Slide 1: WELCOME MAN ANIMAL CONFLICT IN ADJACENT TO FORESTS – IMPACT ON FOREST AND CROP LANDS : MAN ANIMAL CONFLICT IN ADJACENT TO FORESTS – IMPACT ON FOREST AND CROP LANDS Introduction : Introduction The word ‘ conflict’ is defined as ‘ an incompatibility between opinions or principles
‘ a situation that arises because of differences in perception, attitude and insufficient understanding, mostly, on part of the wiser party.’
‘ any conflict that arises where the behavior of one (either people or wildlife) is unacceptability disadvantageous to the other’. Slide 4: Cont,,,,
With the increase in wildlife population in response to protection, human-wildlife conflict also has increased.
Large-scale forest degradation, rapid infrastructure development and population explosion, conflicts between domestic stock and wild carnivores have increased. Causes : Causes A. Natural/ Biological Causes
Sex related behaviour
Biology of animals
Adverse climate Causes : Causes B. Anthropogenic/Man made causes
Entry into forests
Insufficient prey base
Exploitation of forests
Culture and society
Tribal values and life style
Effect of conservation regime Wildlife damage in India : Wildlife damage in India Ref : Shri Dhirendra Bhargava, IGNFA In West Bengal : In West Bengal Ref :Shri Dhirendra Bhargava, IGNFA In Tamil Nadu : In Tamil Nadu From 2001 to 2006
100 people lost their lives
781 ha. Of crop has been damaged
61.5 lakh Rs. Has been spent on compensation Livestock killed by Wild Animals : Livestock killed by Wild Animals Tiger – 125
Snow leopard – 23
Bear – 65
Leopard - 499 Ref: Lhendup Tharchen F.T , IGNFA Conflicts with : Conflicts with Tiger
Elephant Conflict with Tiger : Conflict with Tiger Due to the minimum disturbance caused by the residents with in the buffer zones to the habitat, the prey base is considered to be balanced
Therefore the conflict related to the tiger is very minimum though not absolutely nil. Conflict with Wild Dog : Conflict with Wild Dog Main problem of the man animal conflict is caused by the wild dogs (Cuon alpinus) and the leopard (Panthera pardus)
The main reason for the conflict from the wild dog is that the wild dogs are occasionally found in groups and with the combined effort, it easily kills the livestocks specially and the cattle’s become victim Damages Due to Wildlife : Damages Due to Wildlife Ref: Forest Department , Mysore Conflict with Leopard : Conflict with Leopard Second most prevalent conflict with the leopard
The conflict caused by the leopard kill is more on sheep and horses and its preferences to these species over other animals are not yet known Conflict with wild Boar : Conflict with wild Boar Wild Boar is the greatest enemy of the residents of the area who cultivates potatoes as their cash crop Human Elephant Conflict : Human Elephant Conflict Studies by Raman Sukumar in three locations in India suggested that up to 20% of elephant deaths were caused directly by crop defence. These studies took place in 1982 and the situation is thought to have worsened since.
In Sri Lanka it is reported that up to 150 wild elephants are shot or poisoned by farmers every year. Slide 18: Type of conflicts Damage to Agri. crop Killing of livestock Killing of Humans House Damage Accidental injury Damage to Agriculture crop : Damage to Agriculture crop Sugercane
Sorghum and etc., Crop damage by wildlife in the area of Marayur, Idukki District of kerala : Crop damage by wildlife in the area of Marayur, Idukki District of kerala Case studies.... Man animal Conflict…. By
( Jayson EA, 1999 ). Man animal Conflict…. : Man animal Conflict…. Kerala, India, was studied in 1993 and 1996. Data are collected by the offices of Forest Department of Kerala, field survey and the intensive study area on Marayur, Idukki district.
Forty-five species of plants were destroyed by wild animals in Kerala, which were often destroyed by wild animals Paddy, coconut, cassava, coffee arecanut, pepper, jackfruit tree, mulberry and Manago. Man animal Conflict…. : Man animal Conflict…. The most important animals have been involved in
Elephant damage to crops (Elephas maximus),
Gaur (Bos gaurus),
Sambar (Cervus unicolor),
Wild boar (Sus scrofa)
Blacknaped macaques (Macaca),
Common langur ( Presbytis entellus),
Hare (Lepus nigricollis) and pea fowl (Pavo cristatus). Man animal Conflict…. : Man animal Conflict…. In the area of intensive study Marayur, 28 species of plants were damaged and damage was highest during the summer months.
It was the maximum damage by elephants (72%),
Followed by Gaur (62%),
Sambar (17%) and boars (16%).
Tiger (Panthera tigris),
Panther (Leopard) (Panthera pardus), and the wild dog (Conin alpinus) were the main lifts cattle in the state.
A total of 31 deaths and 64 injuries caused by wild animals have been recorded from the state budget for the period 1983-1993. Slide 24: Among them, the elephants and wild boars have a maximum damage.
The total compensation of farmers argued that only 8 2% have been sanctioned by the Forest Dept. of kerala
The higher damage of crops (30%) was recorded from the forest ranges in the circle of the North:
sweet potatoes (47%),
Alocasia (39%) ,
beans (25%) and bananas (23%) recorded the highest percentage of damage Causes of the conflict : Causes of the conflict There are some common field between Man and animal, Which ultimately leads to conflict due to resource limitation like:
Increasing population of human beings
Loss of forest
Decrease in quality of forest
Development activities Conflict mitigation Reaction and Preventive methods : Conflict mitigation Reaction and Preventive methods Mitigation Reaction:
Driving away wild animals
Removing problem animals
Killing problematic animals
Capacity to respond Slide 27: Preventive methods:
Creation of physical barrier. (Wall & Fencing)
Preventive Spatial separation (By wall formation) ISSUES OF CONFLICT MITIGATION : ISSUES OF CONFLICT MITIGATION Reference : Reference www.iifm.ac.in/
www.kashmirnetwork.com/.../static.php?...Man-Animal%20Conflict Slide 30: “Conservation is the application of common sense to the common problems for the common good.” Thank you