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Premium member Presentation Transcript Slide 1: WelcomeSlide 2: Tropical forest ecosystem are one of the richest terrestrial ecosystems which supports variety of life forms and maintain huge global biodiversity (Shi and Singh, 2002) The complex topography, high rainfall, warm humid climate, wide altitudinal variation, relative inaccessibility of the tract and Biogeographic isolation has produced a variety of ecological niches with unique species assemblages of flora and faunaField Attachment with Karnataka Forest Department: Field Attachment with Karnataka Forest DepartmentActivities : Activities Assessment of structure, composition, diversity and regeneration pattern of various forest types Growing stock enumeration Volume table preparation Nursery techniques and plantation activities Assessment of NTFP’s and activities of timber deport Management activities of zoo Study forms and records in RFO office Preparation of micro plan and study on working planObjectives: Objectives To study the structure, diversity and regeneration pattern of various forest types To study growing stock enumeration To determine volume of timber growing in the forest with a view to determine the yield To study the various plantation and nursery activitiesSlide 6: Assessment of NTFP’s in various forest types To study the management activities of zoo To Study various forms and records maintained in RFO office To prepare a village or locally specific plan for management of the natural resources, particularly forest for a given period of timeSlide 7: Kodagu, the second smallest district of Karnataka state located in the central part of Western Ghats. The district has 80 per cent of its landscape under tree cover ( Moppert , 2000) Kodagu comprises different forest vegetation viz ,. Evergreen, Semi evergreen, Moist deciduous and dry deciduous forests (Pascal, 1986)Forest types of Kodagu: Forest types of Kodagu Forest type Area (km 2 ) Total area (%) Forest area (%) Evergreen 1358.44 33.56 73.76 Moist deciduous 188.11 4.65 10.22 Dry deciduous 198.12 4.90 10.76 Secondary moist deciduous 96.80 2.39 5.26 Source: Elourd , 2000Slide 9: Land cover Map of KodaguAssessment of stand structure, composition and diversity in various forest types : Assessment of stand structure, composition and diversity in various forest typesBhagamandala and Thithimati : Bhagamandala and Thithimati Sampling method: Simple random sampling techniques Plot design: Quadrate plot method of 20m × 20m were laid Sampling intensity: A minimum of 5 sample plots in each location In each sample plot the following observation were recorded Number of individuals of a species In case of trees - GBH & height (Adults: > 30cm GBH; Sapling: 16-29 cm; Seedling: <16cm) Height of the shrub/herb in meters GPS reading (latitude, longitude and altitude)Slide 12: Bhagamandala Regeneration Shola forest Thithimati Lantana managed Lantana unmanaged GBHStudy area and Location of sites: Study area and Location of sites Sites Latitude Longitude Altitude Bhagamandala N 12° 28’ 20.1” E 75° 28’ 11.2 1296m Thithimati N 12° 15'-12° 10' E 76° 00'-76° 10' 850 m Abilu N 11° 38’ 30.2” E 75° 52’ 21, 7” 1660 mSampling Procedure followed in Abaillu: Sampling Procedure followed in Abaillu Sampling method: Simple random sampling technique Plot design: 2km transect was laid, the baseline was identified by tracking 45° angle perpendicular to game road by compass which ran along natural landscape feature across the extent of the forestSlide 15: The random number at definite interval (50m, 100m, 150m, 200m likewise ) were generated, and altitude, latitude readings were taken by using GPS at starting point, midpoint and end point of baseline For vegetation analysis, line transects of 5m was laid out perpendicular to both the side of baseline for every 100m To record the regeneration status, 2.8m × 2.8m quadrates were laid out at every 100m intervals of transect within the quadrates.Assessment of the wildlife evidences: Assessment of the wildlife evidences For assessment of the wildlife evidences 1m radius sample plot was laid out for every 50m, its mainly done for herbivores where pellets and dung count was recorded Pellets DungAssessment of Growing stock: Assessment of Growing stock Growing stock assessment is an important parameter required for forest management and planning purposes. General information about stock available per unit area is the key information desired for forest inventorySlide 18: For the regeneration study, quadrates of 1m x 1m were laid, in that all plant species below 30 cm gbh were considered as regenerates and enumerated separately into below mentioned regeneration classes . Class – I: Individuals below 40 cm height Class – II: Individuals between 40 – 100 cm height Class–III: Individuals more than 100 cm height and less than 10 cm gbh Class-IV: Individuals above 1 m height – less than 30 cm gbhSlide 19: Data collected from the field was subjected to statistical analysis using suitable statistical packages Primary analysis of vegetation Number of quadrats in which species occur Frequency = ------------------------------------------------------------- x 100 Total number of quadrats studied Total number of Individuals of the species in all the quadrats Density = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Total number of quadrats studied Statistical Analysis:Slide 20: g 2 Basal cover = -------- 4 π IVI = Relative frequency + Relative dominance (basal area) + Relative density Number of occurrences (frequency) of the species Relative frequency = ------------------------------------------------------------------- x 100 Number of occurrences (sum of frequency) of all the species Number of individuals (density) of the species Relative density = ---------------------------------------------------------------- x 100 Number of individuals (sum of density) of all species Total basal area of the species Relative dominance = -------------------------------------------------- x 100 Total basal area of all the speciesSlide 21: Species Diversity Shannon-Weiner Index (H’) = Where ni = IVI or number of species N = total IVI or total number of species Species Richness Species from all the plots were pooled and total number of species present in each plot was calculated and was subjected to test of significanceSlide 22: RESULTSIVI OF Bhagamandala and Abillu: IVI OF Bhagamandala and Abillu SPS IVI DIM LON 106.8796 MYR MAL 15.19976 LIT FLO 13.7285 OLE DIO 12.24455 CIN SPS 11.9463 PHO PAN 1.790602 SPS A5 1.790602 ANA OXI 1.790034 GAR GUM 1.789917 VAT IND 1.7891 SPS IVI DIM LON 41.8574567 MYR MAL 40.1227064 MES FER 31.9896237 CAL APE 30.7452928 KNE ATI 22.2678203 CHI LIN 2.92444024 VIT ALT 2.68048844 HOL SPS 2.00630691 SPS A 1.48511215 HOP PAR 1.40307682IVI of Thithimathi: IVI of Thithimathi SPS IVI TER TOM 69.39394 ANO LAT 39.84848 BAM CEI 14.09091 DAL LAT 14.09091 STE PER 14.09091 AIL EXE 7.878788 SPS A 7.878788 EMB OFI 6.212121 LAG LEN 6.212121 TOO CEL 6.212121 MANAGED SPS IVI TEM TOM 115.6948 ANO LAT 60.943 TEC GRA 39.39186 VIT ALT 29.99472 SPS A 14.48256 GEM ARB 13.82638 LAG LEN 11.09042 SYZ CUM 7.903307 TOO CEL 6.672987 UNMANAGEDIVI of Regeneration: IVI of Regeneration SPS IVI DIM LON 21.547 LIT FLO 17.542 PSY SPS 14.806 MYR MAL 11.090 CAL SPS 7.720 VAT IND 2.736 TRI CON 2.736 LEE IND 2.736 ALS SCH 2.736 SCH WAL 2.736498731 Bhagamandala SPS IVI SYZ MUN 28.05302 PSY SPS 21.91439 WIL PEP 20.4259 ACT DOL 12.76619 RED SPS 12.34246 ALS SCH 1.064754 CIN MAL 1.064754 HOL SPS 1.064754 APS LIN 1.064754 SAP INDs 1.064754 ABILLUIVI of Regeneration - Thithimathi: IVI of Regeneration - Thithimathi SPS IVI CAS FIS 124.074 CRO ODA 109.259 GRAS 84.259 BHR SPS 59.259 SPS A 55.555 BAM CEI 26.851 BRA TET 26.851 LAG LAN 26.851 RAN 26.85O MIT PAR 25.623 MANAGED SPS IVI BHA SPS 109.259 CRO ODA 84.259 LAN CAM 59.259 GRI TIL 55.555 HEMI IND 53.703 LAN CAM 26.851 GME ARB 26.851 SCH OLE 26.851 RAN 26.851 ACC COU 26.851 UNMANAGEDRegeneration: Regeneration ThithimathiSPECIES RICHNESS AND DIVERSITY : SPECIES RICHNESS AND DIVERSITY Sl no Site Shannon diversity Species Richness 1 Bhagamandala 3.576 51 2 Thithimatti Lantana managed area 1.717 11 3 Lantana unmanaged area 2.092 9 4 Abailu 2.724 56 Sl No Site Shannon diversity Species Richnes 1 Bhagamandala 4.488 35 2 Lantana managed area 3.988 20 3 Lantana is not managed 2.092 13 4 Abailu 3.13 38 Regeneration GROWING STOCKSlide 29: Girth Class of Trees THITHIMATHIWild life: Wild life Animal diversity Sl.No Bhagmandala Abailu Thithimathi 1 Civet cat Elephant Spotted deer 2 Sambar Civet cat Hare 3 Lion tailed macaque Elephant 4 Wild boar Malabar giant squirrel 5 Malabar giant squirrel Wild dogSlide 31: Sl.No Bhagmandala Abailu Thithimathi 1 Cormorant Brown eagle Green pigeon 2 Pond heron Grey hornbill Wood pecker 3 Scarlet minivet Scarlet minivet Jungle myna 4 White breasted kingfisher Bush lark Spotted dove 5 Jungle crow King fisher 6 Sun bird Rock pigeon 7 Asian paradise flycatcher Bird diversityNursery Techniques and Plantation Activities : Nursery Techniques and Plantation Activities The research plot was established in 2009 – 10 Total Area – 38 ha equally divided into two block : The research plot was established in 2009 – 10 Total Area – 38 ha equally divided into two blockSlide 34: Layout of 1 st block Includes inspection path and 12 compartments where different species are planted Layout of 2 nd block Includes inspection path and 8 compartments where different species are plantedSlide 35: Sl no Name of species Experiment Extent (ha) No of plants 1 Emblica officinalis C S O. 5 ha 3.0 1200 2 Pongamia pinnata 1.0 400 3 Tamarindus indicus 1.0 400 4 Melia dubia S S O. 4 ha 1.0 278 5 Gmelina arborea 1.0 278 6 Pterocarpus marsupium 1.0 278 7 Dalbergia latifolia 1.0 278 8 Pterocarpus santalinus S T P. 4 ha 1.5 417 9 Serquiterpita indica 1.0 278 10 Apponomixis polystonia 1.5 417 11 Bamboo Varities G P B. 6 ha 5.0 1390 12 1.0 278Slide 36: Sl no Name of species Experiment Extent (ha) No of plants 1 E. europhylla C S O 6.0 15,000 E. pelleta 2 Syzigium cumini C S O 1.5 600 3 Artocarpus heterophyllus 1.5 600 4 Sapindus emarginatus S S O 1.5 417 5 Gmelina arborea 1.5 417 6 Artocarpus fraxinifolius 1.0 278 7 Sweitania mahagony 1.0 278 8 Emblica officianalis V M G 5.0 2000Various Plantation Activities: Various Plantation Activities Site clearance Clear felling of site was done and controlled burning was used to eliminated ground vegetation Stumping Removal of stumps from the planting site was envisaged to cultivate the area mechanically Disposal of debris After felling, disposal of debris is necessary so felled materials, roots were pilled into heaps and burnt.Slide 38: Fencing A fence was erected which composed of 4 – 5 strands of barbed wire Stacking out Bamboo pegs were used as stacks for stacking outSlide 39: Planting pits Shallow trench ridge method was adopted for preparing pits where trenches are shallow but should be deep enough to cope with light frequent showers. The trench was cone-shaped, the deepest part of the trench was away from the ridge to avoid water-logging as well as to facilitate desalinization of the worked up soil of the ridge.Intercultural operations: Intercultural operations Irrigation In Initial stages irrigation was done and also furrows were made for retention of moisture Weeding Two - three times weeding was done in a year and tractor ploughing was done between the seedlings to check the growth of weedsDisease and Pest attack: Disease and Pest attack Imida chlopprid – Insect attack was seen in Pterocarpus marsupium Leaf skeletonizer Leaf defoliationSlide 43: Visit was made to Majegaehalla nursery and nursery near Thithimati to have a look over the various activities carried out in that nursery. Plant containers In Majegaehalla nursery only polythene bags of 7” × 10” was used, where in silvi nursery 6” × 4” and 7” × 10” were used. Potting mixtures Potting mixtures contains soil : sand : FYM in the ratio 2:1:1. Propagation methods : Propagation methods Species Propagation methods Tectonae grandis Stump planting Dalbergia latifolia Suckers Apponomixis polystonia SeedsSlide 45: Pongamia pinata Seeds Tamarindus indicus Seeds Michelia champaka Seeds Artocarpus heterophyllus SeedsSlide 46: Samaroba glauca Seeds Grevalia robusta Seeds Bamboo SeedsIntercultural operation: Intercultural operation Irrigation Once in a day Weeding Three – four times in a yearCatchment area treatment in forest areas: Catchment area treatment in forest areas The programmes and processes intending to reduce the intensity of soil erosion through conservation methods, replenishing tree and grass coverage and facilitating ground water recharge by constructing farm-ponds and other measures to increase moisture retention capacity of soils could be termed as Catchment Area Treatment.Main purposes of catchments area treatment : Main purposes of catchments area treatment To regulate the flow of water, Prevention of soil erosion, To maximize the negative impact of the developmental project itself on the catchment area To protect and regenerate vegetation in the catchment area and the water resourcesDimensions: Dimensions Width 0.9m Depth 0.6m Length 4.7m StructureStudy of Micro plan preparation and working plan: Study of Micro plan preparation and working planSlide 52: A plan is a systematic programme for implementing a particular activity or scheme Micro plan covers a relatively smaller area, usually a sub-watershed or a village. In joint forest management, micro plan are prepared by local communities in association with the forest or project staff According to Roy and Chatterjee , “A vital aspect of micro- planning is to involve the village community in generating local data, assess and prioritse their socio-economic needs in relation to forests”. Objectives : Objectives To document the status of natural, human, animal and cultural resources of the area To prepare a village or locality specific plan for management of the natural resources, particularly forests for a given period of time To priortise the options available to joint forest management To formulate an operational manual for participation of the local communities To prepare a detailed inventory of the forest resources and dependence of local communities on them BASIC INFORMATION : BASIC INFORMATION Demographic data Livestock data Basic socio-economic data Land use data Infrastructure Agriculture data Forest resources and their use Water resources Social and cultural statusStudy area: Study area As focusing to Bhagamandala which was a small village and pilgrim centre in Kodagu district Bhagamandala village. Madikeri. Karnataka which was one of the study site Bhagamandala is located at the latitude of N 12° 28’ 20.1”, Longitude of E 75° 28’ 11.2” and altitude of 1296 m, where it lies on North eastern aspectData collection: Data collection Information collected from respondents by personal contact method using the interview schedules Participatory assessment and planning tools like PRA also used in collection of data Sampling size: 50 respondents out of 514 farm families: 1. Demographic data Geographical area 8032.01acres Ethnic composition Kodava , gowda Population ---------- 2149 Male ------------------ 1103 Female --------------- 1046 2. Livestock data Cattles………………………………….4535 Major fodder………………………..grasses, subabul , ErithrinaSlide 58: 3. Basic socio-economic data Because peoples having small landholdings, acidic nature of soil and also acquiring heavy rainfall SI NO Income Category No of respondents Perecentage 1 Low Income (1000-5000 Rs) 22 44 2 Medium Income (5000-10,000 Rs) 10 20 3 High Income (more than 10,000 Rs) 18 36 Income 4. Status of land holding : 4. Status of land holding 59 SI NO Category of Land holdings No of respondents Percentage 1 Small(1-2Ha) 23 46 2 Medium (2-5Ha) 19 38 3 Large (more than 5Ha) 8 16 More number peoples were come under the category of small land holding i.e 46 per cent because more family‘s are singleSlide 60: 5. Cropping pattern In Bhagamandala: paddy, cardamom, coffee, banana, ginger and arecanut are dominantly grown Paddy was grown on larger area in past but due to acidic nature of the soil yield as reduced and area under paddy is also reducing 6. Market facilities Weekly fair is conducted in village There is no proper market rates for agricultural produces 7.Land use data : 7. Land use data Total crop production area 2466.36 acres Agricultural wasteland 380.50acres Other than agriculture 1628.46 acres Forest area 3950.45 acresSlide 62: Agriculture data Total crop production area 2466.36 acres Other than agriculture 1628.46 acres Coffee land 1298.81 acres Areca nut 104.15 acres Coconut 32.00 acres Other mixed crops 193.5 acres SI NO Occupation No of Respondents Percentage 1 Agriculture as main occupation 32 64 2 Agriculture labour 9 18 3 Agriculture + business 14 28 In this area maximum number was having their own land were they not concentrating on other activity 8. Forest resources and their use : 8. Forest resources and their use Forest area Grassland ---- 36.50 acres Plantations ---- 22.90 acres Reserved forest ---- 1891.50 acres Community lands ----1900 acres Degraded land ---- 99.55 acres 3950.45 acresSlide 64: Name of the MFP collected Quntaty collected in (Kg) Purchase rate/Kg (Rs) Total value of purchase (Rs) Sale(Kg) selling rate (Rs)) Value of collection sale (Rs) Net revenue (Rs) Honey 13 70.0 910 9.5 85.26 810 -100 Sapindus emerginatus 5000 1.7 8500 5000 2.00 10000 1,500 Acacia concina 31480 7.3 229581 31480 8.50 267580 37,999 Garcinia (Hulli Sippe) 56000 8.4 470400 56000 9.00 504000 33,600 Total 92493 87.4 709391 92489.5 104.7 782390 73099 Source: LAMPS Bhagamandala Availabity Of NTFP’S In Bhagamandala Lamps In Year 2009-2010Slide 65: SL.NO Type of NTFP’s No of Respondent Percentage 1 Shikakai 1 2 2 Honey 14 30 3 Garcinia 32 68 Because avaladlity of Garcinia sps is high in these areas Collection of NTFP’sMaps: Maps Village Map Resources Map Social Map Plan : Plan A detailed plan for the next 5 to 10 years was drawn up by the local community with the staff acting as facilitators It should have both physical and financial indicative plans for all the years, showing in detail what activities are proposed, where and what time of the year 67Study of working Plan: Study of working Plan “A written scheme of management aiming at continuty of policy and action and controlling the treatment of a forest” Working plan of Hunsur forest division, Thithimati rangeWriting up of the working plan: Writing up of the working plan Chapter I - The tract dealt with Chapter II - Flora and Fauna Part A – Forest flora Part B – Forest fauna Chapter III - Utilisation of the produce Chapter IV - Staff and labour supply Chapter V - Past systems of management Chapter VI - Statistics of growth and yield Part-1 Summary of facts on which the proposals are basedSlide 70: Chapter I - Basis of proposals Chapter II - Working plan for the . . . working circle Chapter III - Rraw material for forest industries Chapter IV - Wild life management Chapter V - Watershed management and soil conservation Chapter VI - Multiple use forestry-outdoor recreation and environmental conservation Part II Future management discussed and prescribedSlide 71: Chapter VII - Misccelaneous regulations(prescribed and suggested) Chapter VIII - Establishment and labour Chapter IX - Controll and records Chapter X - Financial forecast and cost of the plan Chapter XI - Summary of prescriptionSlide 72: STUDY OF FORMS AND RECORDS MAINTAINED IN RFO OFFICE: Forms and records give an authenticated information regarding seizure of property encroachment, auction etc. The necessity of maintaining forms and records in Forest department is to maintain transparency and accountability in any of the seized forest produce and to follow the policy matters in the direction of a particular state forest actForms and Records : Forms and Records First information report Enquiry report Charge sheet Report of seized of property Preparation of volume table : Preparation of volume table Volume table is defined as a table showing for a given species the average contents of trees, logs or sawn timber for one or more given dimensions The main object of these tables is to estimate the volume of an average standing tree of known dimensions and thus to estimate the volume of a given crop or of marked tree in a given coupe Graphical method of preparation of volume tables : Graphical method of preparation of volume tables Volume table was prepared for teak plantation, Devamachi near Thithimati established in 1945 Selection of trees: Trees of typical height and development are so selectedMethodology: Methodology Selected 250 representative trees Collect data on total height, DBH Compile the data into height and diameter classes in form of a table called table of basic averageForest products and Their Utilization: Forest products and Their UtilizationVisit to forest depot: Visit to forest depot Depot is of various types such as forest depots, transit depots and sale depots which can be helpful for providing the logs in the scare conditions Thithimati timber depot was a large depot of 18 acres area All types of timber were procured from this depotClassification of Logs and Poles: Classification of Logs and Poles Quality class A (100-85%) B (85-65%) C (65-50%) D (<50%) Length Class 1 (>5m) 2 (4-5m) 3(3-4m) 4(2-3m) 5(<2m) Girth class a(>2m) b (2-1.5m) c (1.5-1m) d (<1m) Length Class 1 (>6m) 2 (4-6m) 3(<4m) Girth class a(40-60 c m) b (20-40 cm) Logs PolesSlide 81: Quality class Length Class Girth class Lot number Species name Volume Labelled logProcedure in Auction: Procedure in Auction Wide publicity should be given by hand bills and press advertisement Price was fixed by department based on the averages of previous years Before commencement of auction EMD was deposited in cash counter and check list was collected there itself During auction, purchaser bids more than its actual price its consider as donvar , if he bids less than its offset price it is theenvar , there was no bids means is kept to next auctionAssessment of NTFP’s : Assessment of NTFP’s Assessment of NTFP collection was estimated using the primary data from laying plots and secondary data obtained from LAMP society The data was analyzed to estimate the annual quantity of collection, contribution of each NTFP to total quantum Primary data was collected using interview schedules alsoNTFP’S Survey in Thithimathi: NTFP’S Survey in Thithimathi SL.NO NAME OF THE NTFPS Thithimathi Medicines (commonly used plants ) Fuel wood species 1 Acacia councina Occimum (cold) Terminalia tomantosa 2 Garcinia indica pepper (fever) Grevillia robusta 3 Myristica malabarica Azadiractha Indica (chicken fox ) Artocorpus integrifolia 4 Garcina gummigutta Turmeric (cold) 5 Sapindus emerginatus 6 Canthum dicocumSlide 85: Bhagamandala AbilluSlide 86: Thithimati Managed UnmanagedVisit to lamp society –Bhagamandala: Visit to lamp society –Bhagamandala LAMP society in Bhagamandala was started in 1982 They purchase the NTFP’s from the member of the society and sell them at appropriate rate NTFP’S Rate of purchase (RS/Kg) Rate of sale (RS/Kg) Season of collection Acacia concina 4 6 February to march Sapindus emerginatus 7 10 December to February Honey 70 110 April to July Garcinia gummigutta 7.5 8 April to July Garcinia indica 8.25 9 September to October Ramapatre 14 16 October to December Rate of purchase and selling price of NTFP’S in Bhagamandala LAMP society Visit to lamp society – Thithimathi : Visit to lamp society – Thithimathi LAMP society in Thithimathi was started in 1976 the objective of providing employment to the tribes as far as possible prevent them from going in search of labour in private estate. There are about 5000 members in the society belonging to the tribal community. NTFP’S Rate of purchase (RS/Kg) Rate of sale (RS/Kg) Season of collection Honey 75 100 April to May Lichens 100 150 July to March Sapindus emerginatus 7 12 January to March Rate of purchase and selling price of NTFP’S in ThithimathiSlide 89: ZooIntroduction : I ntroduction A Zoological garden is a place in which animals are confined within enclosures, displayed to the public, and in which they may also be bred . The term zoological garden refers to zoology, the study of animals, a term deriving from the Greek. The abbreviation "zoo" was first used of the London Zoological Gardens, which opened for scientific study in 1828 and to the public in 1847.About zoo: About zoo Mysore Zoo (officially the Sri Chamarajendra Zoological Gardens) is a 100 acre (40.47ha) zoo located near the palace in Mysore, India. Karanji lake is 98 acre (39.66ha) and the total area is of 198 acre (80.13ha ). It was established under royal patronage in 1982, making it one of the oldest zoos in the world . t here are 163 species and more than 1250 animal specimens are found. 99% animals are born and bought up in zoo only (captive condition).Slide 93: Administrative hierarchy the department is working for Sri Chamarajendra zoological gardenSlide 94: Other departments working in co-ordinate Animal husbandry (3 veterinary surgery) Public work department Revenue department Forest departmentSlide 95: 1892 –1912 1912- 1948 1948-1972 1972-1979 From 1979 Personal Administration of the maharaja of Mysore “ Khas Bungalow”. Administration of Mysore government, ruled by the Maharaja of Mysore Department of Horticulture Forest Department Zoo Authority of KarnatakaSlide 96: The fascinating animals includes exotics like Gorilla, Chimpanzee, Zebra, Giraffe, African rhino, Tapir, Marmoset, Lemur, Baboon, Emus, Cassowary, etc. even among the native fauna there is a great diversity comprising Felids, Canids , Bovines, Deer, Antelopes, Primates, Reptiles, Birds, etc.Slide 97: Objective of Zoo The Mysore zoo has a very clear aims and objectives in managing wild animals in captivity : Some of the objectives are: To educate the people regarding wildlife, their habitat, food habits and status, etc . It is a conservation park where in endangered species are maintained and bred in captivity . To enhance the knowledge by conducting long term research on the management of wildlife in captivity .Slide 98: By virtue of exchange programs it exhibits both exotic and indigenous species where people can see them and enjoy. It aims in increasing the population of the threatened and rare species. Zoo takes care of sick, deserted, orphaned and handicapped wild animals.Slide 99: Educating on management of zoos . Conservation education . Study the behaviour of animals . Conservation breeding. Research documentation and study . Study the food habit of animals. Objectives of Training Programme :Collection of animals in Mysore zoo : Collection of animals in Mysore zoo Sl no Specimen Male Female Unknown Total 1 Mammals 138 168 195 501 2 Birds 124 131 195 450 3 Reptiles 25 18 58 101 Grand total 287 317 448 1052Slide 101: Over view of the Placement In zoo On the very first day we were taken for rounds. We went around the zoo and saw many species and observed their behavior in the captive condition with the guidance of Mr Somashekar , we also visited enclosures of few animals, and then there was an interaction session on captive animals.Slide 102: Introduction to Zoo Power point presentation on carnivorous and insectivorous plants, global warming, species diversity by Mr Santosh Kannada Visit to stores-kitchen Cage cleaning. Feeding elephants and elephants feed-keepers interaction Various topic/ Programmes we came across in training programme which Includes:Slide 103: Talk on breeding in captive condition was done by Dr Prayag, Tranquilizing equipment-demonstration by Dr Dhanalakshmi Talk on enrichment of animal enclosures h) Talk on health care and management of animals in captivity by Dr. Suresh kumar , feeding of animals, talk on role of keepers and importance of animal behaviour study i ) visit to Karanji lake nature park, visit to Regional Museum of Natural History, visit to snake enclosure, visit to Vermi -compost yard, visit to primates enclosure, and evaluation and feedback.Visit to store and kitchen: Visit to store and kitchen We visited store room with Mr. B. Somashekar he explained us about the store, food given to the zoo animals and its preparation. Food for herbivores and carnivores were made in separate kitchens.Kinds of food given to different animals:: Kinds of food given to different animals: Animals Food Chimps Millets, fruits, onion, bread, milk, tea Python Cock, mice, rabbit Viper Frog, mice Marmoset Egg, fruits Bears Milk, fruits, bread, vegetables Deer Wheat, prawn, grass, leafs Birds Mixed pulses,oats , maiz,e paddy, sugarcane, cherry, groundnut, leafy vegetables, etcSlide 106: Elephants Boiled rice, ragi balls, carrot, green grams, horse gram, jaggery , groundnut, coconut, sugarcane, hay grass, Ficus leaf, etc Lion, Tiger & Leopards Beef, chicken, etc Foods cooked in the kitchen are Horse gram, rice, and ragi . Tea is also prepared in the kitchen for primates and elephants. Rest of the food is given raw by cleaning it.Slide 107: Cage cleaningVermicompost: Vermicompost Sri chamarajendra zoological gardens, Mysore is one of the important zoos in India, housing a wide variety of mammals, birds and reptiles. With more than 1000 animals in the zoo produce huge quantity of organic waste and fodder in addition to vegetable, kitchen waste, fallen leaves and other organic waste. Vermin composting is the process of recycling organic matter into nutrient-rich compost using earth worms.Slide 109: Zoo Hospital which is an important of zoo management which takes care of the health management. It is equipped with a full pledged operation theatre, laboratory for conducting simple laboratory procedures, drug stores, kitchen and inpatient wards. a. Documentation section b. Laboratory section c. Operation theatre d. Radiology section e. Veterinary office f. Medical storage g. Kitchen Veterinary section Hospital consist of:Breeding in captive condition: Breeding in captive condition Dr Prayag is working as veterinary officer in zoo and is specialized in breeding of animals. He delivered talk on breeding in captive condition, he explained us about breeding in captive animals and how its been done he also explained us about incubation of egg artificially and showed us the instruments used for the same. He briefed us on captive breeding relating it to the wild condition.Tranquilizing of animals: : Tranquilizing of animals: Dr. Dhanalakshmi briefly explained about Tranquilization of animals in zoo. Immobilization/Restraining of animals is done for providing treatment and vaccination. Wound dressing is a challenging job which should be attended without causing stress and strain to the animals. There are 3 different method of restraining: Manual or Physical method: Here animals in captive condition are mainly restrained using ropes, nets, pits, and trapping. Mechanical method: It is attended by using Squeeze Cage kept in holding room. Chemical method: Most modern technique in restraining wild animals where chemicals are used and is practised all over the world.Slide 112: General condition of the animal. Weather condition. Size of animal, its body weight and general appearance. Degree of sedative required for Shifting / Captured / Translocation etc. Drug and Dosage Selection depends upon: Some of the Drugs used are: : Some of the Drugs used are: Etrophine Hcl – 10,000 times more potent then Morphine. Ascromozin –act as free anesthesia. Diperenarphine – act as antidote. (Antidote – Chemical which will revive that particular drug.) Ketamine Hcl – (antidote is – Yohimbine Hcl ). α -2 Adinoseptor Ad enosis – act as muscle relaxant. Doxopran .Talk on health care management in captive condition: Talk on health care management in captive condition Dr Suresh kumar delivered his talk on health care management in captive condition. Precaution measures should be taken to the captive animals so that the problem arising in future can be stopped. Every year program like vaccines are planned and it is been practiced. Death seen is of 40-60 maximum is of age 2% death is found by disease. Infection is mainly by water, air, food and cleanliness. Water supply for the animals should be provided more to maintain their health..Slide 115: Food is been inspected very strictly by many sections like doctors, supervisor, truck, gate, animal keeper, if the animal keeper rejects the food it has to be replaced within the day and the retailer supplier will be fined or his contract may even be cancelled. In health regards they have a profolatic medicine. Every 4 or 3 months De-worming medicine is given to stomach for all animals. Quarantine room should be present in all zoo away from all animal enclosures.Slide 116: Talk on Snake Sham briefed us about snakes and their habitat and also about the identification of venomus and non venomous snakes and also the handling techniques. water should not be given to the person whom snake has bitten it may lead to paralysis attack snake was categorized into Neuro toxin and Hemo toxin. He practically handled the following snakes: Sand boa, rat snake, chekered kill back, common trinket, spectacled cobra.Slide 117: Talk on vandalism and its management by Mr Mohan Bidiri . Zoo vandalism is very common in all the Indian Zoos. Effective supervision organizing awareness programme , display of signage has brought down the rate of zoo vandalism. Considerably 50% of the vandalism has been curbed due to co-operation by the visitors and measures initiated. Management is done by the security measures has been strengtherned posting gaurds near sensitive animals enclosures, display of signages , appealing enclosures, display of signage, appealing, warning about vandalism. Talk on Vandalism and its ManagementPresentation by Mr Santosh kannada: Presentation by Mr Santosh kannada Topic: carnivores plants He gave a detailed lecture about the carnivore plants. There are about 360 carnivores plants species. The major mechanisms involved in carnivore plants are; pit fall, fly paper, snap traps, bladder traps, lobster pot traps. E.g.: Dionala mucipula, amorphophallus Topic: climate change It was an elaborated lecture on global warming and its effects on environment. The impact of global warming is for every one degree increase in temperature causes death of minimum 4 species/organisms. Green house gases are the major agents causing global warming which in turn causes climate change.Slide 119: Topic: Biodiversity There are three major divisions of biodiversity. 1) species diversity 2). Ecosystem diversity 3). Genetic diversity He also briefed about the red data book: Since 1947 the the international union for conservation of nature and natural resources (IUCN) maintain a red data book providing a record of animals and plants which are known to be in danger. In India, the wildlife (protection) act,1927, schedule (I) provide the list of role and endangered species.Visit to Karanji lake Nature Park:: Visit to Karanji lake Nature Park : Karanji lake 98 acres in extent is a part of Sri Chamarajendra zoological gardens, Mysore which was acquired by the zoo during the year 1976. The Karanji tank is formulated as a Nature Park and became the second attractive tourist spot in the historic city of Mysore. It is situated on the upstream of Doddakere , once a place meant for dumping garbage, has now been transformed into an idealistic place for feathered denizens of Mysore.Slide 121: The lake now has become most visited place and nesting ground for variey of birds. What was once a refuge for only painted storks, now witness a regular influx of varied species including the Glossy Ibis and many other species, converting it into “Miniature Bird Sanctuary” Bird Paradise One fine day we went on bird watching,we could find good Diversity of aves . It is said that about 87species of birds are found here of which 12 o them are migratory birds.Slide 122: Butterfly Park Biggest Aviary The aviary of Karanji lake Nature Park in one of the biggest walk-through aviary measuring 20 meters in height,60 meters in length and 40 meters in width. Butterflies the winged jewels of the insect world are the most colourful and attractive creatures of all insects. In Karanji Lake 2 acres of area consisting of varieties of trees & vegetation is developed as Butterfly Park. It was established in the year 1999Slide 123: The historical city of Mysore added another landmark with the opening of the Regional Museum of Natural History (RMNH) on 20th May 1995. Located on the banks of Karanji lake, and with the ba-ckdrop of Chamundi hills, the Museum provides unique opportunity to explore nature and natural world through judicious mix of models, translites , AV aids, diorama, thematic, interactive and pa- rticipatory exhibits. The learning in the captivating environment of the Museum is indeed a fun and truly enjoyable. Visit to Regional Museum of Naturalistic History :Slide 124: The broad objectives of the Museum are: Depict floral, faunal and geological wealth of the southern region of India on conservation of Nature and Natural Resources Depict ecological interrelationship among plants and animals with emphasis Provide out of school facility for school children on curriculum-based studies in biology and geology with emphasis on environmental aspect Develop programmers for masses to create environmental awareness. Objectives:Conclusion: Conclusion The pooled data from all locations showed that the species diversity of Abillu was more than the other locations Bhagamandala is a place where maximum NTFP’s collected, and can also be priorities the options of JFPM Various plantation practices should timely undertaken for the establishment of successful plantation Thus, Mysore zoo, apart from carving a niche for itself as a premier centre for imparting education on conservation of wildlifeSlide 126: Thank You You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.