket Riprap (Figure 11) should be blocky in shape rather than elongated, as more nearly cubical stones “nest” together best and are more resistant to movement. The stone should have sharp, clean edges at the intersections of relatively flat faces. Cobbles with rounded edges are less resistant to movement, although the drag force on a rounded stone is less than on sharp-edged cubical stones. As graded cobble interlock is less than that of equal-sized angular stones, the cobble mass is more likely to be eroded by channel flow. If used, the cobbles should be placed on flatter side slopes than angular stone and should be about 25 percent larger in diameter.Slide 27: The bed material and local scour characteristics determine the design of toe protection, which is essential for riprap revetment stability. The bank material and ground water conditions affect the need for filters between the riprap and underlying material. Construction quality control of both stone production and riprap placement is essentialSlide 28: for successful bank protection. Riprap protection for flood-control channels and appurtenant structures should be designed so that any flood that could reasonably be expected to occur during the service life of the channel or structure would not cause damage exceeding nominal maintenance. While the procedures presented herein yield definite stone sizes, results should be used for guidance purposes and revised if appropriate, based on experience with specific project conditions. Trench fill A trench fill revetment, shown in Figure 12, is simply a standard stone armor revetment with a massive stone toe. It is normally constructed in an excavated trench behind the river bank, in anticipation that the river will complete the work by eroding to the revetment, causing the stone toe to launch down and armor the subsequent bank slope. Material other than stone, such as broken soil-cement, has been used successfully and may be less costly than stone, but careful design of the soil/cement mixture, and careful monitoring of the material mixing, breaking, and placing operation is required.Slide 30: Windrow A windrow revetment (Figure 13) is simply an extreme variation of a trench fill revetment. A window revetment consists of rock placed on the floodplain surface landward from the existing backline at a pre-determined location, beyond which additional erosion is to be prevented. Longitudinal stone toe Longitudinal stone toe (Figure 14) is another form of a window revetment, with the stone placed along the existing streambed rather than on top bank. The longitudinal stone toe is placed with the crown well below top bank, and either against the eroding bankline or a distance riverward of the high bank. Typical crown elevations may vary but are commonly between 1/3 and 2/3 of the height to top bank. 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