Bicyclist Safety and Law Enforcement - Cary Edition, Abbreviated

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Bicyclist Safety and Law Enforcement:

Bicyclist Safety and Law Enforcement Narrated by Steven Goodridge League Certified Instructor #1690

Why receive training in bicycling issues?:

Why receive training in bicycling issues?

Types of Bicyclist Crashes (Nationwide):

Types of Bicyclist Crashes (Nationwide)

Car-Bike Collisions in Cary:

Car-Bike Collisions in Cary 158 car-bike collisions in Cary 1997-2008 No fatalities Injury severity does not correlate with any particular crash type in Cary

Types of Car-Bike Collisions in Cary 1997-2008:

Types of Car-Bike Collisions in Cary 1997-2008

Motorist Drive-Out/Through (36%):

Motorist Drive-Out/Through (36%) X Most involve cyclists on sidewalk X

Bicyclist Ride-Out/Through (15%):

Bicyclist Ride-Out/Through (15%) X

Motorist Left Turn/Merge (8%):

Motorist Left Turn/Merge (8%) X

Motorist Overtaking (8%):

Motorist Overtaking (8%) X 60% are hit-and-run

Motorist Right Turn/Merge:

Motorist Right Turn/Merge X

Contributing Factors:

Contributing Factors Bicyclist wrong way (40%) Bicyclist on sidewalk (35%) Darkness (15%) Distracted driving

Laws Applicable to Bicyclists and Other Drivers:

Laws Applicable to Bicyclists and Other Drivers

Bicyclists are Drivers of Vehicles:

Bicyclists are Drivers of Vehicles § 20-4.01(49) Vehicle. – …for the purposes of this Chapter bicycles shall be deemed vehicles and every rider of a bicycle upon a highway shall be subject to the provisions of this Chapter applicable to the driver of a vehicle except those which by their nature can have no application.

Basic Rules of the Road:

Basic Rules of the Road Yield to traffic already in the road ahead Drive on right half of the roadway Yield before entering a more important roadway Yield before moving laterally Destination positioning at intersections Speed positioning between intersections

1. Yield to traffic already in the road ahead:

1. Yield to traffic already in the road ahead Faster drivers must yield to slower and stopped traffic ahead Must limit speed so stopping distance < sight distance

1. Yield to Traffic Already in the Road Ahead:

1. Yield to Traffic Already in the Road Ahead § 20-141. Speed restrictions. (a) No person shall drive a vehicle on a highway or in a public vehicular area at a speed greater than is reasonable and prudent under the conditions then existing. … (m) The fact that the speed of a vehicle is lower than the foregoing limits shall not relieve the operator of a vehicle from the duty to decrease speed as may be necessary to avoid colliding with any person, vehicle or other conveyance on or entering the highway, and to avoid injury to any person or property. § 20-140. Reckless driving. (b) Any person who drives any vehicle upon a highway or any public vehicular area without due caution and circumspection and at a speed or in a manner so as to endanger or be likely to endanger any person or property shall be guilty of reckless driving.

2. Drive on the Right Half of the Roadway:

2. Drive on the Right Half of the Roadway Where is right-turning motorist looking?

3. Yield before Entering a More Important Roadway:

3. Yield before Entering a More Important Roadway Stopping increases the reliability of the yield

4. Yield before Moving Laterally:

4. Yield before Moving Laterally Yielding requires looking back Signaling alone is not adequate

5. Destination Positioning at Intersections :

5. Destination Positioning at Intersections [§ 20‑153]

5. Destination Positioning at Intersections :

5. Destination Positioning at Intersections [§ 20‑153]

5. Destination Positioning at Intersections:

5. Destination Positioning at Intersections Right hook = right-turning motorist to left of thru cyclist Cyclists shall not pass on right unless separate lane Thru cyclists help deter right hooks by riding in line with thru traffic at intersections Right hook = right-turning motorist to left of thru cyclist Cyclists shall not pass on right unless separate lane [§ 20‑150.1]

6. Speed Positioning between Intersections:

6. Speed Positioning between Intersections Faster traffic passes on the left Slower traffic uses the rightmost lane for their destination If no lanes are marked, slower drivers operate as far right as is safe and practical [§ 20-146 (b)] Drivers may pass only when it is clearly safe to do so

Bicyclists May Use Full Lane:

Bicyclists May Use Full Lane “Bicyclists usually ride on the right side of the lane, but are entitled to use the full lane …. Drivers wishing to pass a bicyclist may do so only when there is abundant clearance and no oncoming traffic is in the opposing lane. When passing a bicyclist, always remember the bicyclist is entitled to use of the full lane .” - North Carolina Driver's Handbook, p.95. http://www.ncdot.gov/dmv/driver/

Space Required for Safe Passing:

Space Required for Safe Passing NC: 2’ minimum passing distance for all vehicles But bicyclist safety requires 3’ minimum Safe passing at >3’ requires at least 14’ width Motorists usually must move into next lane

Lane Control = Defensive Cycling:

Lane Control = Defensive Cycling Motorists often misjudge space when: Lane is narrow and Cyclist is at right edge of lane Riding near center of narrow lane reduces unsafe passing, sideswipes

Road Position and Sight Lines:

Road Position and Sight Lines Bicyclists increase their visibility at junctions by riding farther from the road edge

Special Laws and Exemptions Related to Bicycling:

Special Laws and Exemptions Related to Bicycling

Bicyclists Cannot Be Cited for Impeding Traffic:

Bicyclists Cannot Be Cited for Impeding Traffic § 20-141. (h) No person shall operate a motor vehicle on the highway at such a slow speed as to impede the normal and reasonable movement of traffic except when reduced speed is necessary for safe operation or in compliance with law; provided, this provision shall not apply to farm tractors and other motor vehicles operating at reasonable speeds for the type and nature of such vehicles.

Riding Side-by-Side:

Riding Side-by-Side Bicyclists may ride no more than two abreast in Cary (two abreast is legal) Riding abreast means matching speed; does not affect bicyclists passing others

Lighting Requirements for Bicyclists at Night:

Lighting Requirements for Bicyclists at Night A white headlamp plus a red rear lamp or red rear reflector are legally required for bicycling at night [§ 20-129.(e)]

Bike Headlamp Required for Visibility at Intersections:

Bike Headlamp Required for Visibility at Intersections Bike Headlamp Visibility Arc Car headlamps do not illuminate crossing bicyclist’s reflectors early enough to prevent collisions

Helmet Required for Children <16:

Helmet Required for Children <16 Children under 16 are required to wear a bicycle helmet on all public paths and roads Helmet must be level to protect front of head Most falls strike front Bike helmets are designed to provide protection in falls and collisions up to 14 mph Most child cyclist head injuries are from falls Falls are more common off road

“Bicycle Facilities” and Markings:

“Bicycle Facilities” and Markings

Shared Lane Markings (Sharrows):

Shared Lane Markings (Sharrows) Remind motorists to expect cyclists in the travel lanes Have no legal meaning

Signed Bike Routes:

Signed Bike Routes Identify pleasant routes for cycling Have no legal meaning

Paved Shoulders:

Paved Shoulders Legally optional for bicyclists to use May feature safety hazards including Poor surface conditions Obstructions Inadequate usable width Inadequate sight lines Increased junction conflicts

Striped Bike Lanes:

Striped Bike Lanes Legally optional for cyclists Similar safety hazards as paved shoulders Increase hazard of right-hook collisions Some feature dooring hazards

Bicycling on Sidewalks:

Bicycling on Sidewalks Legal in Cary Increases crash rate (vs. roadway)

Enforcement Actions:

Enforcement Actions

Priority Violations by Motorists:

Priority Violations by Motorists Failure to yield at crosswalks, sidewalks Passing a bicyclist when unsafe or passing too closely Failure to yield when turning left DWI & Distracted driving

Assaults:

Assaults Intentional acts to threaten or endanger are criminal assaults, not traffic violations

Priority Violations by Cyclists:

Priority Violations by Cyclists Cycling against traffic Cycling at night without lights Failure to yield at stop signs or when entering the roadway Failure to obey functional traffic signals

Stopping a Bicyclist – No License Plate or License:

Stopping a Bicyclist – No License Plate or License Advise dispatch of the location and a description of the bicyclist Ask to see some form of identification If no ID, proceed with normal investigative techniques to elicit the bicyclist’s proper information

Writing a Citation –Vehicle Type:

Writing a Citation –Vehicle Type When issuing a citation using eCITATION, select “Bicycle” on “Vehicle Type” screen

Offense Screen:

Offense Screen Un-check “motor” Leave “Vehicular” checked

Group Rides:

Group Rides Legal status Group dynamics Outreach Enforcement strategies

Conclusion:

Conclusion Following the basic rules of the road allows drivers of all vehicle types to reach their destinations of choice safely. Educational materials on bike maps can be obtained from the Cary Parks and Recreation or the Cary Planning Department Google “Cary Bicycle Plan”

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