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Premium member Presentation Transcript PowerPoint Presentation: THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEMPowerPoint Presentation: THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Overview : The Digestive System is a complex process that simultaneously turns consumed food into energy while also creating waste to exit the body.PowerPoint Presentation: THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM The digestive system organs are separated into two major groups: the alimentary canal , or gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and the accessory digestive organs. The alimentary canal is about 9 m long and consists of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, and small and large intestines. The accessory structures include the teeth, salivary glands, gallbladder, liver, and pancreas. SEE NEXT SLIDE FOR FULL DIAGRAMPowerPoint Presentation: THE VITAL CONNECTION Like other bodily systems, the connection between the cells, tissues, and organs of the Digestive System are crucial to its overall functioning and effectiveness.PowerPoint Presentation: CELLS: DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Specialized Cells Epithial Cells (Stomach ): located on the inner surface of the stomach, these cells secrete around two liters of gastric juices a day. These juices contain ingredients – such as hydrochloric acid, pepsinogen, and mucus – which aid in the process of digestion. They also secrete special mucus, gastric mucosa, that helps form a barrier between the cells and stomach acids. Exocrine Cells (Pancreas): these secrete digestive enzymes into the small intestine and form clusters of endocrine cells, know as pancreatic islets. The islets then secrete insulin and glucagon, which are hormones that help regulate blood glucose levels. Goblet Cells (lining of digestive tract): predominately found on the lining of the digestive tract, goblet cells main role is to produce mucus. Mucus helps protect the body from abrasive objects, such as food, and also helps lubricate the digestive tract to allow food to travel more fluidly.PowerPoint Presentation: CELLS: DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Epithial Cells Exocrine Cells Goblet CellsPowerPoint Presentation: TISSUES: DIGESTIVE SYSTEM The stomach is composed of four layers of tissue: Mucosa: the innermost layer of the stomach, the mucosa is composed of a wet epithelial membrane. Its major functions are the secretion of enzymes, mucus, and hormones. Additionally, this layer of tissue aids in the absorption of digested foods and helps fight off its own digestive secretions. Submucosa: surrounding the mucosa, the submucosa is composed of various connective tissues, blood vessels, and nerves. The blood supply of the submucosa provides nutrients to the wall of the stomach. Nervous tissue in the submucosa monitors the contents of the stomach and controls smooth muscle contraction and secretion of digestive substances . Muscularis : surrounding the submucosa, the muscularis amounts to a large portions of the stomach’s mass. Within the muscularis are three layers smooth muscle tissue . These smooth muscle tissues, composed of various fibers, allow the stomach to contract , to mix, and to propel food through the digestive tract . Serosa: the outermost layer of the stomach is the serosa. The serosa is smooth and slippery. The smooth, wet surface of the serosa helps to protect the stomach from friction as it expands in the process of digestion. Endocrine and Exocrine Tissue: These tissue are found in the pancreas. Exocrine tissue secretes pancreatic juice, while endocrine tissue secretes the hormones insulin and glucagon. Both secretions are vital to digestion and controlling one’s metabolism.PowerPoint Presentation: TISSUES: DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Cross-Sections of Stomach Tissue Exocrine Tissue Endocrine TissuePowerPoint Presentation: ORGANS: DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Stomach : located in between the esophagus and small-intestine, the stomach is a muscular system that plays a critical role in digestion. The main functions include: storing food : the stomach can expand, allowing food to be temporarily stored prior to undergoing digestion. physical break down of food : muscles in the stomach move in a “churning motion” that aid in the physical process of breaking down food. chemical break down of food : the stomach secretes acids and enzymes that allow food to be chemically broke down. For example, the enzyme pepsin is responsible for protein breakdown. controls food : the stomach regulates the amount of food that enters the small intestine in a regulated manner. Pancreas: located in the the upper abdomen, the pancreas is an organ that has two main functions in the body: makes enzymes, which aid in the digestion of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates makes hormones such as insulin which controls how the body uses and stores sugar (glucose), its main source of energy.PowerPoint Presentation: ORGANS : DIGESTIVE SYSTEM The Stomach The PancreasPowerPoint Presentation: BIBLIOGRAPHY INFORMATION: www.biology- innovation.co.uk http://www.teachpe.com/anatomy/human_digestive_system.php#a heboard.byu.edu - www.vivo.colostate.edu http://www.laparoscopic.md/digestion/stomach http://pancreasfoundation.org/aboutpancreatitis/about-the-pancreas/ IMAGES: www.lab.anhb.uwa.edu.au www.vetmed.vt.edu www.scoopweb.com - mohawkcampfire.blogspot.com www.jltacademystudents.com You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.