Town Planning

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Town Planning B.Arch IVth Year

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A settlement is a place where people live. ...Settlement

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When early settlements began to grow there were no planning regulations. People built houses where they wanted to. Some houses were built far apart from each other (dispersed). Other houses were built close together, making villages. Villages began to grow outwards and the shape of the settlements changed. Some settlements became long and narrow (linear), others stayed clustered together (nucleated). Today, people must have permission from the local authority to build houses. Settlements now grow in a planned way …Settlement Patterns

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Dispersed Settlement Dispersed settlements are usually farms. They are spread out because of the space taken up by fields. Other dispersed settlements are found in mountainous areas where it is difficult to live.

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Linear Settlement Linear settlements sometimes follow the shape of the land. It is easier to build on the floor of a valley than on the steep sides. Linear settlements also follow features such as roads, railway lines or rivers.

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Nucleated Settlement Nucleated settlements are where buildings are clustered round a central point. The centre of the settlement may be a crossroads, a church, a water supply, or a market place. Nucleated settlements also occur on hill tops.

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Planned Settlement Planned settlements often have a regular pattern. They may have a square shape, or a crescent shape for example. Brasilia, the capital of Brazil, is a planned settlement in the shape of an aeroplane

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The Settlement Pyramid Increase in size of settlement, higher population and more services Conurbation – A conurbation is basically a supercity consisting of multiple cities and towns. The population is usually several million. Metropolis - A metropolis is a large city, in most cases with over half a million inhabitants in the city proper, and with a population of at least one million living in its urban agglomeration. City - A city is a relatively large and permanent settlement. Towns with population of 1,00,000 and above are called cities. Town - A town is a human settlement larger than a village but smaller than a city. A settlement over 20,000 population would be classified, with a charter from the state government as a town, with a town area committee. Notified Area - On the basis of population and other issues, the state government notifies a larger community (over 10,000) as a notified area, and its administration is under the locally elected notified area committee. Village - A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet with the population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousands (sometimes tens of thousands). Hamlet - A typical hamlet consists of only a few houses, often clustered together close to the road. It has a tiny population (<100) and very few (if any) services, and few buildings. Isolated dwelling – an isolated dwelling would only have 1 or 2 buildings or families in it. It would have negligible services, if any.

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Village Hamlet Town

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City Metropolis Conurbation

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…Classification of Towns Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town : Infantile towns , with no clear zoning Juvenile towns , which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns , where factories have started to appear Early mature towns , with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns , with defined industrial, commercial and various types of residential area

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…Urban/Rural All statutory places with a municipality, corporation, cantonment board or notified town area committee, etc. (b) A place satisfying the following three criteria simultaneously: a minimum population of 5,000; at least 75 per cent of male working population engaged in non-agricultural pursuits; and a density of population of at least 400 per sq. km. (1,000 per sq. mile). Urban All statutory places without a municipality, corporation, cantonment board or notified town area committee, etc. (b) A place satisfying the following three criteria simultaneously: a population less than 5,000; More than 25 per cent of male working population engaged in agricultural pursuits; and a density of population less than 400 per sq. km. (1,000 per sq. mile). Rural

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…Defining Planning City Planning is a process of planning for the improvement of urban centers in order to provide healthy and safe living conditions, efficient transport and communication, adequate public facilities, and aesthetic surroundings. Planning that also includes outlying communities and highways is termed regional planning. Urban Planning is the integration of the disciplines of land use planning and transport planning, to explore a very wide range of aspects of the built and social environments of urbanized municipalities and communities. Regional planning deals with a still larger environment, at a less detailed level Town Planning means the physical, social economic, cultural, political, ecological planning of an urban environment such as a town.

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the Idea of Utopia In Human Settlement

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Sir Patrick Geddes Kevin Lynch Arturo Soria Y Mata Sir Ebenezer Howard Clarence Perry Frank Lloyd Wright Le Corbusier

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…Sir Patrick Geddes Sir Patrick Geddes ( October 2, 1854 - April 17, 1932 ) was a Scottish biologist, known also for his innovative thinking in the fields of urban planning and education. He was responsible for introducing the concept of " region " to architecture and planning and is also known to have coined the term " conurbation ". First man to speak of “ The New Humanism ” which is comprehensive philosophy aiming at the co-ordination of man and his environment and also, the sole man responsible for linking social theories with modern Town & Country Planning.

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Planning Philosophies 1. The concept of “ Place, Work and Folk ” 2. Diagnostic Survey and Conservative Surgery 3. The Outlook Tower and Public Participation in planning 4. Section Principles 5. Classification of settlements and emphasis of regional planning of view in planning.

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The Concept of “Place, Work and Folk” 1. Termed as Geddesian Trad 2. An outcome of Geddes visit to India in 1915 3. There should be a relationship between the three fundamentals- “Place, Work and Folk” otherwise the whole process ceases to be planning. “Town Planning is not mere place planning, nor even work planning. If it is to be successful it must be folk-planning” – Sir Patrick Geddes 4. The task should not be to coerce people into new places against their associations, wishes and interests; instead its task is to find the right places for each sort of people; places where they will flourish. 5. When we talk of work, place and folk comes Economics, Geography and Sociology. Thus Geddes had the importance of socio-economic survey while improving a town or planning entirely a new town.

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Diagnostic Survey & Conservative Surgery Diagnostic Survey: City Planning must constantly keep in view the whole city old and new alike in all its aspects and at all its levels and then the problem of city planning is to improve the situation by turning its difficulties into opportunities. Town Planning and City Design are not a new science but the recovery of the life and thought that is related to our civilization. Conservative Surgery: It is more or less a renewal process than a removal from places. It brings out different and encouraging results with a far less financial outlay. It demands long and patient study. While preparing general design for the improvement of areas it may be done with or without reference to the old town but should be either regular and formal or individual and informal and the latter is to be encouraged especially for old towns. e.g. Madurai and Balrampur Before After

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The Outlook Tower and Public Participation in Planning 1. A tall old building high on the ridge of old Edinburgh overlooking the city and the surrounding regions. 2. The topmost storey allotted for visitors and artists and children to have a broader outlook of the city and acted as an open air –gallery. 3. The storeys below allotted for sciences starting from Geography, Astronomy, Geology, Meteorology, Botany, Zoology, Anthropology, History, Economics and so on. 4. The storeys further below having city maps, survey data pertaining to the place continued till the ground floor which consisted exhibition on the oriental civilization and general study of man. 5. The Outlook Tower should be in each city having civic observatory and laboratory, with its efforts towards correlation of thought and action, science and practice, sociology and morals besides the participation of public.

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The Valley Section Principles 1. The geographical features, the contour and relief are associated with the primitive occupation of man. 2. Accordingly the miner, the woodman, and hunter on the heights, the shepherd on the grassy slopes, the poor peasant on the lower slopes, the rich peasant on the plain and finally the fisherman at sea coast. 3. They are not only controlled geographically but also conditioned by their environment and occupation which is manifested in their settlements. 4. The violation of these principles will not only result in daily economic waste but also end in aesthetic ruin.

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…Kevin Lynch Kevin Andrew Lynch (1918 - 1984) was an American urban planner and author. Lynch provided seminal contributions to the field of city planning through empirical research on how individuals perceive and navigate the urban landscape. His books explore the presence of time and history in the urban environment, how urban environments affect children, and how to harness human perception of the physical form of cities and regions as the conceptual basis for good urban design. Lynch's most famous work, The Image of the City published in 1960, is the result of a five-year study on how users perceive and organize spatial information as they navigate through cities. Using three disparate cities as examples (Boston, Jersey City, and Los Angeles), Lynch reported that users understood their surroundings in consistent and predictable ways, forming mental maps with five elements.

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What does the city’s form actually mean to the people who live there? What can the city planner do to make the city’s image more vivid and memorable to the city dweller?

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Image of the Environment Legibility - Here the visual quality of the American city is considered by studying the mental image of that city held by its citizens. The concentration is on one particular visual quality: the apparent clarity or “legibility” of the cityscape. Building the image - Environmental images are the result of a two –way process between the observer and his environment. The image of a given reality may vary significantly between different observers. Structure and Identity – it says, an environmental image may be analyzed into three components: identity, structure and meaning.

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The Three Cities Analyses are made of the central areas of three American cities: Boston , Massachusetts; Jersey City , New Jersey; and Los Angeles , California. Boston is unique in character among American cities, being both vivid in form and full of locational difficulties. Jersey City was chosen for its apparent formlessness, for what seemed, on first observation, to be its extremely low order of imageability. Los Angeles is a new city, of an utterly different scale, and with a gridiron plan in its central area. in every case a central area of approximately 2 ½ by 1 ½ miles was taken for study. A systematic field survey was made by a trained observer, who mapped the presence of various elements, their visibility, their image strength or weakness, and their connections, disconnections, and other interrelations. Also any special successes or difficulties in the potential image structure were mapped. A lengthy interview was held with a small sample of city residents to evoke their own images of their physical environment. The interviews included requests descriptions, locations, and sketches, and for performance of imaginary trips.

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Elements of the City: Concept of place legibility Legibility is a term used to describe the ease with which people can understand the layout of a place . By making questionnaire surveys, Lynch defined a method of analyzing legibility based on five elements: paths, edges, districts, nodes and landmarks. Public image of any given city is the overlap of many individual images. The contents of city images studied, which are referable to physical forms, are classified into five types of elements. None of the element types isolated above exist in isolation in the real case. Districts are structured with nodes, defined by edges, penetrated by paths and sprinkled with landmarks. Elements regularly overlap and pierce one another.

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Path Paths consists of the "channels along which the observer customarily, occasionally, or potentially moves". These can include streets, paths, transit routes, or any other defined path of movement. It is important to note that the paths an individual identifies may not correspond to a traditional street network. These are often the most predominant items in an individual's mental map as this is main mechanism for how they experience their city occasionally regularly

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Edges Edges provide the boundaries that separate one region from another, the seams that join two regions together, or the barriers that close one region from another. They are linear elements, but are not the paths along with the individual experiences the built environment. They can be physical edges such as shorelines, walls, railroad cuts, or edges of development, or they can be less well-defined edges that the individual perceives as a barrier.

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Districts Districts are "medium-to-large sections of the city". They are typically two-dimensional features, often held together by some commonality. The individual often enters into or passes through these districts. According to Lynch, most people use the concept of districts to define the broader structure of their city.

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Nodes Nodes are points within the city, strategically located, into which the individual enters (and which is often the main focal point to which she or he is traveling to or from). There are often junctions – a crossing or converging of paths. They often have a physical element such as a popular hangout for the individual or a plaza area. In many cases, the nodes are the centers of the district that they are in.

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Landmarks Landmarks are also a point-reference (similar to nodes). However, unlike nodes, which the individual enters during his or her travels, landmarks remain external features to the individual. They are often physical structures such as a building, sign, or geographic features (e.g. mountain). The range of landmarks is extensive, but the commonality is that there are used by the individual to better understand and navigate the built environment.

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Qualities of the Form

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Sense of the Whole The five elements- paths, edge, district, node and landmark must be considered simply as convenient empirical categories, within around which it has been possible to group the city image. The inter relationship of these various elements in different permutation and combination forms the whole of city image. But within this large framework of common factors forming the city image, there should be certain individual characteristics which gives the identity to the city.

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…Arturo Soria Y Mata Arturo Soria y Mata (1844-1920) was a Spanish urban planner. He was most famous for his Linear City (Ciudad Lineal) of Madrid.

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Arturo Soria y Mata is very well-known in the Spanish-speaking world.  His "linear city" ideas and model are often compared and contrasted with Ebenezer Howard's "garden city", and the two bodies of writing and pilot projects are roughly contemporary. The first real design for a linear city is probably made by Arturo Soria Y Mata, who around 1880 designed his Ciudad Lineal; a linear garden-city, connecting existing Spanish urban centre's, trying to diffuse the difference between urban and rural area's.

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The Concept of the Linear City The linear city was an urban plan for an elongated urban formation. The city would consist of a series of functionally specialized parallel sectors. Generally, the city would run parallel to a river and be built so that the dominant wind would blow from the residential areas to the industrial strip. The sectors of a linear city would be: a purely segregated zone for railway lines, a zone of production and communal enterprises, with related scientific, technical and educational institutions, a green belt or buffer zone with major highway, a residential zone, including a band of social institutions, a band of residential buildings and a "children's band", a park zone, and an agricultural zone with gardens and state-run farms ( sovkhozy in the Soviet Union). As the city expanded, additional sectors would be added to the end of each band, so that the city would become ever longer, without growing wider.

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Advantages It is capable of indefinite extension without seriously upsetting the balance of the whole, which is one of the most serious problems in enlarging the normal town. It ensures that the whole population is in close touch with the country side and affords opportunities for spectacular architectural and landscape effects Disadvantages It is quite impossible to arrange that all parts of the residential areas shall have equal access to local centres. The stopping points of public transport cannot be too close otherwise the service will be unduly slowed down and consequently it is reasonable for buildings to cluster at the stopping points.

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…Sir Ebenezer Howard Sir Ebenezer Howard (1850-1928) was a British Town Planner. He evolved the Garden City concept and it was published in 1898 as “Tomorrow” and re-issued with slight revisions in 1902 under the title “Garden Cities of Tomorrow”. In spite of criticism initially he created a model garden of Letchworth in 1903. He attacked the whole problem of the city’s development, not merely its physical growth but the inter-relationship of urban functions within the community and the integration of urban and rural patterns, for the utilisation of urban life on one hand and the intellectual and social improvement of rural life on the other.

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The theory of the “Three Magnets “ To understand the concept of the Garden City it is necessary to study the his theory of 3 magnets, which formed the bacground of his concept. As a sum effect of Industrialisation, Mechanisation and Automation the migration to urban centres incresed rapidly which had employment oppurtunities, better social advantages and recreational facilities. In spite of this on one side he found the rural areas or countryside having beauty of nature, fresh air and water and low cost of living have attraction for another group of people. He carefully analyzed the merits and demerits of these two areas and concluded that if a third area is introduced which has advantages of both and disadvantages of neither, the direction of growth may be checked. This he called the 3 magnets. The town and country should be married together and out of this joyous union he hoped new life, new civilization may spring up in future.

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The Garden City A town in which the land would remain in the single ownership of the community. Six boulevards –each 36m wide- traverse the city from centre to circumstance, dividing it into six equal parts. In the centre is a circular space allotted for garden. Public buildings like Theatre, Museum, Concert Hall, Library, Hospital surrounds the garden. The plan provides the walk way beyond the garden. The residential dwellings would be distributed beyond the public buildings. The shopping centre would be on the eedge of the town whereas industries are on the outskirts. The total poulation will be 32000 extending over and area of 1000 acres. A permanent agriculatural belt of 5000 acres would surround the entire city.

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A Garden City Section Social City- Diagram illustrating correct principle of a city’s growth-open country ever near at hand and rapid communication between off-shoots

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A Schematic Sketch of the Garden City Concept

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Letchworth Garden City An area of 4500 acres, 55km from London. Maximum population fixed at 35000 and the agricultural belt was about 3000 acres. The zoning regulations are strictly enforced, the use of specific areas for specific purposes. Of the 1500 acres of the town 935 acres were reserved for residential use with density of 12 families per acre, 170 acres for industry, 60 acres for shopping and the remaining for parks and roads. in 30 years the town had grown to a population of 15,000 with more than 150 shops and 60 industries. In 1962 the population grew to 26000 with more than 250 shops and 100 industries.

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…Clarence Perry The idea of the neighbourhood unit was presented by Mr. Clarence Perry in a sociological conference held in 1923 and later applied into a regional plan of the New York City in 1929. While living in the “garden suburb” of Forest Hills Gardens, NY, he worked on his scheme for the “ neighbourhood unit ” – a self-contained residential area that would be bounded by streets, with shops at the intersections and a school in the middle. This concept was covered in his book Housing for the Mechanic Age.

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Neigborhood and Sprawl

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The Principle/Philosophy The neighbourhood unit was designed to create a semi-public space within newly industrialising American cities that offered limited opportunities of incoming workers and workers´children to integrate and foster a community spirit in an alienated urban environment. Opposed to an increasing distances between places of residency and places of work it was focused on a walker metrics, i. e. the city layout where key points are not located further than within an average walking distance. The local school or a church were considered to be central nodes of the unit. The number of children at school or members of the congregation thus determined limits of the neighbourhood district, ranging from 5000 to 10 000 respecting a number of expected density of population. Desired proximity of local shops was about a quarter of mile within the district, the distance of the school from the borders of the district was half a mile max.

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Neighbourhood Unit Perry described the neighbourhood unit as that populated area which would require and support an elementary school with an enrolment of between 1000 and 1200 pupils . This would mean a population of between 5000 and 6000 people , developed as low density dwelling units with a population density of 10 families per acre. The neighbourhood unit would occupy about 160 acres and have an area of influence of 2.4km to school. In a neighbourhood unit it is necessary for a child to walk a distance not more than 2.4km to school. About 10% of the area would be ear-marked for recreation. Traffic would be segregated and the arterial roads would be confined to the surroundings. Internal streets are limited to service access for residents of the neighbourhood. The unit would be served by shopping facilities, churches, and a library at easy walking distances. He community center is located near the school.

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Benefits Compact in Size Mix of Uses Network of Streets Public Open Spaces Building Typologies Parking Strategies Transit Oppurtunities Compatibility & Predictability

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…Frank Lloyd Wright Frank Lloyd Wright (born Frank Lincoln Wright , June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was an American architect, interior designer, writer and educator , who designed more than 1,000 projects , which resulted in more than 500 completed works . Wright promoted organic architecture (exemplified by Falling water), was a leader of the Prairie School movement of architecture (exemplified by the Robie House, the Westcott House, and the Darwin D. Martin House), and developed the concept of the Usonian home (exemplified by the Rosenbaum House). His work includes original and innovative examples of many different building types, including offices, churches, schools, skyscrapers, hotels, and museums. Wright also often designed many of the interior elements of his buildings, such as the furniture and stained glass.

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Frank Lloyd Wright's utopian model came about in response to the social and economic misfortunes of the Great Depression . The 1929 stock market crash strengthened Wright's belief that "the nation needed a change in its physical and economic organization". The change that Wright suggested was to be brought through a model that decentralized the physical and the social power of the modern city, with the inclusive fusion of Jeffersonian democratic ideals with technology. As a result, what came about was Wright's development of a city model that was " designed to give space, air, and beauty to every individual in the community" so as to bring about the "possibility of greater individual development for everyone in our democratic society " (Emersonian) His Thought

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Broadacres was to accommodate at least one acre per individual (adult or child) since at that time there was fifty-seven green acres available per person in the United States. This would eventually lead to a density of about 500 persons per square mile, which is “scandalously low” In this landscape, each entity was enveloped in some kind of “green space”. Entities included factories, skyscrapers, schools, places of worship and places of recreation. The area was fed by super-highways (at least 6 lanes) which feeds into progressively smaller roadways, the size of which was determined by the use of the associated entities (that is, main roads had at least 4 lanes and residential streets were the most narrow often ending in cul-de-sacs). Railways and truck right-of-ways were to remain separate and out of sight from main thoroughfares. Wright also despised the city’s “wires on poles” and proposed the placing of utility lines underground. The Broadacre City

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Other aesthetic contributions included no open drainage along roadways, large-scale landscaping over the entire site (including broad views of native vegetation), and all terminal buildings and warehouses were restricted to ports of entry or under tracks (this is the only area for which concentration is permitted). Other elements include fuelling and service stations, and county seats would be located at various important intersections; underground refuges (for times of war) would be kept as storage units during times of peace along or under railways; highways would be built with the terrain at safe grades; road construction would be done by the regional governing agency but supervised by architects, landscape architects and structural engineers; and minor flight stations would be installed for the safe landing, takeoff and storage of private flight vehicles.

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…Le Corbusier Le Corbusier (born Charles-Eduard Jeanneret , June 8, 1887 – April 9, 1965) was a painter, architect, town planner and writer . He assumed the name Le-Corbusier from his French ancestors to distinguish between two of his multiple personalities- those of Painter and Architect. As a town planner, he had designed the Voisin Plan for Paris, Plan for Barcelona, Projects for Algeria, Stockholm and Anvers. The most important plans were Chandigarh and new town of Vomous. Most of his plans for ideal cities are Utopian conception. The Utopian schemes are La Ville Contemporaine ( Contemporary City), La Ville Radiense Radiant City), Plan Voisin for the Centre of Paris, construction of St. Die, the Linear Town and the Plan for Algiers.

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Concepts Space – The two to one interior space has been a recurrent theme in all Corbusier theme in all Corbusier’s works. Hollow cubes animated by contrasting geometric volumes like spiral stairs, cylindrical chimneys, columns and other objects. Roof Garden – Corbusier treated roof gardens as an architectural space, a play animated by forms which would give its space, light and shade, life and scale. Vertical Street – He realized from the start that he had go up, and to use space in high buildings, and to locate the towers very far apart. So he built his buildings on stilts divorcing his buildings from ground and also placed the necessary facilities along this street. Materials Used – Le Corbusier always used the natural materials for construction purposes such as wood, slate and stones. He was wedded to concrete not only because it was a modern material but because it was the most plastic and expressively sculptured material. Modular – Through out his life he has searched for a rule of law in art – The Modular - His concept is not a system of repetition, but rather a system of related proportions based upon the the ancient golden section.

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Basic Elements of Modern City Planning A New Scale : In city planning determined by the use of the automobile and by the application of new building techniques find a clean expression in his works. Relate all varied technical factors that enter in city planning like establishing proper channels for the mechanized means of transportation, he leaves the ground floor free for the man to walk. Automobiles and Man remained the measure of all things. Use of Natural Elements : He judiciously used landscaped area with trees and plants to humanize the city and to create a rich pattern by contrasting natural forms with architectural forms geometrically. Giving a civic character to the place. Planned fro high density population. Different roads for different purposes. Completely segregated vehicular traffic and pedestrian traffic. His projects are classified not only according to functions but also each is given a particular character.

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The Vertical City Flat site, for it has less traffic problems. No river crossing the site. The population shall consists of propoer citizens of the city, suburban dwellers,, and mixed kind. Three divisions- The City, Industrial City and Garden City. Density of population to be increased. Increase open spaces and diminish the distances to be covered. Three levels of street based on traffic Three categories for traffic- Heavy goods traffic, Lighter goods traffic-which make short journeys and Fast traffic. Below ground there would be street for heavy traffic, Lighter traffic at ground level, Fast traffic on immense reinforced concrete bridges 120-180 yards in width in the cardinal directions. One station at the centre of the city. Two storeys above and two storeys below. Above for aero-taxis and below for tube station.

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La Ville Contemporaies (Contemporary City) The City of Tomorrow At the centre - 24 skyscrapers capable of housing 10000-50000 employees, business and hotel section, accounts for 400,000 to 600.000 nhabitants. Residential blocks around accounting for 600,000 inhabitants. Garden Cities give a further 2,000,000 inhabitants. Central open space having cafes, restaurants luxury shops, halls of various kinds. Each plot to be of 400 yards square and it will have great open spaces of around 3,600,000 sq.yards on all sides. Density at the cnetral businees zone to be 1200 persons per acre and in the residential 120 persons per acre. The Open Spaces area at the centre will be 95 percent and in the residential poskets 85 percent. Educational and civic centres, Universities, Museums of art and Industry. Public Services and County Hall. All around the city a protected zone of woods and green fields. On one side of the business zone will be Administration and on the other hand Industries. A social stratification in the allotment of houses.

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La Ville Radieuse (Radiant City) The previous plan is considerably revised to allow normal organic growth of the city. Le Corbusier came to belief that the “essence of the city is the dwelling area”. It occupied the most central location with possible expansions on the right and left towards the open country. The civic centre is on the main axis, the business area on the top, light manufacturing, freight wards and heavy industries at the bottom.

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The Linear Industrial City A unit of industrial production – in 1945, Le Corbusier espoused the theory of Linear Industrial City. New Industrial communities are located along the main arteries of transportation – water, rail and highway- connecting existing cities. Factories- the green factories- are placed along the main transportation routes, separated from residential section by the auto-highway and green strips. The residential areas include the horizontal garden town of single houses and vertical apartment buildings with its compliments of commercial facilities. Sports entertainment, shopping and office facilities are distributed in the district and all the facilities of the community are placed within ample open space enhanced with nature. The industrial groups are placed at intervals along the highways and railways linking the existing citites.

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thats it……

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