armamentarium

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INSTRUMENTATION :

INSTRUMENTATION DR. SHAFAQ SALIM Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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EXAMINATION / DIAGNOSTIC INSTRUMENTS. CLASSIFICATION OF PERIODONTAL INSTRUMENTS. SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS. INSTRUMENT SHARPENING. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF INSTRUMENTATION. Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

DIAGNOSTIC/EXAMINATION INSTRUMENTS:

DIAGNOSTIC/EXAMINATION INSTRUMENTS Mouth mirror. Explorer. Periodontal probe. Tweezer . Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

MOUTH MIRROR:

MOUTH MIRROR USES : Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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TYPES OF MOUTH MIRROR On the basis of material: Stainless steel. Plastic (disposable). Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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On the basis of size: Size 1 – Ø 16 mm Size 2 – Ø 18 mm Size 3 – Ø 20 mm Size 4 – Ø 22 mm Size 5 – Ø 24 mm Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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On the basis of reflecting surface of mirror. Flat (plane, regular) surface mirrors. Magnifying. Double-sided. Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

TWEEZER:

TWEEZER Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

EXPLORER:

EXPLORER USES: For the detection of caries. To locate calculus, deposits in various areas. To check smoothness of root surface after root planning. To check margins of restorations. Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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PARTS OF PERIODONTAL INSTRUMENTS: Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

PERIODONTAL PROBE:

PERIODONTAL PROBE Periodontal probe are use to measure, locate and mark the pocket around a tooth in order to establish the state of health of the periodontium . Calibrated in mm. Normal pocket depth…….???? Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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TYPES: Marquis color code probe, calibrated in 3mm sections. UNC-15 probe. University of Michigan ‘O’ probe with williams marking at 1,2,,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 and 10 mm. Michigan ‘O’ probe with makings at 3,6 and 8 mm. WHO (world health organization)/CPITN probe, has 0.5 mm ball at the tip and markings at 3.5,8.5 and 11.5mm. Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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NABERS PROBE: Used for the detection of FURCATION areas. Markings at 3,6,9 and 12mm. Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

CLASSIFICATION OF PERIODONTAL INSTRUMENTS::

CLASSIFICATION OF PERIODONTAL INSTRUMENTS: Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

SCALING AND CURETTAGE INSTRUMENTS::

SCALING AND CURETTAGE INSTRUMENTS: Curettes. Ultrasonic and sonic instruments. Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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CURETTES : The curette is an instrument of choice for removing deep sub gingival calculus, root planning altered cementum and removing the soft tissue lining the periodontal pocket. TYPES OF CURETTES: Universal curettes Gracey curettes Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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UNIVERSAL: Universal curettes are designed for easy adaptation on all tooth surfaces (thus the name “universal”). One curette designed for all areas and surfaces. Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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The face of the blade is beveled at 90 degrees to the shank. Both the cutting edges used; outer or inner. Cutting Edge 90 ° Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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EXAMPLES OF UNIVERSAL CURETTES : Columbia universal curettes. Barnhart curettes. Younger-good curettes. Mc Calls curette. Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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GRACEY CURETTES: Area specific curettes. Improve adaptation and deposit removal. The Gracey blade design is offset from the terminal shank at 70°. One cutting edge used. Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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Back Face Toe Cutting Edge Lateral Side ° Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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Gracey # 1-2, 3-4 : for anterior teeth. Gracey # 5-6 : for anterior teeth and premolars. Gracey # 7-8 , 9-10 : for posterior teeth; facial and lingual. Gracey # 11-12 : for posterior teeth; mesial . Gracey # 13-14 : for posterior teeth; distal. Gracey # 15-16, 17-18: modification of 11-12 and 13-14. Elongated shank (3mm). Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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Used for all tooth surfaces in the dentition. Two cutting edges per working end. Face is perpendicular to the lower shank. Limited to specific area of specific tooth surface (Area specific). One cutting edge per working end. Tilted at 60 to 70 degree to the lower shank (Offset blade). UNIVERSAL CURETTES GRACY CURETTES Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

SONIC AND ULTRASONIC INSTRUMENTS::

SONIC AND ULTRASONIC INSTRUMENTS : TYPES OF ULTRASONIC: Magneto strictive . Vibration of the tip is elliptical; all sides can be used. Piezoelectric. Pattern of vibration is linear; only two sides of the tip are active. Ultrasonic vibration ranges from 20,000- 45,000 cps or Hz. Vibration of sonic tip ranges from 2000-6500cps. Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

PERIODONTAL ENDOSCOPE::

PERIODONTAL ENDOSCOPE: Used sub gingivally in the diagnosis and treatment of periodontal disease, caries, defective restorations, root fracture and resorption . The procedure is called ‘PERIOSCOPY/ PERIODONTAL ENDOSCOPY’. Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

CLEANSING AND POLISHING INSTRUMENTS::

CLEANSING AND POLISHING INSTRUMENTS: RUBBER CUPS: Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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Rubber shell. With or without webbed configuration. Attached with hand piece. Sterilized after every use. Disposable. Cleansing and polishing paste is applied to keep it mist and reduce frictional heat as cup revolves. Aggressive use with abrasive may remove layer of cementum (thin near cervical area). Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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BRISTLE BRUSHES: Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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Different shapes such as wheel and cup. Used with polishing paste. Porphylaxis angle. Stiff bristles therefore should be confined to the crown to avoid injury. Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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DENTAL TAPE: Used for polishing proximal surfaces that inaccessible to the other polishing instruments. Used with polishing paste. Labio lingual motion. Care needed to avoid injury. Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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POLISHING PASTES INGREDIENTS: Abrasives. Flouride . Surfactants. Anti bacterial agents. Flavorants . Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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AIR POWDER POLISHING: Hand piece delivers slurry of warm water and sodium bicarbonate. The instrument is called ‘PROPHY-JET’. Effective for removal of extrinsic stain and soft deposits. Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS:

SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS Excisional and incisional instruments Surgical curettes and scalers . Periosteal elevators. Tissue forceps. Scissors. Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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INCISIONAL AND EXCISIONAL INSTRUMENTS: Periodontal Knives ( Gingivectomy knives). Orban inter-dental knife. Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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Surgical blades. Different shape and sizes. 12 D, 15 and 15 C most commonly used in periodontal surgeries. Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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SURGICAL CURETTES AND SCALERS: Prichard Curette. Ball scalers . Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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PERIOSTEAL ELEVATORS: Woodson periosteal elevator. Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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TISSUE FORCEPS AND SISSORS: Debakey tissue forcep . Goldman- Fox scissor. Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

INSTRUMENT SHARPENING::

INSTRUMENT SHARPENING: WHY TO SHARP INSTRUMENTS Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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Greater instrument control. Lighter strokes to remove deposit. Increase tactile sensitivity. Increase speed. Decrease operator fatigue. Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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SHARPENING STONES Natural minerals: India stone. Arkansas stone. Artificial: Carborundum . Ruby. Ceramic. Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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Proper angle between stone and surface of instrument. Proper grasp of instrument. Lubrication of stone. Protective glasses. Strelization after every use. Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF INSTRUMENTATION:

GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF INSTRUMENTATION Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

ACCESSIBILITY:

ACCESSIBILITY Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

POSITION OF THE OPERATOR:

POSITION OF THE OPERATOR SEATED POSITION The operator/ clinician should be seated on comfortable operation stool. Feet flat on the floor. Thighs parallel to the floor. Back straight. Head erect. Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

DON’T LET DENTISTRY CAUSE YOU PAIN!!:

DON’T LET DENTISTRY CAUSE YOU PAIN!! Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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OPERATOR POSITION 7’ o clock position (front). 9’ o clock position side). 10, 11’ o clock position (back). 12’ o clock position (directly behind). Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

POSITION OF THE PATIENT:

POSITION OF THE PATIENT The most common patient positions are: Supine position Reclined position Upright position Emergency position. Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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CHIN POSITION OF THE PATIENT: For maxillary teeth : chin up. For mandibular teeth : chin down. For maxillary teeth : back of the chair should be slightly 45 degrees position from the floor. For mandibular teeth : The back of the chair should be almost parallel to the floor. Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

VISIBILITY, ILLUMINATION, RETRACTION.:

VISIBILITY, ILLUMINATION, RETRACTION. Vision: direct; indirect. Illumination: dental light. Retraction: mouth mirror; fingers. Good retraction provides visibility, accessibility and illumination. Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

MAINTAINNCE OF CLEAR FIELD:

MAINTAINNCE OF CLEAR FIELD Operating field should be clear of: Saliva. Blood. Debris. Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

INSTRUMENT STABILIZATION:

INSTRUMENT STABILIZATION Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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Stability of the instrument and hand is very important for controlled instrumentation. Two factors that provide stability are Instrument grasp. Finger rest. Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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INSTRUMENT GRASP: Modified pen grasp. Standard pen grasp. Palm and thumb grasp Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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FINGER REST: Conventional. Cross arch. Opposite arch. Finger on finger. EXTRAORAL FULCURUM: Palm up. Palm down. Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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Acknowledgment: Dr. Batool Mohsin Khan

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