dentifrice

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Dentifrices gives an idea about toothpaste, teeth etc...

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Dentifrices In Cosmetics

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Points covered About Teeth Problem related to teeth What are Dentrifices Formulation Manufacturing Techniques Evaluation

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About Teeth

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ABOUT TEETH Enamel – hard, white outer covering surrounding the crown of the tooth. Consists of inorganic substances, calcium and phosphate. Cementum – thin, bone-like material covering the root. Also consists of inorganic substances. Dentin – a yellow bone-line material under the enamel Provides support Forms bulk of tooth Composed of collagen (20%) and calcium phosphate (75%) Pulp – soft tissue in the center of the crown and root Contains nerves, blood vessels and lymph vessels Produces dentin Provides nourishment for tooth Functions as a sensory signal of injury Pellicle – thin salivary film covering the tooth composed of proteins and lipids

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Problem Related to teeth

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Dental problems or disease falls in 2 categories Gingivitis Periondontal Diseases Dental Caries Periondontitis Advance Periondontitis

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Periondontal Diseases Its is the pathogenic process which affects the retention of the teeth in the jaw. It starts with gingivitis , which cause inflammation of gums which is due to poor oral hygiene. If proper care is not taken a cavity or pocket is formed in between the tooth and the gum. The pocket or cavity serves as the reservoir for toxic bacteria. Which further cause in breakdown of the periondontal ligament , which cause in the loss of tooth.

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Periondontal Diseases Gingivitis It’s the early stage of gum disorder, which is defined by a mild inflammation of gums. Plaque and tartar build up by the gum line, due to which the gums becomes hard and puffy some times blooding may occurs while brushing or other activity. The tooth in the place are affected so the damage can be repaired by the proper action.

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Periondontal Diseases Periodontitis As compare to the gingivitis the plaque moves deeper along the tooth . The is an onset infection which damage the bone of and fibers supporting the tooth. Gums separate from the tooth and starts to move or become loose . Plaque in this stage causes the bad breath . The treatment can stop further damage.

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Periondontal Diseases Advance Periodontitis More than half bone and fibers of the tooth which hold its position is destroyed by the plaque infection. Gums dislocate and get separated from tooth which cause pain and inflammation . Tooth may have to removed artificially to prevent further damage, replacement is also possible.

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Dental Caries Rotten teeth Rotten teeth are the sign of disease which is called as dental caries. It is the disease of the calcified tissues of the teeth characterized by demineralization of the inorganic portion and destruction of the organic substance .

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The five stages of caries development Irreversible lesion Possible formation of apical abscess Reversible lesion Initial subsurface demineralization Extension of demineralized zone towards dentine Collapse of surface layer to form cavity Extension of caries lesion into dentine Extension of caries into pulp 1 2 3 4 5

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What are Dentrifices?

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Dentrifices Any preparations used for cleansing teeth; they usually contain an abrasive, detergent, binder and flavoring agent and may exist in the form of liquid, paste or powder; may also contain medicaments and caries preventives. Dentifrices : dens (tooth), fricare (to rub) Formulas: powders, toothpastes, and gels Dentifrices are of two types: Therapeutic products Cosmetic products

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Dentifrices: Toothpastes may help in removing extrinsic tooth stains, but not the intrinsic stains Gel dentifrices contain higher proportion of thickening agents Table 6-2 p

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Abrasives: Abrasiveness depends on the inherent hardness of abrasive, size, and shape of abrasive particle Other factors that may affect abrasiveness are: Brushing technique, the pressure on the toothbrush, the hardness of the bristles, direction and number of strokes Calcium carbonate (chalk) and sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) are common abrasives used in toothpastes Recently, silica, silicon oxides, and aluminum oxides are used

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Humectants are added to maintain moisture of toothpaste. e.g. sorbitol , mannitol , and propylene glycol. Preservatives are added to prevent bacterial growth. Solids on toothpastes tend to settle out of the paste. To prevent this from happening thickening or binding agents are added. e.g. gum and then colloids. Now synthetic celluloses are used as thickening agents

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Soap Cleansing effect. Sodium Luryl sulfate (SLS) Sweetening agents: Sugar and honey were used previously. Saccharin, cyclamate, sorbitol , and mannitol are used now, Glycerin serves as humectants and sweetener Xylitol is recently introduced

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Dentifrices: Some dentifrices have essential oil ingredients to reduce plaque accumulation and improve the gingival health Fluoride: It is a therapeutic agent 1,000-1,100 ppm and maxmium of 120 mg in each toothpaste tube. Up to 260 mg of fluoride in prescribed toothpaste Types of fluoride: 0.22% sodium fluoride ( NaF ) at conc 1,100 ppm 0.76% sodium monoflurophosphate (MFP) at conc 1,000 ppm 0.4% stannous fluoride (SnF 2 ) at conc 1,000 ppm 1,500 ppm SnF 2 is 10% more effective than 1,000 ppm SnF 2 5,000 ppm is also available as prescription (Colgate Prevident 5,000) Not all fluoride-containing dentifrices have demonstrated anti-caries activity

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Various botanicals used in preparation of dentifrices a BOTANICAL ACTIVITY Azadirachta indica ( Neem ) Protects gums from bacteria Eugenia caryophyllus ( Laung ) Clove oil is used as analgesic in tooth pain Glycyrrhiza glabra ( mulethi ) It cures mouth ulcers Cinnamomum zeylanicum ( dalchini ) Cinnamon oil is used as flavouring agent Mentha piperita ( pudina ) flavoring agent and has mild antiseptic properties

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METHOD OF FORMULATION : The hydration of the gelling agent Dispersion of the abrasive in gel To add the active ingredients late in the mixing cycle Add the surface active agent Flavor last of all. For example – Neem herbal toothpaste Ingredients : Calcium carbonate,sorbitol , fennel ( Foeniculum vulgare ),clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllus ), Neem leaf( azadirachta indica ),and neem bark,peppermint ( mentha piperita ),essential oils,ascorbic acid (vitamin C)

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Formulation Toothpaste Calcium carbonate 56.0 gm Sodium lauryl sulphate 1.0 gm Glycerin 22.0 gm Gum tragacanth 1.5 gm Water 19.4 ml Saccharine 0.1 gm Flavor q.s . Preservatives q.s .

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Toothpowder Phenol 2.5 gm Kieselguhr 57.5 gm Calcium carbonate(heavy) 40.0 gm Flavor q.s . Color q.s .

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Manufacturing Techniques There are 3 types of manufacturing techniques Cold Process Heated Liquid-Phase Process Multiple Liquid-Phase Process

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Evaluation Determination of hard and sharp edged abrasive particles: The paste was extruded about 15 to 20 cm length from collapsible tube of each sample on a butter paper. Then all the samples were tested by pressing it along its entire length by a finger for the presence of hard and sharp edged abrasive particles for all samples.-   Determination of spread ability : About 1 gm of each sample was weighed and placed at the centre of the glass plate (10X10 cm) and another glass plate was placed over it carefully. Above the glass plates 2 kilogram weight was placed at the centre of the plate avoid sliding of the plate. The diameter of the paste in centimeters was measured, after 30 minutes for all samples. The experiment was repeated three times and the averages were reported for all samples.

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Determination of fineness: 10gm of each sample was accurately weighed and placed in a 100ml beaker. To this 50ml of water was added and allowed to stand for 30 mins with occasional stirring until the toothpaste was completely dispersed. This solution was passed through to 150 micron Indian Standard sieve. Then the sieve was washed with running tap water. Washing should be continued until all the matters passed by through the sieve. After washing the residue remains on sieves were collected and dried in an oven at 105°c. Determination of pH: 5 gm of all samples was accurately weighed and placed in a 150 ml beaker. To this 45 ml of freshly boiled and cooled water was added at 27°C. It was stirred well to make a thorough suspension. The pH was determined for all samples within 5 minutes by using pH meter.  

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Determination of foaming power: About 5gm of each sample was weighed and placed in a 100ml glass beaker. To this10ml of water was added and the beaker was covered with a watch glass and allowed to stand for 30 minutes, this operation was carried out to disperse the toothpaste in water. The contents of the beaker were stirred with a glass rod and the slurry was transferred to a 250ml graduated measuring cylinder, during this transfer ensure that no foam was produced and no lump paste went into the measuring cylinder.

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Thank you !

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