Computer Basics

Category: Education

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1/2/2010 2 A device that computes, especially a programmable electronic machine that performs high-speed mathematical or logical operations or that assembles, stores, correlates, or otherwise processes information. Full form of computer is – C - commono - operatingm - machinep - particularlyu - used fort - technicale - educational andr - research Definition

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1/2/2010 3 Here, with B.C.Era we mean Before Computer Era. Before the present day computers, there were many calculating machines, which were just a big chunk of machinery, unable to compete with the present day computers. They were slow, expensive, difficult to operate and assemble, required high amount of power, high maintenance cost, their use was restricted to the big companies and laboratories. B.C. Era

Some of those machines were- : 

1/2/2010 4 Some of those machines were- JACQURD LOOM HARWARD MARK I

1/2/2010 5 IBM 7090 ENIAC

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1/2/2010 6 EDSAC APPLE II

Modern Computers : 

1/2/2010 7 Modern Computers The modern day computers are more efficient as they are easy to assemble, use, they are cheaper, have Graphical User Interface, and so on. All the components of computer make it user friendly and useful. Few of the components of a computer are- monitor CPU mouse keyboard headset microphone

1/2/2010 8 printer scanner CD drive floppy drive Speakers, etc…

1/2/2010 9 A monitor or display (sometimes called a visual display unit) is a piece of electrical equipment which displays images generated by devices such as computers, without producing a permanent record. The monitor comprises the display device, circuitry, and an enclosure. The display device in modern monitors is typically a thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD), while older monitors use a cathode ray tube (CRT). Monitor

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1/2/2010 10 The Central Processing Unit (CPU) or processor is the brains of the computer. Sometimes referred to simply as the central processor, but more commonly called processor, the CPU is where most calculations take place. In terms of computing power, the CPU is the most important element of a computer system. Two typical components of a CPU are the following: The arithmetic logic unit (ALU), which performs arithmetic and logical operations. The control unit (CU), which extracts instructions from memory and decodes and executes them, calling on the ALU when necessary. CPU

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1/2/2010 11 A mouse (plural mouses, mice, or mouse devices.) is a pointing device that functions by detecting two-dimensional motion relative to its supporting surface. Physically, a mouse consists of an object held under one of the user's hands, with one or more buttons. It sometimes features other elements, such as "wheels", which allow the user to perform various system- dependent operations, or extra buttons or features can add more control or dimensional input. The mouse's motion typically translates into the motion of a pointer on a display, which allows for fine control of a Graphical User Interface. Mouse

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1/2/2010 12 A keyboard is an input device, partially modeled after the typewriter keyboard, which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys, to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches. A keyboard typically has characters engraved or printed on the keys and each press of a key typically corresponds to a single written symbol. However, to produce some symbols requires pressing and holding several keys simultaneously or in sequence. While most keyboard keys produce letters, numbers or signs (characters), other keys or simultaneous key presses can produce actions or computer commands. Keyboard

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1/2/2010 13 A headset is a headphone combined with a microphone. They have many uses including in call centers and other telephone-intensive jobs and for personal use at the computer to facilitate comfortable simultaneous conversation and typing. Headset

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1/2/2010 14 A printer is a peripheral which produces a hard copy (permanent readable text and/or graphics) of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper or transparencies. Many printers are primarily used as local peripherals, and are attached by a printer cable or, in most newer printers, a USB cable to a computer which serves as a document source. Some printers, commonly known as network printers, have built-in network interfaces (typically wireless and/or Ethernet), and can serve as a hardcopy device for any user on the network. Individual printers are often designed to support both local and network connected users at the same time. Printer

1/2/2010 15 In addition, a few modern printers can directly interface to electronic media such as memory sticks or memory cards, or to image capture devices such as digital cameras, scanners; some printers are combined with a scanner and/or fax machine in a single unit,and can function as photocopiers. Printers that include non-printing features are sometimes called Multifunction printers (MFP), Multi-Function Devices (MFD), or All-In-One (AIO) printers. Most MFPs include printing, scanning, and copying among their features.

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16 1/2/2010 scanner is a device that optically scans images, printed text, handwriting, or an object, and converts it to a digital image. Common examples found in offices are variations of the desktop (or flatbed) scanner where the document is placed on a glass window for scanning. Hand-held scanners, where the device is moved by hand, have evolved from text scanning "wands" to 3D scanners used for industrial design, reverse engineering, test and measurement, , gaming and other applications. Mechanically driven scanners that move the document are typically used for large-format documents, where a flatbed design would be impractical. Modern scanners typically use a charge-coupled device (CCD) or a Contact Image Sensor (CIS) as the image sensor. Scanner

17 1/2/2010 Scanners

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1/2/2010 18 CD-ROM drives are necessary today for most programs. A single CD can store up to 650 MB of data (newer CD-Rs allow for 700 MB of data, perhaps more with "over burn"). Fast CD-ROM drives have been a big topic in the past, but all of today's CD-ROM drives are sufficiently fast. Of course, it's nice to have the little bits of extra speed. However, when you consider CD-ROM drives are generally used just to install a program or copy CDs, both of which are usually done rarely on most users' computers, the extra speed isn't usually very important.  The speed can play a big role if you do a lot of CD burning at high speeds or some audio extraction from audio CDs (i.e. converting CDs to MP3s). CD-ROM Drive

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1/2/2010 19 Computer speakers, or multimedia speakers, are speakers external to a computer, that disable the lower fidelity built-in speaker. They often have a low-power internal amplifier. Computer speakers range widely in quality and in price. The computer speakers typically packaged with computer systems are small plastic boxes with mediocre sound quality. Some of the slightly better computer speakers have equalization features such as bass and treble controls, improving their sound quality somewhat. Some computer displays have rather basic speakers built-in. Laptops come with integrated speakers. Unfortunately the tight restriction on space inevitable in laptops means these speakers unavoidably produce low-quality sound. Speakers

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1/2/2010 20 There are several uses of computers: - Word Processing - Word Processing software automatically corrects spelling and grammar mistakes. If the content of a document repeats you don’t have to type it each time. You can use the copy and paste features. You can printout documents and make several copies. It is easier to read a word-processed document than a handwritten one. You can add images to your document. Internet - It is a network of almost all the computers in the world. You can browse through much more information than you could do in a library. That is because computers can store enormous amounts of information. You also have very fast and convenient access to information. Through E-Mail you can communicate with a person sitting thousands of miles away in seconds. There is chat software that enables one to chat with another person on a real-time basis. Video conferencing tools are becoming readily available to the common man. Benefits

1/2/2010 21 Computers in Medicine - You can diagnose diseases. You can learn the cures. Software is used in magnetic resonance imaging to examine the internal organs of the human body. Software is used for performing surgery. Computers are used to store patient data. Mathematical Calculations - Thanks to computers, which have computing speeds of over a million calculations per second we can perform the biggest of mathematical calculations. Banks - All financial transactions are done by computer software. They provide security, speed and convenience. Travel - One can book air tickets or railway tickets and make hotel reservations online. Telecommunications - Software is widely used here. Also all mobile phones have software embedded in them Defense - There is software embedded in almost every weapon. Software is used for controlling the flight and targeting in ballistic missiles. Software is used to control access to atomic bombs.

1/2/2010 22 E-Learning – Instead of a book it is easier to learn from an E-learning software. Examinations-You can give online exams and get instant results. You can check your examination results online. Computers in Business - Shops and supermarkets use software, which calculate the bills. Taxes can be calculated and paid online. Accounting is done using computers. One can predict future trends of business using artificial intelligence software. Software is used in major stock markets. One can do trading online. There are fully automated factories running on software. Certificates - Different types of certificates can be generated. It is very easy to create and change layouts. ATM machines - The computer software authenticates the user and dispenses cash.

1/2/2010 23 Robotics - Robots are controlled by software. Aeroplanes – Pilots train on software, which simulates flying. Weather analysis – Supercomputers are used to analyze and predict weather. Marriage - There are matrimonial sites through which one can search for a suitable groom or bride. News-There are many websites through which you can read the latest or old news.

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1/2/2010 24 1. Harmful for teenagers The computer is changing the mind of teenagers and college going students because of their own personal computers having internet facility. They try to browse all those porn or those forbidden sites. They have learned hacking the trusted passwords of companies and destroying all their useful information thus committing the crime. Students learn all that is apart from their studies and that is the use of weapons and other armaments and information on making dangerous bombs or alcohol and drugs. Another disadvantages of computers  for teenagers are the  violent computer games that they are so busy in it; and stop doing their homework, watching news and forgotten the current affairs of their country. They have become lazy enough to just sit on the internet or play games. These games have made them even shoot their hated colleagues. Even children have become obese and do no exercise to stay fit and fine. Parents should be extra attentive to know what their children are doing. Disadvantages

1/2/2010 25 2. Harmful for companies and banks Other disadvantages include frauds on internet banking by the various hackers who break the code and password and making the balance zero. Even online shopping is becoming perilous just because of the so called internet and the skilled hackers who have not left even hacking the credit cards or ATM cards. Thus all the companies are losing their confidential information and word of mouth with their customers and hence for them internet is not a boon as it was previously. In terms of security, the customers are losing trust be it Various credit card companies or banks providing internet facilities. Thus we see that if computers have the advantages then disadvantages are also not far behind. So nowadays a law is made to arrest all those who commit the crime to browse the porn or prohibited sites or hacking the useful information of people.

26 1/2/2010 This Is It !!!