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INTRODUCTION… Transport in the Republic of India is an important part of the nation's economy. Today in the country we have a wide variety of modes of transport by land, water and air. India’s transport sector is large and diverse, it caters to the needs of 1.1 5billion people.

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The nation has just 13 million cars on its roads which is just over 1% of the country’s population. In addition only 10% of the Indian households own a motorcycle. In India, public transport still remains the primary mode of transport. Indian railways is the largest and fourth most heavily utilized system in the world.

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Walking Palanquin Bullock carts and horse carriages Bicycles Hand-pulled rickshaws Cycle rickshaws Trams TRADITIONAL MEANS

Modern transportation…:

Modern transportation… These are the major means of transportation now a days: Railways Road ways Air ways Water ways


Railways Indian Railways is one of the largest railways under single management. It carries some 17 million passengers and 2 million tons of freight a day and is one of the world’s largest employer. The railways play a leading role in carrying passengers and cargo across India's vast territory.

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The trains were introduced by the British in 1853. T he Indian railways improved a lot from then on to become the one of the longest railway networks in the world. There are 16 railway zones in India. There are almost 8000 railway stations in the country.

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Zonal Railways Headquarters Central Railway Mumbai CST Eastern Railway Kolkata Northern Railway New Delhi North Eastern Railway Gorakhpur North-East Frontier Railway Maligaon (Guwahati) Southern Railway Chennai South Central Railway Secunderabad South Eastern Railway Kolkata Western Railway Church Gate, Mumbai East Central Railway Hajipur East Coast Railway Bhubaneswar North Central Railway Allahabad North Western Railway Jaipur South East Central Railway Bilaspur South Western Railway Hubli West Central Railway Jabalpur

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The total route length of the railway network i s 64,061 km (39,806 mi ). About 46% of the railway route is electrified. The Indian railways uses 4 gauges: broad gauge, standard gauge, meter gauge, narrow gauge.

Notable trains and achievements…:

Notable trains and achievements… There are two UNESCO World Heritage Sites on IR — the Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus and the Mountain railways of India. The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, a narrow gauge railway in West Bengal. The Nilgiri Mountain Railway, a meter gauge railway in the Nilgiri Hills in Tamil Nadu. The Kalka-Shimla Railway, a narrow gauge railway in the Shivalik mountains in Himachal Pradesh

Road transport…:

Road transport… Roads are the dominant mode of transportation in India today. They carry almost 90 percent of the country’s passenger traffic and 65 percent of its freight. The density of India’s highway network -- at 0.66 km of highway per square kilometer of land – is similar to that of the United States (0.65) and much greater than China's (0.16) or Brazil's (0.20).

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However, most highways in India are narrow and congested with poor surface quality, and 40 percent of India’s villages do not have access to all-weather roads . Road network of India is the largest road networks(3.314 million kilometers ) in the world . India's road network consists of national highways, state highways, district roads and village roads.


Type of Road Length Expressways 200 km (120 mi) National Highways 66,590 km (41,380 mi) State Highways 131,899 km (81,958 mi) Major District Roads 467,763 km (290,654 mi) Rural and Other Roads 2,650,000 km (1,650,000 mi) Total Length 3,300,000 km (2,050,000 mi) (Approx) Statistics….

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National Highway classification Lanes Length (km) Percentage Single Lane / Intermediate lane 18,350 27% Double lane 39,079 59% Four Lane/Six lane/Eight Lane 9,325 14% Total 66,754 100%

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Mumbai Pune Expressway

Air transportation…:

Air transportation… There are many airlines which are operating in India. The Air India, India's flag carrier, presently operates a fleet of 159 aircraft and plays a major role in connecting India with the rest of the world. The other airlines such as Kingfisher Airlines, Air India and Jet Airways are the most popular brands in domestic air travel in order of their market share.

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These airlines connect more than 80 cities across India and also operate overseas routes after the liberalization of Indian aviation. The rapid growth in the economy of India has made air travel more affordable now a days. There are more than 335 (2008 est.) civilian airports in India - 250 with paved runways and 96 with unpaved runways and more than 20 international airports in the Republic of India.

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There are almost 220 airports in India .these include all types of airports. Out of which 27 are international airports. Others include domestic airports, air force based airports and etc…

The market share of different airlines in India… :

The market share of different airlines in India…

Water and sea transport…:

Water and sea transport…

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Coastline Ports Maritime transportation It has a fleet of 79 ships of 27 lacs GT (48 lacs DWT) and also manages 53 research, survey and support vessels of 1.2 Lacs GT (0.6 Lacs DWT) on behalf of various government departments and other organizations. Navigable waterways

Types of water transport….:

Types of water transport…. Inland water transport Ocean transport

National waterways….:

National waterways…. Allahabad Saidiya Kollam Bhadrachalam Mangalgadi

Major ports of India:

Major ports of India


Constraints…. Ships have to wait long for berthing. Manual handling and poor labor productivity. Old type of equipment. Draft restrictions. Night navigation unavailable. Poor availability of railway wagons and road trucks. Insufficient warehousing. Tardy procedure.


Conclusion…. The key concepts in todays world -economy derive their existence because of the physical and electronic linkages developed by the technology. It constitutes the basic linkage between the supply and demand centers. Peaks and troughs in the demand of transportation.

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Public nature of transport infrastructure. Relationship between the nature of the individual commodities and the modes of transportation preferred by the commodity. Modes of transportation used for bulk freight traffic. Over years inland freight traffic has been shifting from rail to road.


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