Slide 2: MEASUREMENT AND SCALING PRESENTED TO :
PROF.SAJID JAVAID AKBAR Slide 3: GROUP MEMBERS SHAFIA SHOAIB 09
ZUNAIRA ZULFIQAR 18
SHAFAQ ZAMAN 25
SABAH SHAHAB 26
RUSHDA ZAFAR 27
KIRAN IRFAN 29
MADIHA AMJAD 34
MARAM RANA 57 : INTRODUCTION TO MEASUREMENT
TYPES OF MEASUREMENT SCALES
SOURCES OF MEASUREMENT DIFFERENCES
THE CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD MEASUREMENT
PRACTICALITY AND SENSITIVITY
RATING SCALE OUR FOCUS 1.INTRODUCTION TO MEASUREMENT : 1.INTRODUCTION TO MEASUREMENT RUSHDA ZAFAR
ROLL NO :27 WHAT IS MEASUREMENT? : WHAT IS MEASUREMENT? In Everyday usage , measurement occurs to discover the extent , dimensions quantity or capacity of something especially by comparison with a standard. for example how well one likes a song , a painting or personality of a friend.
In Research measurement consists of assigning numbers or symbols to empirical events , objects , properties or activities in compliance with a set of rules. CHARACTERISTICS OF MEASUREMENT : CHARACTERISTICS OF MEASUREMENT The definition implies that Measurement is a three part process: Selecting observable empirical events
Developing a set of mapping rules : a scheme for assigning symbols or numbers to represent aspects of event being measured.
Applying mapping rules to each observation of that event. RULES OF MEASUREMENT : RULES OF MEASUREMENT A rule is a guide that tells someone what to do.
An example of a rule of measurement might be “ Assigning the numerals 1 through 7 to individuals according to how productive they are.
If the individual is extremely productive assign a 7 . If the individual is an unproductive worker with little output , assign the numeral 1. GOAL OF MEASUREMENT : GOAL OF MEASUREMENT The Goal of “ ASSIGNING NUMBERS OR SYMBOLS TO EMPIRICAL EVENTS IN COMPLIANCE WITH A SET OF RULES” is to provide the HIGHEST QUALITY , LOWEST ERROR DATA for testing Hypothesis , Estimation or Description .
Researchers deduce from a hypothesis that certain conditions should exist then , they measure for these conditions IF data is supported_ Hypothesis ACCEPTED
IF NOT _Hypothesis is FAULTY. WHAT IS TO BE MEASURED? : WHAT IS TO BE MEASURED? 1.Concepts or Constructs
CONCEPT : “ A GENERALIZED IDEA ABOUT A CLASS OF OBJECTS , ATTRIBUTES , OCCURENCES OR PROCESSES.”
CONCEPTS and CONSTRUCTS are used at THEORETICAL LEVELS.
VARIABLES are used at EMPIRICAL LEVELS. VARIABLE : VARIABLE VARIABLE is defined as AN Event , AN ACT TRAIT or ATTRIBUTE that can be measured and to which we assign numerals or values.
CONCEPTS , CONSTRUCTS OR VARIABLE may be defined Descriptively or Operationally.
Operational definitions give meaning to a concept by specifying the activities necessary in order to measure it. CLASSIFICATION OF VARIABLES FOR MEASUREMENT : CLASSIFICATION OF VARIABLES FOR MEASUREMENT OBJECTS
Objects include concepts of ordinary experience such as furniture , laundry detergent ,automobiles , people , genes and peer pressure groups etc. PROPERTIES
Properties are the characteristics of objects.
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES include weight , height , posture.
PSYCHOLOGICAL PROPERTIES include attitudes , intelligence.
SOCIAL PROPERTIES include leadership ability and status. Slide 13: RESEARCHERS DO NOT MEASURE EITHER OBJECTS OR PROPERTIES , THEY MEASURE INDICANTS OF THE PROPERTIES IN EVERY CASE LIKE IN MEASUREMENT OF “LIFE STYLE” IT IS NOT EASY TO MEASURE PROPERTIES SINCE EVERY PROPERTY CANNOT BE MEASURED DIRECTLY , ONE MUST INFER ITS PRESENCE OR ABSENCE BY OBSERVING SOME INDICANTS OR POINTER MEASUREMENT. THE QUALITY OF THE STUDY DEPENDS ON WHAT MEASURES ARE SELECTED AND HOW THEY FIT THE CIRCUMSTANCES. 2.TYPES OF SCALES : 2.TYPES OF SCALES SHAFAQ ZAMAN
ROLL NO:25 SCALE : SCALE Scale may be defined as any series of items that are arranged progressively according to the value and magnitude, into which an item can be placed according to its qualification. TYPES OF SCALES : TYPES OF SCALES NOMINAL SCALE
RATIO SCALE NOMINAL SCALE : NOMINAL SCALE A scale in which the numbers or letters assigned to objects serve as labels for identification/classification.
Yes/no scale in research activities.
Terms used for colors. : A Scale that arranges objects/alternatives according to their magnitude in an ordered relationship.
Interval between numbers.
Greater than or less than statements.
Ranking of 5-types of soft drinks.
To rate as excellent,good,fair or poor.
Mode and median calculations. ORDINAL SCALE INTERVAL SCALE : INTERVAL SCALE A scale the only arranges objects/alternatives according to their magnitudes but also distinguishes this ordered arrangement in units of equal intervals.
Standard survey rating scale.
Used for ranking and measuring the interval between two numbers.
Rate your satisfaction.
0 point is arbitrary, ratios cannot taken between numbers on this scale.
Calendar time is such scale.
Mean, median, mode valid. RATIO SCALE : RATIO SCALE A scale having absolute rather than relatives quantities and possessing an absolute 0, where there is an absence of a given attribute.
Data represents actual amount of a variable.
Ratios between numbers are meaningful.
Financial researcher use this scale.
Mean,median,mode,geometric averages valid.
Use of physical attributes;weight,distance etc.
To contrast interval and ratio scale; temperature Scale. 3.Sources of Measurement Differences : 3.Sources of Measurement Differences MADIHA AMJAD
ROLL NO : 34 Sources of Measurement Differences : Sources of Measurement Differences The ideal study should be designed and controlled for precise and unambiguous measurement of the variables. Some complete control is unattainable ,error does occur. Much error is systematic (results from a bias), while the remainder is random (occurs erratically). Sources of Measurement Differences : Sources of Measurement Differences Ideally, any variation of scores among the respondents would reflect true differences in their opinions about the company. However, there are four major error sources:
the measurer, and
the data collection instrument Error Sources : Error Sources The Respondent: Opinion differences that affect measurement come from relatively stable characteristics of the respondent. Typical of these are employee status, ethnic group membership, social class, and nearness to manufacturing facilities. Respondents may also suffer from temporary factors like fatigue, boredom, anxiety hunger, etc. Situational Factors : Situational Factors Any condition that places a strain on the interview or measurement session can have serious effects on the interview-respondent report. If another person is present, that person can distort responses by distracting, or by merely being there. If the respondents believe anonymity is not ensured, they may be reluctant to express certain feelings. The Measurer : The Measurer The interviewer can distort by rewording, paraphrasing, or reordering questions. Stereotypes in appearance and action introduce bias. Inflections of voice and conscious or unconscious prompting with smiles, nods, and so forth, may encourage or discourage certain replies. In the data analysis stage, incorrect coding, careless tabulation, and faulty statistical calculation may introduce further errors. The Instrument : The Instrument A defective instrument can cause distortion in two major ways:
First, it can be too confusing and ambiguous. The use of complex words and syntax beyond participant comprehension is typical.
A more exclusive type of instrument deficiency is poor selection from the universe of content items. Seldom does the instrument explore all the potentially important issues. 4.CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD MEASUREMENT:RELIABILITY : 4.CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD MEASUREMENT:RELIABILITY SHAFIA SHOAIB
ROLL NO:09 The characteristics of good measurement : Validity is the extent to which to a test measures what we actually wish to measure.
Reliability has to do with the accuracy and precision of a measurement procedure.
Practicality is concerned with a range of factors of economy convenience and interpretability The characteristics of good measurement Reliability : Reliability “The degree to which measures are free from error and therefore yield consistent results.” Testing goodness of measurement: reliability : Testing goodness of measurement: reliability Testing goodness of measurement: reliability : Testing goodness of measurement: reliability Test retest reliability Stability : Stability A measure is said to possess stability if you can secure consistent results with repeated measurement of the same person with the same instrument.
Test-retest method: the administration of the same scale or measure to the same respondents at two separate points in the time in order to test for reliability
Parallel-form reliably: when responses on two comparable sets of measures tapping the same construct are highly correlated, we have parallel-form reliability. Consistency : Consistency Hang together as a set:
Internal consistency reliability : this is a test of the consistency of respondents answer to all the items in a measure.
Split-half reliability: it can be used when the measuring tool has many similar questions or statements to which the participant can respond. 6.VALIDITY : 6.VALIDITY MARYAM RANA
ROLL NO : 57 VALIDITY : VALIDITY “Validity is the extent to which a test measures what we actually wish to measure."
Validity is the ability of a scale or measuring instrument to measure what it is intended to measure." VALIDITY : VALIDITY LOGICAL VALIDITY:- : LOGICAL VALIDITY:- " Logical validity is professional agreement that a scale logically appears to accurately measure what it is intended to measure."
Content validity or Logical validity ensures that the measure includes an adequate and representative set of items that tap the concept. CRITERION_RELATED VALIDITY : CRITERION_RELATED VALIDITY The ability of some measure correlate with other measures same construct.“
Criterion related validity reflects the success of measures used for prediction or estimation.
Criterion related validity can be explained through: CRITERION_RELATED VALIDITY : CRITERION_RELATED VALIDITY CRITERION_RELATED VALIDITY : CRITERION_RELATED VALIDITY a: CONCURRENT VALIDITY
If the new measure is taken at the same time as the criterion measure and is shown to be valid, then it is called concurrent validity.
b: PREDICTIVE VALIDITY
Is established when a new measure predicts a future events. CONGRUENT VALIDITY : CONGRUENT VALIDITY The ability of a measure to confirm a network of related hypothesis generated from a theory based on the concept.
Congruent validity or Construct validity testifies to how well the results obtained from the use of the measure fit the theories around which the test is designed. Congruent validity can be explained through : Congruent validity can be explained through Slide 44: CONVERGENT VALIDITY Is established when the scores obtained with two different instruments measuring the same concept are highly correlated.
The ability of some measure to have a low correlation with measures of dissimilar concept. 7.PRACTICALITY AND SENSITIVITY : 7.PRACTICALITY AND SENSITIVITY KIRAN IRFAN
ROLL NO:29 PRACTICALITY : PRACTICALITY PRACTICALITY IS DEFINED AS:
INTERPRETABILITY ECONOMY : ECONOMY The choice of data collection method is dictated by economic factors.
The rising cost of personal interviewing led to an increased use of telephone and internet surveys.
Trade-off usually occurs between the ideal research project and budget so the cost should be limited. CONVENIENCE : CONVENIENCE A measuring device passes the convenience test if it is easy to administer.
We can make the instrument easier to administer by giving close attention to its design and layout.
Both design and layout are important in completion of the instrument. INTERPRETABILITY : INTERPRETABILITY The aspect of practicality is relevant when persons other than the test designers must interpret the results
Following information makes interpretation possible:
A statement of the functions the test was designed to measure
Scoring keys and instructions
Norms for reference groups
Evidence about reliability
Evidence regarding the Interco relations of sub cores
Evidence regarding the relationship of the test
Guides for test use SENSITIVITY : SENSITIVITY sensitivity refers to an instrument’s ability to accurately measure variability in stimuli or responses.
the sensitivity of a scale is an important measurement concept particularly when changes in attitudes or other hypothetical constructs or under investigation SENSITIVITY : SENSITIVITY a dichotomous response category such as agree or disagree doesn't allow subtle attitude changes but numerous items on the scale are needed.
“disagree “& “strongly disagree” as categories increases a scale’s sensitivity.
the sensitivity of a scale can be increased by allowing for a greater range of possible scores. 8. SCALING : 8. SCALING ZUNAIRA ZULFIQARROLL No: 18 SCALING : SCALING Is the” Procedure for the assignment of numbers to a property of objects in order to impart some of the characteristics of numbers to the properties in questions”. SELECTING A MEASUREMENT SCALE : SELECTING A MEASUREMENT SCALE Research Objectives
Number of Dimensions Balanced or Un-balanced
Forced or Un-forced
Number of Scale Points
Rater Errors RESPONSE TYPES : RESPONSE TYPES Rating
Sorting RANKING SCALES : RANKING SCALES Ranking scales constrain the study participant to making comparisons and determining order among two or more properties or objects EXPLANATION : EXPLANATION In ranking scales, the participants directly compares two or more objects and makes choices among them. Frequently the participant is asked to select one as the “best” or the “most preferred”. TECHNIQUES : TECHNIQUES Paired-comparison Scale:
Participants can express attitude unambiguously by choosing between two objects.
Forced Ranking Scale:
Attributes that are ranked relative to each other.
Faster than Paired-comparison and is usually easier and more motivating. TECHNIQUES : TECHNIQUES Comparative Scale
Is ideal for such comparison if the participants are familiar with the standard. Some Researchers treat the data produced by comparative scales as interval data since the scoring reflects an interval between the standard and what is being compared. For example : For example Select most preferred among three models A, B, C of a product.
40% choose model A,
30% choose model B,
30% choose model C.
The analyst suggest A is the most preferred
60% choose model other than A.
Using the “PAIRED-CAMPARISON” the participants can express attitude unambiguously by choosing between two objects. CONCLUSION : CONCLUSION Reducing the number of comparisons per participants without reducing the number of objects can lighten this burden. SORTING : SORTING Sorting requires that participants sort cards into piles using criteria established by the researcher. CATEGORIZATION : CATEGORIZATION Asks participants to put themselves or property indicants in groups or categorizes. 8.RATING SCALE : SABAH SHAHAB
Roll no:26 8.RATING SCALE RATING SCALE : RATING SCALE Rating scale have several response Categories and are used to elicit responses with regard to the object, event or person studied.
We use rating scales to judge properties of object without reference to other similar objects. TYPES OF RATING SCALE : TYPES OF RATING SCALE Following rating scales are often used in organizational research.:
Simple category scale/ Dichotomous scale.
Multiple choice / single responsive scale
Likert scale/ Summated rating scale.
Semantic differential scale.
Multiple rating list scale/
Itemized rating scale.
Fixed Or Constant-Sum scale
Graphic rating scale. SINGLE CATEGORY SCALE : SINGLE CATEGORY SCALE This scale offers two mutually exclusive response,
Choices. i.e. “YES” or “NO”.
Do you own a car?
2. No MULTIPLE-CHOICE SCALE: : MULTIPLE-CHOICE SCALE: When there are multiple options for the rater but only one answer is sought, the multiple-choice or single responsive scale is used.
What newspaper do you read most often?
1. The News. 2. Dawn
3. Recorder. 4.Other(specify) LIKERT SCALE: : LIKERT SCALE: The likert scale is designed to examine how strongly subjects agree or disagree with statement on a 5-point scale.
“The Internet is superior to libraries for comprehensive searches.”
Strongly Agree Neither agree Disagree strongly
agree nor disagree disagree
5 4 3 2 1 SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL SCALE : SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL SCALE This scale measures the psychological meanings of an attitude object using bipolar adjectives.
Researchers use this scale for studies of brand and institutional image.
Courageous----------------Timid NUMERICAL SCALE: : NUMERICAL SCALE: This scale is similar to semantic differential scale, with the difference that numbers on a 5-point or a 7-point scale are provided with bipolar adjectives at both ends.
How pleased are you with your research teacher?
Extremely 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Extremely
pleased displeased MULTIPLE RATING LIST SCALE : MULTIPLE RATING LIST SCALE This scale is similar to numerical scale but differs in two ways,
It accepts a circled response from the rater and;
the layout facilitates visualization of the results.
“Please encircle how important each service characteristic is.” Fast reliable repair 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Service at my location 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 GRAPHIC RATING SCALE : GRAPHIC RATING SCALE In this scale participants are instructed to mark their response at any point along a continuum.
On a scale of 1 to 10
how would you rate
your university buses? 10
1 Slide 74: WHEN YOU CAN MEASURE WHAT YOU ARE TALKING ABOUT AND EXPRESS IT IN NUMBERS , YOU KNOW SOMETHING ABOUT IT. EASY QUESTIONS ARE WELCOMED!!!!!!!!! : EASY QUESTIONS ARE WELCOMED!!!!!!!!! Slide 76: THANKS FOR PATIENCE LISTENING!!!!!