Silviculture

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Silviculture of Mangrove Forest By A.Selvaraju

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History “Mangrove”- origin 1613. Portuguese word " mangue " or Spanish word “Mangle" English word “Grove” “ Mangue " –a Senegal word. (Marta Vannucci –The Mangroves and Us) Plants- live in muddy, wet soil in tropical or subtropical tidal waters. "Mangrove forest", “Tidal forest" and "coastal woodland”.

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World mangrove vegetation Old world mangroves – indo-pacific region – east Africa to south pacific. New world mangroves-west african coast, Americas. Indonesia – world’s largest area of mangrove forest. Sundarbans - largest single chunk of mangrove forest in the world. Major mangrove species - 15 families Rhizophoraceae , Sonneratiaceae and Avicenniaceae frequently occuring . Sundarbans - Sterculiaceae and Euphorbiaceae predominate, exception. Mangrove habitats of world

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Source: UNEP-WCMC 2006. Complied by C. Ravilious, courtesy of UNEP-WCMC Mangroves -distributed in 112 countries and territories, over 18 million hectares (Spalding, 1997). Global Distribution of Mangroves

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India coastline – 5700km ; total mangrove area – 700,000 ha; east coast -80%; west coast – 20% West coast – Gujarat, Maharastra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala. East coast- Tamil nadu, Andrapradesh, Orissa, Westbengal. Biogeography of mangroves in India

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Size of the circle indicates the extension of distribution Distribution of Mangroves in India

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Evergreen plants Viviparity, crypto & non vivipary. Breathing roots Stilt roots Knee roots Buttress roots Anchorage roots Halophytes Unique features

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Clockwise from top pneumatophores, evergreen plants, viviparity, stilt roots

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Identification of different Mangroves based on leaves and pods

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Different groups of mangroves

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Salt excreting type Avicennia and Sonneratia – Regulators –by leaf glands. Salt excluding type Ceriops , Excoecaria and Rhizophora – absorbs only fresh water- ultrafiltration ( Scholander , 1968). Salt accumulating type Xylocarpus sp., Lumnitzera sp. and Sonneratia sp. deposit salt in older leaves, roots and bark (Josh, Jamale and Bhosal , 1975). Salinity adaptation

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Overwash Fringing Hammock Scrub or dwarf Riverine Basin Lugo and Snedaker (1974) classification of mangrove system based on forest physiogonomy Mangrove community types

Valuation of Mangroves: 

Valuation of Mangroves Community level National level Global level Timber and firewood Timber production Conservation Fodder for animals Charcoal production Education Traditional medicine Shrimp and crab industries Preservation of biodiversity Food mangrove silviculture Indicator of climate change Local employment Trade Recreation Ecotourism Shell collection Education Erosion control Water quality management Protection from storm damage Coastal and estuary protection (Sources: Hamilton and Snedaker 1984, Stafford- Deitsch 1996, Dahdouh-Guebas et al . 2000, Kairo 2001)

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Estuaries of rivers, protected lagoons and coastal lakes. High humidity, high rainfall, minimum air temperature, Less wind action Soil high salt and water, low oxygen, high H 2 S, high humus proportion ( Macnae , 1968). Alluvial and muddy soils of water borne soil particle depositions. Anoxic in deeper layers and hence roots spread in surface layers (shallow roots) and grows in sheltered areas (can’t withstand heavy winds). Seeds – dispersed by water (influenced by tides). Mangroves – features similar to desert plants – conserve water. (Hutchings and Saenger, 1987). Conditions favoring mangrove vegetation

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Species Propagation by Avicennia Spp . Direct sowing/dibbling Excoecaria agallocha Direct sowing/dibbling Ceriops spp. Direct sowing/dibbling Rhizophora spp Transplanting by naked root seeding BruguieraSpp . Nypa fruticans Aegiceras corniculatum Phoenix paludosa Sonneratia spp Transplanting of potted seedling Xylocarpus spp Heretiera formes Propagation methods for different sp

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Natural regeneration does not require any site preparation Vivipary - Rhizophora , Ceriops , Bruguiera , Kandelia and Nypa . Cryptovivipary - Aegiceras , Laguncularia , Pelliciera and Avicennia .(Hutchings and Saenger, 1987). Non viviparous - Excoecaria , Sonneratia , Heritiera and Xylocarpus . Deposition of silt by subsequent high tides helps seeds or seedlings to secure a better hold. Seeds need to fall during low tide, but falls in high tide, floats. Natural regeneration

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Most sp retain viability in saline environment and losses it when they are removed from that environment. Profuse NR seems to occur in areas under mangrove formations. Advance growth establishes earlier and waits for canopy opening. Dry soil in open areas does not favour NR and is invaded by the undesirable species of Achrostichum . Natural regeneration

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Selection system Practiced in Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and Myanmar. Trees above certain predetermined diameters are harvested from the annually stipulated coupes. The mangroves of the Rakhine and Irrawaddy regions of Myanmar are similar in composition to those of the Sundarbans and managed under selection system.

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Selection system(1892-1893) - first management plan was implemented (Curtis, 1933), Modified selection system (1900-1930) proved appropriate for SFM. Depletion today - faulty management and not silvicultural practices. (Hussein end Ahmed, 1994). Selection-cum-improvement silvicultural system. Separate annual coupes for timber, fuelwood and pulpwood extraction. All types of harvest are carried out in a 20-year cycle where a single harvest operation is carried out once in each 20-year period. Sunderbans

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Laying out of annual coupe Marking sound trees above predetermined exploitable dia. Provided their removal will not create any permanent gap in the canopy Harvesting of timber followed removal of dry lops and tops and, Improvement felling - all deformed trees and thinning of dense stands. Conservative canopy opening Ensures regeneration & Discourages strong light demanding and economically desirable species. Heritiera fomes - principal timber species in the forest.

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Excoecaria agallocha - Pulpwood and matchwood sp. Trees above exploitable diameter – harvested in a single operation. Sonneratia apetala , Trees above 30 cm dia – removed with Conservative canopy opening. Clear felling - S. apetala when occurs with H. fomes , E. agallocha , Ceriops decandra as understorey within annual coupes. S. apetala seedlings do not establish under a mature crop of same sp. For Thillai and Sonneratia

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Poles in a coupe - removed following selection felling lllr to H. fomes . During fuelwood harvest, 1 healthy shoot left in each branch. Modified selection system, Indonesia 50 and 10 m wide "no felling zones" are maintained along the coasts and river banks. ( Soemodihardjo and Soerianegara , 1989). 40 Rhizophora , Bruguiera and Ceriops trees above 20 cm dia and at distance of 17m from one another- seed trees per ha. 30 year rotation with single tinning at 15 years and all trees above 20 cm in diameter except the seed trees are removed in the final felling. Ceriops decandra -Poles and fuelwood .

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Clear felling system Practiced in Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia R. apiculata & R. conjugata - strong, light-demanders, in open areas. Clear-felling with the retention of standards. Retention of 7 trees per ha at the time of final felling when all trees above the diameter of 7.5 cm are removed. A narrow 3 m belt of trees- retained adjacent to river banks or coast to prevent erosion (Hasan, 1981). Felling with axe – 1.6m billets, manual lifting to prevent damage. After final felling- acrostichum ferns uprooted.

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R. apiculata forests of thailand . Width of felling strips - 50 m ( Aksornkoae , 1993). Rotation – 30 years 15 felling coupes made with 40m strips in each at 45 0 angle to tide. Alternate strips cut once in 15 yrs giving 30 yrs rotation. (FAO, 1985) Clear-felling in alternate strips

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Practiced in Viet Nam before Second World War French charcoal company clear-felled large areas of mangrove forest in Minh Hai province in southern Viet Nam Artificially regenerated through direct sowing of R. apiculata propagules. A 1940 plantation established at Thanh Tung in Ngoc Hien district - still in existence - oldest commercial-scale mangrove plantation. Clear-felling system with artificial Regeneration

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Matang mangrove forest, Perak, Malaysia Two thinning were followed by a regeneration felling to enhance seedling establishment. Adequate regeneration obtained without regeneration felling. It was observed subsequently that adequate regeneration could be achieved without a regeneration felling. In the absence of regeneration felling trees could grow for a few “extra" years and gain in volume ( Hasan , 1981). Shelter wood system

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Only when NR fails. A year after final felling of the coupe – if NR fails the area may be occupied with unneccessary vegetation. Rhizophora apiculata and R. conjugata propagules are collected from the forest and planted within three days. Vacancy filling/beating-up – following year. Artificial regeneration

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Areas with periodic inundation Access to good quality salt and fresh water Pumps for pumping saline water from the creeks for Saplings Access to road/creek to mobilize transport Labour to planting sites Good quality propagation stock. Requirements for a mangrove nursery

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Mature, healthy friuts – collected in sep – dec . Except Sonneratia apetala and A.corniculatum - other sp gathered from good quality fallen propagules. Avicennia’s – ground collected during low tide. Floating propagules of R. apiculata , R. mucronata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Xylocarpus moluccensis were collected from the creeks using hand nets. Mature seeds - Aegiceras corniculatum were collected from the trees. Collection of seed material and planting in the nursery

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S.NO Mangrove species Planting material 1. Avicenia marina Fruits 2. Officinalis Fruits 3. Excoecaria agallocha Young seedings 4. Aegiceras corniculatum Propagules 5. Bruguiera gymnorrhiza Propagules 6. Rhizophora apiculata Propagules 7. R. mucronata Propagules 8. Sonneratia apetala Seeds 9. Xylocarpus moluccensis seeds Details of mangrove species and the planting material

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Muddy soil Sunken beds Bamboo poles kept at both ends and middle to keep bags intact in the bed. Bags float at the depth of 10cm. Nursery bags and beds

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Details of mangrove species, sowing and maintenance in the nursery

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Plant species Seed material Germination period Germination percentage Avicennia officinalis Fruit 6 days 95 Avicennia marina Fruit 6 days 95 Excoecaria agallocha Young seedlings - 60 Aegiceras corniculatum Fruit 35 days 80 Sonneratia apetala Seed 30 days 20 Xylocarpus molluccensis Seed 20 days 90 Bruguiera gymnorrhiza Propagule 35 days 100 Rhizophora apiculata Propagule 40 days 100 Rhizophora mucronata Propagule 40 days 100 Details of Mangrove species to be followed for better survival

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From healthy mother plants – 1cm dia branches of 20cm length are cut. Planted in the nursery. Juvenile leaves appears after 10 to 15 days. Roots will develop after 40 days. Transplanting once in 30 days. Vegetative propagation of Excoecaria through stem cuttings

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Pest management practices Hydrological and geomorphological causes Reduction in fresh water flow Decrease in sediment load into the mangroves Cyclones and storm surges Geomorphological changes Formation of topographically elevated areas Anthropogenic causes Causes for degradation

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Causes for degradation

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Main canals were dug at an angle of 45 0 to the natural creek. The side canals were dug at an angle of 30 0 to the main canal. Pegs and chalk powder were used for marking the canals. Canals were designed like fishbone in order to facilitate easy and outflow of tidal water Restoration technique

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Aerial view of fishbone type of canal Cross section of canals with dimensions Restoration by canal method - Fishbone type

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Restoration and management of mangrove systems — a lesson for and from the East African region JG Kairo1, 2*, F Dahdouh-Guebas2, J Bosire1, 2 and N Koedam2 Introduction: Restoration provides an opportunity to improve or enhance the landscape and increase environmental quality. It is particularly useful in densely populated areas or in areas of industrial development where rehabilitation can enhance the environment even if no tangible benefit may be obtained from such an exercise. In these cases, the goal of restoration will be to preserve, enhance or maintain the original functioning of the system (Morrison 1990), or, at least, its conjectured original functioning.

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Factors affecting restoration success It was note above that mangrove forests are threatened ecosystems. The reasons for their destruction range from human induced stresses such as over-exploitation of the resources, land reclamation for fish farming and pollution effects (cited above). Mangroves have also died because of natural disasters (Jimenez 1985). Frequently the mangrove stands are permanently destroyed, but under some conditions the forests regenerate or can be restored. In very rare cases, new areas can also be created for mangrove growth (Saenger and Siddique 1993).

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Monitoring of restored areas Once the restoration programs have been completed, it is essential to monitor recovery processes (or lack thereof) of the plots. These are similar activities that would normally be taken in any forestry project. In a restored mangrove forest in Kenya, significant differences in faunal composition and diversity were observed five years after planting (Bosire 1999, Bosire et al. subm.

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Conclusions In the East African region, the major obstacles that have hitherto prevented rational uses of mangrove forests have been the sectorial approach of mangrove resource management, lack of community inputs into management efforts, the poverty status of many indigenous coastal communities, and a lack of awareness amongst decision makers about the true values of mangroves (Semesi 1992, 1998, Kairo 2001). These management problems are compounded by inadequate knowledge of silviculture of mangroves, of multipleuse potentials of resources, and of the techniques of natural regeneration and reforestation.

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T. Ravishankar , R. Ramasubramanian (2004) Manual on Mangrove Nursery Raising Techniques. M. S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, Chennai, India.http :// www.unepwcmc.org /forest/restoration/ pdfs / Mangrove_Nursery_manual_HR.pdf Aaron M.Ellison , Elizabeth J. Farnsworth(2001) Mangrove communities. harvardforest.fas.harvard.edu Abudul rehman , Mangroves . Wasterecycleinfo.Com M. A. HUBERT, (1999). Mangrove silviculture Unasylva - Vol. 13, No. 4. Forestry and Forest Products Division, FAO. MZ Hussain (1999). Silviculture of mangroves . Unasylva - No. 181. Forestry and Forest Products Division, FAO. www.fao.org. References

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R. Ramasubramanian,T . Ravishankar (2004) Mangrove Forest Restoration in Andhra Pradesh, India. M. S. Swaminathan Research Foundation Chennai, India. sea-bov.unep-wcmc.org JG Kairo , F Dahdouh-Guebas , J Bosire , and N Koedam . Restoration and management of mangrove systems (2001) — a lesson for and from the East African region. South African Journal of Botany, 67: 383–389. http://www.mangroverestoration.com/restmmnt.pdf P. Eganathan , C. Srinivasa Rao & Ajith Anand (1999). Vegetative propagation of three mangrove tree species by cuttings and air layering. M. S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, Chennai, India. www.sprinklerlink.com. References

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