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Premium member Presentation Transcript PHYSICS : PHYSICS Nature season -1 Prepared by K.SenthilKumar Department of Physics AMET University Chennai physics : physics The word physics has its origin in a Greek word meaning “ Nature” Physics is the most basic science, which deals the study of nature and nature phenomena Physics is an empirical study Everything we know about physics and their principles that govern its behaviour has been learned through the observations of the phenomena of the nature Example – repetition of day and night, cycle of seasons, volcanoes Scope of physics : Scope of physics The scope of physics can be understood if one looks at various sub-disciplines such as 1. Mechanics 2. Optics 3. Heat 4. Thermodynamics 5. Electro dynamics 6. Atomic Physics 7. Nuclear Physics 8. Electricity Heat and thermodynamics : Heat and thermodynamics Deals with the pressure – volume changes that take place in a gas when its temperature changes Example - working of Refrigerator, etc Electro dynamics : Electro dynamics The phenomena of charged particles and magnetic bodies are dealt in electrodynamics The magnetic field around a current carrying conductor, propagation of radio waves etc. are the areas where electrodynamics provide an answer Atomic and nuclear physics : Atomic and nuclear physics Deals with constitution and structure of matter, interaction of atoms and nuclei with electrons, photons and other elementary particles Physics , technology and society : Physics , technology and society Technology is the application of the doctrines in the physics for practical purposes The invention of the steam engine had a great impact on human civilization Nuclear weapon and nuclear reactors are the product of physics (nuclear fission ) The contribution of physics in the development of alternative resources of energy is significant Production of electricity from solar energy and geothermal energy is a reality now Physics , technology and society : Physics , technology and society Physics giving rise to technology is the integrated chip, popularly called as IC. The development of newer Ics and faster processors made the computer industry to grow leaps and bounds in the last two decades Forces of nature : Forces of nature Sir Issac newton was the first one to give an exact definition for force “force is the external agency applied on a body to change its state of rest and motion” There are four basic forces in nature 1. gravitational force 2. electromagnetic force 3. strong nuclear force 4. weak nuclear force Gravitational force : Gravitational force It is the force between any two objects in the universe. By newton’s law of gravitation, the gravitational force is directly proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. it is the weakest force among the fundamental forces of nature but has the greatest large-scale impact on the universe Electromagnetic force : Electromagnetic force It is the force b/w charged particles such as the force between two electrons, or the force b/w two current carrying wires It is attractive for unlike charges and repulsive for like charges It is very strong compared to the gravitational force It is the combination of electrostatic and magnetic force Strong nuclear force : Strong nuclear force It is the strongest of all the basic forces of nature. It however, has the shortest range, of the order of 10-15 m This force holds the protons and neutrons together in the nucleus of an atom Weak nuclear force : Weak nuclear force Physical quantities : Physical quantities Physical quantities can be classified in to two types 1. fundamental quantities 2. Derived quantities Fundamental quantities : Fundamental quantities Fundamental quantities are quantities which cannot be expressed in terms of any other physical quantity Example length, mass, time, temperature Derived quantities : Derived quantities The quantities that can be expressed in terms of fundamental quantities are called quantities, Example - Area, volume, density etc. Unit : Unit Unit of physical quantity is defined as the established standard used for comparison of the given physical quantity Types of units The British system (foot-pound-second) gaussian system (centimetere-gram-second) Mks system (metre –kilogram-second) SI system Si systems : Si systems To bring uniformity , the general conference on weights and measures in the year of 1960, accepted the SI system unit In the SI (International standard) system of units are 7 fundamental quantities and 2 supplimentry quantities Si system of units : Si system of units Some important derived quantity and their units : Some important derived quantity and their units You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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