value addition in fruits and vegetables


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various methds and techniques of ruit and vegetable processing and various products


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Value addition in fruits and vegetables Speaker : Ms Sunila Kumari PhD Scholar, Dept of Horticulture, COA, IGKV, Raipur (C.G.)

Present status of fruits and vegetable production in India:

Variety of temperate , tropical and sub-tropical fruits and vegetables grown in India. 2 nd largest producer of fruits and vegetables With production of about 71 million tons of fruits and 133 million tons of vegetables (2009-10, NHB) High quantum of wastage/post harvest losses due to poor handling Very low quantum of processing Present status of fruits and vegetable production in India

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STATUS OF FRUIT PROCESSING IN INDIA Value added fruits in India : Only 2% by volume and 10% by value Only less than 4% of the total fruits produced is processed 4000 fruit processing units are present in India with an aggregate output of nearly 12 million tonnes Among the processed fruits, 20 % is for export, rest for defence, institutional sector and domestic consumption

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Sub Sectoral break up of investments in Agro processing

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Vision – 2015 Government of India Ministry of Food Processing Industries * Be the Food factory of the World. * Treble the size of processed food industry. * Increase the level of processing from 6 to 20%. * Increase value addition from 20 to 35%. * Increase the share of Global trade from 1.5 to 3%. (Investment requirement: Rs. 1,00,000 crore )

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The Confederation of Indian Industries (CII) has estimated that the food processing sector has potential of attracting the $33 billion of investment in 10 years and generate employment of 9 million persons-days. (Ministary of food processsing ,India, Annual report 2004)

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Food Production (Rs. 250,000 Crore) Market for Value Added Product (Rs. 80,000 Crore) Double Food Production ( Rs. 500,000 Crore) Treble Market for Value Added Products ( Rs. 225,000 Crore) FOOD PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING POTENTIAL TREND FOR INDIA 10 - YEAR PERIOD FOOD INDUSTRY WILL HAVE HIGHEST PROFITABILITY Source : New Technologies in Food Processing, International Life Science Institute - India, NewDelhi

Level of processing (Fruits & Vegetables) :

USA 65% France 70 % Brazil 70% Malaysia 83 % Philippines 78% Thailand 30 % India 2.1% Source: Cygnus Report, Indian Food Processing Sector, 2006 Level of processing (Fruits & Vegetables)

Exporters Of Fruit & Vegetables (Quantity in MT, Value in Rs Mn) :

Exporters Of Fruit & Vegetables (Quantity in MT, Value in Rs Mn ) 2001-02 2004-05 CAGR Quantity Value Quantity Value Quantity Value Dried & Preserved Vegetables 209157.8 5371.5 351034.3 7657.5 18.8 12.5 Mango Pulp 76735.18 2413.4 90988.6 3008.6 5.8 7.6 Pickles & Chutney 38758.97 1203.4 67193.29 1205.8 20.1 0.1 Other Processed Fruits & Vegetables 61332.39 2017.4 80760.5 2755.3 9.6 10.9 Total 385984.3 11005.7 589976.7 14627.2 15.2 9.9

Value Addition:

Value Addition The total value of the agricultural produce is increased by performing certain Post Harvest Processing operations rather than selling it as such after harvest

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Reduction in post harvest losses thereby increasing the availability of food Benefits to farmers and consumers More availability of food Better nutrition High employment opportunities Increase of export trade and foreign exchange Better environment Improvement in quality of life Why value addition ?

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INCREASING SHELF-LIFE Tropical fruits of India are perishables and cannot be kept fresh for long Preserve fruits in the form of fruit juices, jam, pulp, jellies, dehydrated and freeze dried and canned products etc. to conserve nutritional values

Value Added!!!:

Potato – Rs 10/Kg Tomato- Rs 5-20/kg Aonla – Rs 15-25/ kg Mango- Rs 20-60/kg Price of processed product Potato chips- Rs 100-200/kg Tomato sauce- Rs 60-100/Kg Aonla candy- Rs 100-200/Kg Mango pulp- Rs 150-250/kg Mango leather- Rs 200-400/kg Jam- Rs150/kg Price of fresh produce Value Added!!!



Methods of value addition:

Methods of value addition Value addition by harvesting at proper stage Value addition by cleaning, grading, packing Value addition by processing of fruits Value addition by prolonging shelf life Value addition in processing waste

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Production Storage Storage Processing Storage Processing Processing Home preparation Consumption Storage Possible routes from production to consumption of fruits


POST HARVEST OPERATIONS FOR FRUITS & VEGETABLES Cleaning & sorting Washing & air drying Grading Pre cooling Packaging Ripening Storage Transportation Market distribution

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Post harvest handling operation of fruits which add value Harvesting Precooling Sorting Washing Waxing / Chemical treatment Sizing Packaging Storage Transportation Whole saler Restoring, Resizing and Repackaging Transportation Retailer Consumer

Products prepared from fruits: :

Products prepared from fruits: Sr. no. Name of fruits Products 1 Mango Juice, RTS, Nectar, Squash, Jam, Preserve, Toffee, Amchur , Pickle, Chutney, Canned mango, Mango powder, Mango concentrate, Pulp,Puree . 2 Guava Jelly, Cheese, Toffee, Nectar, Canned guava, Squash, Vinegar, Jam, Juice, Pulp. 3 Amla Preserve, Jam, Candy, Syrup, Pickle, Chutney, Dried shreds, Triphla , Ayurvedic medicines, Amla marmalade 4 Pomegranate Juice, Squash, Syrup, Anardana (dried product) 5 Papaya Jam, Candy, Nectar, Pickle, Sauce, Canned papaya, Papain from papaya latex, Jelly slices, Tutty -fruity 6 Grape Wine,Juice,Raisin,Jam,Vinegar 7 Banana Canned banana,Dried banana,Toffee,Pulp,Powder,Juice,Chips 8 Fig Dried fig 9 Ber Candy, Preserve, Canned ber , Jam 10 Citrus fruits Juice,pickle,Marmalade,Squash,Cordial,Barley water, candy, jam 11 Date Palm Dried date

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Amla Powder Chavanprash Indian Companies: Himalaya, Himani, Dabur

Value addition in Banana:

Value addition in Banana Banana flour Banana cake Banana chips

Value added products of Mango:

Value added products of Mango Frozen mangoes Mango Pickle Mango Pulp Mango Juice

Value-added products of Tomato:

Value-added products of Tomato Fresh Tomatoes Tomato Juice Dried tomato flakes Tomato Puree

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Aonla Value Added Products

Value addition in Potato:

Value addition in Potato Potato flakes Fast food Potato chips French fries

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Chemical sprays:

Chemical sprays Examples of such chemical sprays include methyl thiophenate (0.05%) to control postharvest losses in Dashehari mango, pre harvest spray of 10–15 ppm gibberillic acid (GA) to enhanceon -tree storage of mangoes by controlling maturity and delaying ripening; sprays of either benomyl , Topsin -M or carbendazim (0.05%) at 15-day intervals prior to harvest to control postharvest losses in Nagpur mandarin. Ethephon at a level of 250 ppm applied during the color break stage in combination with berry thinning improved ripening and juice quality in Perlette and Beauty Seedless grapes. Postharvest dipping of Alphanso mangoes in an aqueous solution of ABA hastened ripening. Ripening in sapota is hastened by the application of Ethrel , 2, 3, 5-TP and Maleic hydrazide .

Recommended chemicals :

Recommended chemicals Recommended chemicals to prevent browning Sulphites , bisulphites , and metabisulphites of both sodium and potassium Recommended additives to inhibit microorganisms Potassium sorbate ( white crystalline powder ): The solubility of potassium sorbate is 139 g/100 mL at 20°C; it can be applied in beverages, syrups, fruit juices, wines, jellies, jams, salads, pickles, etc. Sodium benzoate: Sodium benzoate is more effective in food systems where the pH is as low as 4.0 or below. Other naturally antimicrobial compounds found in fruits and vegetables include: Vanillin Allicin Cinnamon and eugenol Oregano, thyme, and rosemary Irradiation: Treatment of shredded carrots with irradiation at 2 kGy inhibited the growth of aerobic and lactic acid bacteria

Recommended substances to reduce pH :

Recommended substances to reduce pH Organic acids Citric acid Malic . Tartaric acid Benzoic acid Lactic acid Propionic acid Inorganic acids Inorganic acids include hydrochloric, sulphuric , and phosphoric, the latter being the principal acid used in fruit and vegetable processing). They are mainly used as buffering agents, neutralizers, and cleaners. Fermentation by-products : lactic acid eg . pickels

Controlled/Modified Atmospheric Storage/Packaging:

Controlled/Modified Atmospheric Storage/Packaging Modified atmosphere (MA) storage essentially involves changing the normal atmospheric gas composition around a fruit or vegetable. Modification of the atmospheric environment for the packaging and storage of fresh horticultural commodities, involves either a reduction in O2 levels or an elevation of CO2 concentrations. MA is effective in delaying the severity of postharvest infections, and is useful in controlling certain insects

Heat Treatments :

Heat Treatments Hot Water Dips ( for fungal control, curing and insect disinfestations viz. fruity fly) eg . sweet lime fruits, Mango Hot Air Treatments ( for meal moth, Plodia interpunctella ) treatments at 60°C for at least 7 hours, or at 65°C for at least 6 hours. Hot Air Treatment

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Water Temperature (°C) Dipping time (min) Fungicide (ppm) Fungus Fruit Decay benomyl Controlled 55-53 5 500 Colletotrychum) Mango flusilazole 100 90% reduced 46-55 3 0 None Blueberry 90 0.03 0 None Sweet potato Delay benomyl 500 39 0.5 dichloran 400 Rizopus rot Stone fruit Controlled - Few seconds 250-500 thiophanate Botryodiplodia theobromate Banana Controlled Recommended conditions for hot water and fungicide treatments. Thompson (1998)

Surface treatments:

Surface treatments Waxing Sealing of fruits in plastic films of high-density polyethylene Modified atmosphere packaging ,

Use of HDP polythene coating:

Use of HDP polythene coating

Edible Coatings :

Edible Coatings Composite coating of polysaccharides (cellulose, pectin, starch, alginate, and chitosan), Proteins (casein, soy) and lipids (waxes, mineral oils) have been extensively used in controlling spoilage of fruits and vegetables. Antioxidants such as BHA and BHT are added to protect against oxidative rancidity, degradation and discoloration.

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Optimum storage conditions Expected Vegetable Temperature Relative Shelf life storage (°C) Humidity (%) Onions 1 to 2 70 to 75 4-5 mo Garlic 0 70 to 75 6-8 mo Beets 0 90-95 1-3 mo Carrots 0 90-95 4-5 mo Cabbage 0 98 3-6 mo Lettuce 0 90-95 2-3 mo Broccoli 0 90-95 7-10 weeks Cauliflower 0 85-90 2-3 weeks Celery 0 90-95 3-2 mo Sweet corn 0 85-90 4-8 days Tomato 12.5-13 85-90 2 weeks Green pepper 10 95 2 weeks Chili pepper 10 95 2 weeks Egg plant 10 to 12 95 3 weeks Cucumber 10 to 13 95 10-14 days Optimum refrigeration temperature, relative humidity, and shelf life for horticultural products. (From: Flores Gutierrez, A.A, 2000)

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Fruits and Vegetables based Projects

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Post harvest handling of mango in South Gujarat MANGO ORCHARD HARVESTING COLLECTION TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION TO LOCAL MARKET TO DISTANT MARKET RETAILING 20.0 acre, Kesar/Alphonso 30’x30’, 150 kg yield, Irrigated, 1100 trees, 20 year old, bearing 5 years Mid May , Manual, Local Veni, 8-10 persons 100-200 kg/person/ day , 90% without pedicel,desapping Manual, bamboo basket, 5-6 persons manual, 2-4 grades On field cardboard box, 10 kg each (35-40 nos) Minitruck,truck,cart,tractor,loose,plastic crate 2-15 km 50-400 km PACKAGING CO OPERATIVE MANDALI GRADING manual 2 grades Cardboard box, CFB, 10&20 kg ON FIELD GRADING PACKAGING Bamboo basket,CFB Cardboard box, 10&20 kg TRANSPORTATION Minitruck/truck Minitruck/truck

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VALUE ADDITION OF FRUITS THROUGH GRADING Packaging integrated with a continuous mechanical grading system : Proper packing is ensured according to the sizes of products Helps better prices for the packed fruit in the market Safe transport ensured

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Value addition through grading

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LOW COST EVAPORATIVE COOLING FOR STORAGE OF PERISHABLE COMMODITIES Raw Materials : M.S. , Coconut Coir, Dripers ,Water Machinery / Equipment: Overall dimensions : 1440x 820x 660 mm Temperature Drop : 12-13 o C Relative Humidity Maintained : 85-90% Power requirement : Nil Man power requirement: One (semiskilled) Shelf Life of stored products : Almost Double Total Cost : Rs. 5000/- Application / Use: For intermediate storage of perishable products such as fruits and vegetables by a village grower at his field or a trader at his market place with zero energy consumption.

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Tomato/ Lime Seed Extractor SPECIFICATIONS : · Size of machine : 1580 X 1000 X 900 mm · Capacity of machine : 45-60 kg/hour of fruits · Seed recovery : 98 % · Juice recovery : 80 % · Electric power : 1.5 hp., 3 phase electric motor · Man power : 2 workers FUNCTION : To extract quality seeds from ripe tomato or lime with minimum seed loss, higher capacity, convenience and, at lower cost.

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Chilly Seed Extractor MACHINE SPECIFICATION Overall Dimensions : 1450 x 920 x 600 mm Capacity of Machine : 60 – 70 kg / hour (dry) Seed Recovery : 98 % Electric Power : 2 h. p., 3 phase motor Man power : 2 workers Cost of Machine : 30,000/- (Approx.) FUNCTION: To extract seeds from dry chilies with minimum seed lose and higher rate of seed production at reduced cost with least health hazard.

Meda type onion storage:

Meda type onion storage


CHILLI DRYER Capacity : 100 kg (chilli ) Bed thickness : 10 cm Fuel feed rate : 5.6 kg/h Drying time : 22 hour Overall thermal :10.21% efficiency Drying air temperature (53 ± 2 ºC) and average velocity of air (1.25 m/s) was maintained throughout the experiment

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DRIED CHILLIES 1. Chilli dried by sun drying method 2. Chilli dried by agricultural waste fired dryer (5 cm bed thickness ) 3. Chilli dried by agricultural waste fired dryer (10 cm bed thickness ) 1 2 3

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Size Grading and Packaging of Fruits

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Possible by-products from the wastes of fruit processing units:

Fruit Waste (%) Nature of the waste By-products Mango 27-50 Peels,stones and waste from the pulping machines. Starch,fat,pectin,vinegar,syrup and alcoholic beverages. Pineapple 50-60 Peels,cores and trimmings. Cream of tarter,seed oil,tanin from culls, vinegar, pectin, wines and stock feed Grape 5-10 Stem,seeds and seed culls. Cream of tarter ,seed oil,tanin from culls, vinegar, pectin,wines and stock feed Citrus 50 Peels,pomace and seeds Pectin,essential oil and seed oil Banana 24-46 Peels - Possible by-products from the wastes of fruit processing units Mysore Murthy (1976)



Major Indian and Overseas Players in the Fruit & Vegetable processing industry :

ITC Limited Agro Tech Foods PepsiCo India Holdings Nestle India Pvt. Ltd. Hindustan Lever Limited MTR foods limited Godrej industries Limited Dabur India Ltd. Major Indian and Overseas Players in the Fruit & Vegetable processing industry


Lack of suitable infrastructure Lack of adequate quality control & testing infrastructure Inefficient supply chain vis a vis involvement of middlemen Lack of processable varieties of farm produce Seasonality of raw material High inventory carrying cost High taxation, high packaging cost Affordability and cultural preference of fresh food. CONSTRAINTS OF FPI SECTOR

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POTENTIAL ENTERPRISES Establishment of cold chain. Creation of pre-cooling, sorting, grading and packaging nearer to production site for improving shelf-life &quality of the product. Development of quality packaging. Promoting indigenous food products for domestic and export market Establishment of Agro-Food parks based on agro-climatic zones.

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SUMMARY Value addition & Agro Processing # Wide variety of raw material base. # Scope for many units. # Vast, growing domestic and export market # Encourages local skills. # Women empowerment # Gainful employment. # Advantageous for farmers. # Economical for consumers. # Eco friendly. # Strong multiplier effect on all round development.

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Conclusion With the experience of golden revolution, India has made milestones in fruit production. But another neglected sector is post harvest handling and processing which are on growing stage and need more attention. There are many techniques developed to prolong shelf-life and to add the value in fruits and vegetables for reducing post harvest loss. Further there is a need to develop indigenous technology based on area specific for diversification in processing sector to succeed the rainbow revolution.

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Gratitude & Sincere thanks for your time

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