pharmaceutical powders(pulvis)


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powders are solid dosage forms -Dispensing pharmacy


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PHARMACEUTICAL POWDERS ( PULVIS ) K.SENTHIL KUMAR M.Pharm Asst. Professor Dept.of Pharmaceutics QIS college of Pharmacy Ongole 12/2/2013 1 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P


INTRODUCTION Pharmaceutical powders are solid dosage forms of medicament in which one or more drugs are dispensed in finely divided state with or without excipients. They are available in crystalline or amorphous form . 12/2/2013 2 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P


ADVANTAGES It is used both internally and externally . It is more stable than liquid dosage form. It is convenient for the physician to prescribe a specific amount of powder On set of action is faster as compared to tablet, capsules .because it is easily in dissolved in body fluids Easy to carry Easy to administration to the patient orally by dissolving in suitable liquids 12/2/2013 3 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P


DISADVANTAGE Drugs have bitter taste , nausea and unpleasant taste cannot be administered in powder form . Deliquescent and hygroscopic drugs cannot be dispensed in powder form they are packed in double wrapping . Drugs which get affected by atmospheric condition are not suitable for dispense . Quantity less than 100 mg cannot be weighed conveniently . 12/2/2013 4 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P


GENERAL METHOD OF PREPARATION OF POWDERS During powdering , weighing and mixing there is a loss of powder which cannot be avoided . Therefore calculate extra quantity . Dispensing balance are not very sensitive . It is difficult to weigh the quantity less than 100 mg must be triturated with suitable diluents such as lactose . 12/2/2013 5 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P


METHODS OF MIXING OF POWDERS Spatulation Trituration Geometric dilution ‘ Sifting Tumbling 12/2/2013 6 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P


SPATULATION In this method mixing of powder is done by using a spatula through the powders on a sheet of a paper or porcelain tile. It is used for mixing of small quantity of powders It is not suitable for large quantity of powders . Glass tiles 12/2/2013 7 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P

Trituration : 

Trituration It is used to both reduce particle size and mix the powders. If a porcelain dish with rough inner surface is preferred to glass mortar with smooth surface (not stain ) Porcelain Glass 12/2/2013 8 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P


GEOMETRIC DILUTION It is used when potent drugs(less than 60mg ) are mixed with large amount of diluents . The potent drugs is placed equal with diluents in mortar and the substance are slightly mixed by trituration . 100 mg drug + 900 mg lactose =1000 mg powder 100 mg drug + 100 mg lactose = 200 mg of powder mixture 200 mg p. mixture + 200 mg lactose = 400 mg of p. mixture 400 mg p.mixture +400 mg lactose = 800 mg of p. mixture 800 mg p. mixture + 200 mg of lactose = 1000 mg of p.mixture 12/2/2013 9 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P

Sifting : 

Sifting The powders are mixed by passing through sifters . This process results in a light fluffy . It is not suitable for potent drugs . Sifter or sieve 12/2/2013 10 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P


Tumbling It is the process of mixing of powders in a large container rotated by an electric motor . 12/2/2013 11 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P


DISPENSING OF FOEMULATION 12/2/2013 12 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P


CLASSIFICATION OF POWDERS Bulk powders for internal use Bulk powders for external use Simple and compound powder for internal use Powders enclosed in cachets and capsules Compressed powders ( Tablets ) 12/2/2013 13 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P


BULK POWDERS FOR INTERNAL USE Powders are dispensed in bulk when accuracy of dosage is not important . They are supplied in wide mouthed container with spoon . 12/2/2013 14 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P

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E.g. Compound Rhubarb powders B.P.C (Gregory'spowder) Rhubarb powder 250 g Light magnesium carbonate 325 g Heavy magnesium carbonate 325 g Ginger in powder 100g Direction : 0.5 g to 5 gm to be taken twice a day . 12/2/2013 15 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P


BULK POWDERS FOR EXTERNAL USE Dusting powders Insufflations Snuffs Dentifrices The label must indicate powders for external use . 12/2/2013 16 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P


DUSTING POWDERS These are meant for external application to the skin . It is fine state to avoid local irritation . These powders passed through sieve no 85( 180µm) to get a fine powder. They are two types Medical dusting powder Surgical dusting powder 12/2/2013 17 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P


MEDICAL DUSTING POWDER Medical dusting powder are mainly used for superficial skin condition . Surgical dusting powders are used in body cavities or wound or umbilical cords of infants . It must be sterilized before used .( Hot air oven-160 o C) 12/2/2013 18 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P

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Dusting powders are generally prepared by mixing two or more ingredients (Talc/ Kaolin). DUSTING POWDERS contains antiseptic , astringent , antiperspirant ,anti pruritic. These may also applied with powder puff or sterilized gauze pad . 12/2/2013 19 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P

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Purified talc, sterilized 50.0 g Starch, in powder 25.0 g Zinc oxide, in powder 20.0 g Salicylic acid, in powder 5.0 g R x Direction: Applied on the affected part two or three times a day. 12/2/2013 20 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P


INSUFFLATION These are medicated dusting powder meant for application into body cavities like nose, throat , ear infection with the help of insufflators . It sprays the powder into a stream of finely powder . It is available in pressurized aerosol container . INSUFFLATOR AEROSOLS 12/2/2013 21 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P


SNUFFS These are finely divided solid dosage forms of medicament which are inhaled into nostrils . It contains antiseptics , bronchodilators ,decongestant . 12/2/2013 22 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P

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These are applied with the help of a tooth brush for cleaning the surface of the teeth . They contain detergent or soap , abrasive substance , flavor . DENTIFRICES :( TOOTH POWDER ) 12/2/2013 23 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P

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Hard soap, in fine powder 50.0 g Precipitated calcium carbonate 935.0 g Saccharin sodium 2.0 g Peppermint oil 4.0 ml Cinnamon oil 2.0 ml Methyl salicylate 8.0 ml Rx Direction: To be applied on the surface of the teeth with the help of tooth brush. 12/2/2013 24 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P


SIMPLE AND COMPOUND POWDERS FOR INTERNAL USE In this form of powder each individual dose is enclosed in paper . The number of ingredients may be one ( simple ) or more than one ( compound ) The minimum quantity of each powder shouldn’t less than 100 mg.So calculate one extra powder . 12/2/2013 25 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P

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Powder pocket 12/2/2013 26 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P

Simple powders: 

Simple powders Simple powders contains only one ingredients either in crystalline or amorphous form. When the powder is in crystal form it is reduced into fine powder . Weigh the powder and divided into number of doses and wrapped as individual doses . 12/2/2013 27 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P

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E.g. , Aspirin powder Aspirin - 300 mg Direction : one powder to be taken after every eight hours . 12/2/2013 28 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P

Compound powders: 

Compound powders These powders contain two or more than two substance which are mixed together and then divided into desired number of individual dosed and dispensed into each powder paper. E.g.. Powders of A.P.C Aspirin 300 mg P aracetamol 150 mg C affeine 50 mg 12/2/2013 29 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P


POWDERS ENCLOSED IN CACHETS : ( WAFER CAPSULE ) Cachets are the solid unit dosage form of drugs . These are molded from rice paper . which is made by pouring a mixture of rice flour and water between two hot polished cylinders . The water evaporates and a sheet of wafer is formed . 12/2/2013 30 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P

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Cachets are used to enclose nauseous or disagreeable powders are available from 0.2 to 1.5 g of powder . They are quite hard to swallow as such but they are softened by dipping in water for few seconds and then place on the tongue and swallowed with a water . 12/2/2013 31 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P


DISADVANTAGE It must be softened before swallowing . They cannot protect the drug against light moisture . The shell of cachets are fragile. 12/2/2013 32 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P


TYPES OF CACHETS Wet seal cachets Dry seal cachets . 12/2/2013 33 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P

Wet seal cachets : 

Wet seal cachets A wet seal cachets is made up of two similar convex halves having flat edges . The weighed quantity of powdered drug is placed in one half , the edges of the other half moistened with water and place exactly over the first half containing drug . The flat edges of both the halves are pressed together to seal it . 12/2/2013 34 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P

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DRY SEAL CACHETS It consists of two halves , the upper half and the Lower half . The diameter of the upper half is slightly larger than the lower half . The powdered drug is filled in lower half and upper half is fitted over it . The filled cachets are then sealed in machine by pressing the two halves. Eg. Sodium aminosalicylate B.P.C 12/2/2013 36 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P


TABLET TRITURATE These are powdered molded into tablets . Molded tablets are flat circular disc are usually contains potent drugs which is mixed with lactose , dextrose ( diluents ) Apparatus : Tablet triturate mould PEGS HOLES 12/2/2013 37 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P

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It is made of stainless steel or plastic . It consist of upper perorated plate which is having an exactly the same number of pegs in a lower plate which ensure correct fitting of the plate . The lower plates also have two large pegs which ensure correct fitting of the plate . The moulds are available in several sizes having a capacity range from 30 to 250 mg. 12/2/2013 38 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P

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The solid medicament and diluents are finely powdered converted into stiff paste with the help of alcohol 60 %. The upper plate of the apparatus is placed on a clean tile and the paste is pressed into the holes with spatula. While filling the holes of the upper plate care taken to fill each holes and removes the excess. Procedure for Tablet triturate 12/2/2013 39 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P

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This plate placed over the lower plate .A little pressure is applied over the top plate to move downward so that it form a eject tablets . The tablets are spread on sheet of paper and dried by using hot air oven . 12/2/2013 40 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P

Dispensing Powders involving special Problems : 

Dispensing Powders involving special Problems Volatile substance : Menthol, camphor , essential oils may take place on incorporation in powders . This is prevented by use of double wrapping .The inner paper should be wax paper and outer wrapper may be thick paper 12/2/2013 41 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P

Hygroscopic and Deliquescent Powders : 

Hygroscopic and Deliquescent Powders The powders which absorb moisture from the atmosphere is called as hygroscopic powders. The powders which absorb moisture from the atmosphere and goes into solution is called deliquescent substance . Eg, ammonium chloride , ammonium citrate , pepsin , sodium iodide . Such powder should be double wrapped further wrapping in aluminum foil . 12/2/2013 42 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P

Efflorescent Powder : 

Efflorescent Powder Some crystalline substance liberate water on exposure to humid atmosphere or trituration. E.g. caffeine , citric acid These are overcome by using inert substance may be mixed it. 12/2/2013 43 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P

Eutectic mixture : 

Eutectic mixture When two or more substance are mixed together they liquefy due to formation of new compound with low melting points at room temperature . E.g.. Menthol , camphor , phenol. These are overcomes by using inert substance ( absorbent) 12/2/2013 44 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P


POWDER WRAPPING Divided powders are supplied or dispensed by wrapping in suitable paper(glazed). The paper used for packing of powder should have following properties It should fold easily. It should protect the powders without cracking at the fold. It should impermeable to atmospheric condition. It should be water repellant. It should be light weight and elegant. 12 cm X 10 cm – paper size 12/2/2013 45 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P

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Powder papers (glazed) of special grades are available readily in different in size otherwise pharmacist may cut the sheets in suitable size . The shape of the paper should be rectangular. The wrapping of powders may be single or double wrapping. 12/2/2013 46 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P


POWDER WRAPPING A powder trestle. 12/2/2013 47 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P


THANK YOU 12/2/2013 48 K.Senthil kumar ,asst,prof ,QISCP -ongole A.P