flower forcing and year round flowering methods


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flower forcing methods for commercial flowers viz. tulips, marigold, ....


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Flower Forcing and Year Round Flowering Methods:

Flower Forcing and Year Round Flowering Methods Seminar incharge : Dr. D.A. Sarnaik Professor & Head Dept.of Horticulture IGKV Raipur (C.G.) Speaker: Sunila Kumari PhD(Hort.) First year Dept.of Horticulture IGKV Raipur (C.G.)

Beautiful spring flowers in the dead of winter?:

Beautiful spring flowers in the dead of winter? Daffodils, early tulips, crocuses, hyacinths, and paper white narcissus, can all be forced for a continuous flower show from Christmas until spring.

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Flower forcing is any operation or treatment to the plant, after reaching its ripeness-to-respond stage, in order to stimulate it to flower, which otherwise it will not, at a specific date (e.g. on Valentine Day), or during off-season periods. These flowering dates or periods may be earlier or later than normal dates or periods of flowering. (Narong Chomchalow, 2004 )

Objectives of flower forcing :

Objectives of flower forcing To avoid surpluses of in-season cut flowers To avoid wastage or spoilage of surplus cut flowers To distribute employment throughout the year To increase farmers' income To reduce imports and balance of trade To satisfy customers at the time of their needs

Recycle and use creativity!:

Recycle and use creativity! http://www.thebulbproject.com/wiki/index.php?title=Activities:Containers

The Easiest Bulbs for Forcing:

The Easiest Bulbs for Forcing Paperwhite narcissus Amaryllis Large-flowering crocus Hyacinth Colchicum Muscari Iris

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Fall Summer Spring Winter Rooting, floral and leaf meristems present Shoot elongation, flowering, daughter bulb growth Bulbs planted, roots develop Shoots senesce, daughter bulb complete, old bulb dissicates, harvest bulbs

Physiology of Flowering:

Physiology of Flowering The process of flowering follows the following sequence: Proper stimuli (temperature & photoperiod). Ripeness-to-flower stage Vernalin, Florigin Flower

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Hypothesis of Flowering Before a plant can flower in response to its environment (particularly temperature and day length) the organs that detect the environmental change, usually leaves or meristems, must reach a condition called ‘ripeness to respond’. It has been hypothesized that, after reaching the “ripeness-to-respond stage”, and upon exposure to proper stimuli, a plant will produce floral primordium through the formation of hypothetical substances. These substances are ‘vernalin’, if stimulated by proper temperature, and ‘florigen’, if stimulated by proper photoperiod. This floral primordium will ultimately developed into flower, which bloom sooner or later.

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Methods of flower forcing

Adjusting Factors Affecting Flowering:

Adjusting Factors Affecting Flowering Temperature ( poinsettia, in which the bracts will not turn red if the temperature is high, although flowers are borne after exposure to short days ) Photoperiod ( chrysanthemum. Artificial sources, such as tungsten bulbs and fluorescence lamps, or keeping the plants in a dark room ) Humidity ( Siam tulip, in which the initiated flowers will not develop if the humidity is low )

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NAME OF BULB WEEKS OF COLD WEEKS TO BLOOM Amaryllis/Hippeastrum none 6 to 8 Chionodoxa luciliae 15 2-3 Crocus chrysanthus 15 2-3 Crocus vernus 15 2 Eranthis hyemalis 15 2 Fritillaria meleagris 15 3 Galanthus nivalis 15 2 Hyacinth prepared 10-12 unprepared 11-14 2-3 Iris danfordiae 15 2-3 Iris reticulata 15 2-3 Muscari armeniacum 13-15 2-3 Muscari botryoides alba 14-15 2-3 Narcissus 15-17 2-3 Narcissus tazetta (paperwhites) none 3-5 Narcissus tazetta orientalis none 3-5 Scilla tubergeniana 12-15 2-3 Scilla siberica 15 2-3 Tulipa 14-20 2-3

Chemical Flower Forcing :

Chemical Flower Forcing F ertilizers P lant hormones E thylene O ther chemicals (the explosive potassium chlorate and its related compound - sodium chlorate, potassium nitrate, thiourea, paclobutrazol (commercially known as Cultar), etc. ).

Mechanical Flower Forcing :

Mechanical Flower Forcing Pruning ( bougainvilleas ,rose ) Leaf Trimming (jasmine) Ringing (usually fruit plants) Low-temperature Storage ( usually the bulbs or corms ) Breaking Dormancy ( Seeds and buds )

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Hydroponic Crate Production— Bulbs Just Placed in Water Hydroponic Crate Production— Bulbs Sprouting

Dendrobium Orchids (Dendrobium spp.) :

Dendrobium Orchids (Dendrobium spp.) Flowering Behavior: All-year round, but more profuse during the rainy season and less profuse in the winter (which happens to be the time when the demand is high). Operation: Pinch off flower buds in August /September (to save nutrients for later blooming), then apply special fertilizer (high in P & K) during October/November, 3 to 4 times to induce blooming from November onwards for the December/January harvests (Chomchalow 1972; Technology Transfer Forum1997).

Marigold (Tagetes erecta) :

Marigold (Tagetes erecta) Flowering Behavior: Being a day-neutral plant, it flowers all-year round. It normally takes 60-70 days from seeding to harvest. Operation: Timing of flowering can be made by fixing the date of seeding 60 to 70 days ahead of the harvest date. The recommended period is 65 days. For example, if the flowers are to be harvested for New Year’s, the seeding should be done on 27 October, transplant on 6 November, pinching on 22-24 November, flower bud emerges on 5 December, and blooming 25 December to 5 January (Muangnao 1997).

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Double Flowering Type—‘Pink Star’-Ko Klaver.

Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) :

Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) Flowering Behavior: All-year round, but needs standing water. Operation: Operation to induce flowering of the lotus plant varies according to the season (Buri-ngarm1997). Winter Season: Low temperature during the winter reduces the amount of blooming. Thus, it is recommended that the level of water be reduced to 50 cm in order to raise water temperature . In this way blooming will be the same as the summer, both in terms of amount and size of flower. Dry Season: High temperature during the summer speeds up the growth of the lotus plant and the blooming time, but flower size is small. Thus water level should be raised up to 75 cm (from original 50 cm level in the winter). In this way, water temperature will be reduced and the amount of bloom and size of flower will be maintained. Rainy Season: Due to the addition of rain water which may increase the level of water, it is recommended that the level of water be maintained at 50 cm in order to accommodate additional rain water. Blooming will be maintained as normal.

Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) :

Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) Flowering Behavior : It is a short-day plant, with critical value of 14.40 hrs . Operation: Extend day length by giving artificial light after sunset for about 3 hrs during early stage of growth to keep seedlings in the vegetative stage until one month of the planned harvest date. For example, if the planned harvest date is New Year’s, cutting should be made in September and transplanted to the growing plot when rooting occurs. Keep the seedlings under light regime of more than 14.5 hrs by providing artificial light (100 w incandescent bulb) until 1 December (seedlings should be at least 30 cm high). They will bloom on 1 January. However, as chrysanthemum blooms profusely during the period of low temperature, which commences in December, it fetches a low price in the market even during the opportune time of Christmas or New Year’s. Thus, some farmers avoid producing flowers during such a period, but move it to the summer. A black cloth is used to completely cover the plant house from 16.00 to 08.00 hrs for 30 days after the cuttings have been exposed to long-day condition (to be supplemented with artificial light) (Manichote 1997)

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Fringed Flower Type—‘Fringed Elegance’ - Zabo Plant.

Jasmine (Jasminum sambac) :

Jasmine ( Jasminum sambac ) Flowering Behavior: All year round, but very profuse during the rainy season, and scarce during the winter. Operation: To produce jasmine for winter-season harvest, the following operations are recommended (Suisuwan et al.,1976). (i) One month before the planned date of harvest, stop watering for 2 - 3 days until the plant show a sign of wilting. (ii) Prune the plant to a round shape so that blooming will emerge from mature branches when induced in Stage . In this way the blooms will be of large size and healthy as they receive full sunlight. (iii) Apply balance fertilizer (e.g. 15-15-15) at the rate of 30 g/plant and water heavily . Keep watering normally every day. Flower buds will emerge within ten days and blooming occurs within 25-30 days after pruning.

Amaryllis (Amaryllis spp.) :

Amaryllis (Amaryllis spp.) Flowering Behavior : All-year round, although depends on the availability of bulbs which are available from the Netherlands in the summer (June onwards). After the bulb is planted, it takes about one month for the flower primordium to develop into full bloom ready to be harvested as cut flower. Operation: Keep the bulb in the vegetable compartment of the refrigerator (4 o C) for at least two months . Plant the bulb one month prior to the planned date of flowering.

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Lily Flowering Type—‘Ballade’- Zabo Plant.

Gladiolus (Gladiolus hybridus) :

Gladiolus (Gladiolus hybridus) Flowering Behavior : All-year round, provided the weather is optimum (requires cool climate). Blooming occurs 90-100 days after planting. Operation : Operation to induce flowering of the gladiolus plant varies according to the climate, namely: In Cool Climate: Preheating corms before planting for two weeks at 27-32 o C will force such corms to flower early. In Warm Climate: Soaking corms in GA solution (10 - 25 ppm) before planting will accelerate flower by hastening differentiation of flower primordia. After being harvested, cleaned, and then graded, corms and cormlets used as planting stock are initially given 2 to 3 weeks at 15 to 23 ºC followed by 2 ºC under highly ventilated conditions for a minimum of 8 to 10 weeks . The latter is required to break the rest period (dormancy) of the corms and cormlets. Prior to planting, they are given 4 to 8 weeks at 20 to 30 ºC to promote sprouting. (Cohat , 1993 )

Roses (Rosa hybrids) :

Roses (Rosa hybrids) Flowering Behavior: All-year round, but more profuse in cool season. Operation: For blooming during: (i) Christmas - New Year’s, and (ii) Valentine’s Day, the following procedure is suggested: (i) Cut the branches in November. It takes 43 days after pruning to flowering. This will stimulate flowering during Christmas - New Year’s. Cutting the flowers on 23 December will further stimulate flower bud initiation to bloom on 10 February. It takes 49 days after cutting. (ii) Pinch (i.e. cut only the tip off) instead of pruning as in (i) above on 10 November for 23 December harvest. This operation automatically stimulates flower initiation for harvest on 10 February. - Do not pinch flower buds which will bloom in 30 days on 10 Nov. Allow them to bloom for 10 December harvest. The following operations should be followed: - Do not pinch flower buds that are still very small. - Pinch all other branches, including those flower buds that are not healthy, deformed, etc. Do not pinch too far down to healthy leaves, unless they are water sprouts that should be cut off from the base.

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Multi-flowering Type—‘Silhouette Bouquet’-Ko Klaver.

Iris Hollandica. (Dutch Iris) :

Iris Hollandica. (Dutch Iris) Generally, bulbs for very early forcing are stored at 30 ºC for a few days after being harvested . They are subsequently exposed to 500 ppm ethylene for 24 h . This treatment stimulates flower initiation, especially with small sized bulbs of some cultivars and bulbs not receiving sufficient heat in the field prior to being harvested. Bulbs for late and retarded (up to one year) forcing are placed at 30 ºC to suppress their growth and development. Prior to planting, they are “ Precooled” at 5 to 9 ºC for 6 to 11 weeks , depending on the cultivar. After being pre-cooled, bulbs should be planted as quickly as possible . (De Hertogh et al.,2007)

Lilium (Lilies): :

Lilium (Lilies): Easte receive 6 weeks at 2 to 7 ºC r Lily: To flower properly, the bulbs must in a moist planting medium. Hybrid Lilies: To properly flower them, the bulbs must be packed in moist peat, wrapped in polyethylene, and packed in trays which are used for storage and shipping. Subsequently, they require at least 6 to 8 weeks at 2 ºC before being planted for early forcing. For late and year-round forcing the bulbs are “Frozen-in” at -1 to -2 ºC after being pre-cooled for 6 to 8 weeks.

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Parrot Flower Type–‘Flaming Parrot’- CNB- Holland

Narcissus (Hardy Daffodils and “Paperwhites”) :

Narcissus (Hardy Daffodils and “ Paperwhites ”) 1 week at 34 ºC followed by 17 ºC shipped at 25 to 30 ºC under highly ventilated conditions After arrival, bulbs stored at 25 to 30 ºC until shoots begin to emerge placed at 2 ºC. Prior to planting, they require 2 weeks at 9 to 17 ºC.

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Simple Petal Flower Type–‘Dordogne’- Zabo Plant.

Tulipa (Tulips) :

Tulipa (Tulips) For very early forcing, most cultivars are given 34 °C for 1 week immediately after lifting. Subsequently, they are stored under dry and well-ventilated conditions at 17 to 20 °C . It is very important to be able to identify the stages of flower initiation (Hartsema, 1961), since most cultivars must reach “Stage G” prior to being pre-cooled at 5 to 9 ºC. For medium and late forcing, bulbs are placed at 17 to 23 ºC prior to planting at low temperatures. (De Hertogh,1996)

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In hyacinth /{Hyadnthus orientalis L.) it was observed that the formation of the flower bud coincided with a gradual increase in the activity of cytokinins and auxins in the bulbs, whereas the level of abscisic acid was almost stable. The cold storage of bulbs resulted in a gradual decrease of abscisic acid and it was not detectable in the bulbs cooled for 12 weeks. The content of auxins was highest in the bulbs during their rooting in the first 3 weeks of cold treatment and gradually decreased thereafter. The cytokinin activity declined in the bulbs cooled for 6 weeks, while gibberellins appeared in them. In the bulbs cooled for a longer time a lack of gibberellin activity and a gradual increase of cytokinin content was observed. (Ryszard and Joanna,2001)

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Trials at Michigan State University During forcing, the rate of progress to flowering of lilies is regulated by average daily temperature. Lily look cultivars were forced at a constant 68˚F setpoint and the average time to first open flower from potting of bulbs from the four plantings ranged between six to seven weeks. Lilies were forced under supplemental lighting provided by HPS lamps and heat given off by the lamps may have slightly hastened flowering in the winter trials. Bulb size impacted flowering time of some cultivars. Overall, the influence of bulb size on flowering time was variable and cultivar dependant. (Sonali Padhye and Art Cameron, 2007)

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Lily look cultivars typically had more flower buds when grown from larger bulbs. This photograph shows ‘Tiny Icon’ grown from 10/12, 12/14 and 14/16 cm bulb size (from left to right) that averaged six, seven and 10 buds per plant, respectively

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Year-round storage of corms of Gladiolus tubergenii 'Rose Charm' and G. nanus 'Nymph' was possible at 0.5°C with good flowering results. High temperature (20°C) during the first 6–12 weeks of the storage period reduced the forcing period and increased the number of flower buds and the weight of inflorescence for 'Rose Charm', while it had no influence on either of these parameters in 'Nymph'. With 'Nymph', however, the flowering percentage increased by longer periods at 20°C. To obtain inflorescences of good quality, a high temperature (20°C) during the last weeks of storage was necessary for both cultivars. However, by this treatment the forcing period increased, and the flowering percentage decreased. The opposite effect was obtained at 5°C. A combination of 20°C followed by 5°C during the last 10 weeks of the storage period gave a high flowering percentage, a high inflorescence weight and a moderate forcing period. (Meeteren et al, 2005)

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The cost connected with chrysanthemum production can be significantly limited. This chance is given by the direct shortday planting system for the year-round cut flower chrysanthemums. It is possible to keep the vegetative plants in a separate area for the whole of the longday period. As a consequence only shortday treatment would be required in the flowering area. Depending on cultivars, 4 – 5 crops per year are possible. ( Jerzy, 2008)

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The new Polish cultivars of chrysanthemums bred in Sydgoszcz are radiation-induced mutants obtained from the cultivar 'Dravo', very suitable for pot and cut flower culture. 'Promyk'. 'Poranek'. ' Paloma All the cultivars have many advantages: high quality stems and foliage, even growth and even flowering, very good productivity, 8 – 9 week response group, low sensitivity to light shortage during winter time. Flowering months - all the year-round. The production of spring flowering pot plants is possible without reduction of the day-light period to 10 hr. (Jerzy and Zalewska, 2008)

“Forcing” doesn’t mean boring….:

“Forcing” doesn’t mean boring….

Future thrust:

Future thrust Research is needed to either improve or expand the technology of established forcing systems. Examples include physiological maturity indexes for harvesting bulbs, nondestructive analytical equipment to determine bulb quality, optimum packing and transportation systems, specialized storage environments, specific planting media for each bulb species, improved greenhouse environments, improved marketing procedures, more species for forcing, computer aided expert production and forcing systems that include insect and disease monitoring.



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