land biomes


Presentation Description

this powerpoint is a little bit long


Presentation Transcript





Slide 3: 

Not a particular place but different areas of the world that share similar characteristics The biome concept embraces the idea of community, of interaction among vegetation, animal populations, and soil A biome (also called a biotic area) may be defined as a major region of distinctive plant and animal groups well adapted to the physical environment of its distribution area


CLIMATE The average yearly temperature and precipitation in an area Important in determining the characteristics of a biome Important factor in determining which organisms can live in an area.




TUNDRA comes from the Finnish word tunturi, meaning treeless plain youngest of all the biomes coldest of all the biomes


2 TYPES of TUNDRA Both share some of the same plants, animals, and climate, but are located in different areas around the world ARCTIC ALPINE


LOCATION Arctic Tundra North America - Northern Alaska, Canada, Greenland Northern Europe - Scandinavia Northern Asia – Siberia

Slide 10: 

Alpine Tundra North America - Alaska, Canada, U.S.A., and Mexico Northern Europe - Finland, Norway, Russia, and Sweden Asia - Southern Asia (Himalayan Mountains), and Japan (Mt. Fuji) Africa - Mt. Kilimanjaro South America - Andes Mountains


CLIMATE ARCTIC located in the extreme northern hemisphere around the north pole this area experiences low amounts of precipitation and extremely cold temperatures for most of the year typically receives less than 10 inches of precipitation per year (mostly in the form of snow) with temperatures averaging below minus 30 OF in winter in summer, the sun remains in the sky during the day and night summer temperatures average between 35-55 OF

Slide 12: 

ALPINE also a cold climate region with temperatures averaging below freezing at night this area receives more precipitation throughout the year than the arctic tundra the average annual precipitation is around 20 inches. most of this precipitation is in the form of snow a very windy area strong winds blow at speeds exceeding 100 miles per hour


PLANTS ARCTIC due to dry conditions, poor soil quality, extremely cold temperatures, and frozen ground, vegetation in arctic tundra regions is limited must adapt to the cold, dark conditions of the tundra as the sun does not rise during the winter months these plants experience brief periods of growth in the summer when temperatures are warm enough for plants to grow

Slide 14: 

ALPINE treeless plains located on mountains at extremely high altitudes. unlike in the arctic tundra, the sun remains in the sky for about the same amount of time throughout the year enabling the vegetation to grow at an almost constant rate the vegetation consists of short shrubs, grasses and rosette perennials

Slide 15: 

Examples of tundra plants include: lichens, mosses, sedges, perennial forbs, rosette, and dwarfed shrubs


ANIMALS animals of the arctic and alpine tundra biomes must adapt to cold and harsh conditions large mammals of the arctic like musk ox and caribou are heavily insulated against the cold and migrate to warmer areas in the winter smaller mammals like the arctic ground squirrel survive by burrowing and hibernating during the winter

Slide 17: 

other arctic tundra animals include snowy owls, reindeer, polar bears, white foxes, lemmings, arctic hares, wolverines, caribou, migrating birds, mosquitoes, and black flies animals in the alpine tundra migrate to lower elevations in winter to escape the cold and find food animals here include marmots, mountain goats, bighorn sheep, elk, grizzly bears, springtails, beetles, grasshoppers, and butterflies




TAIGA means “marshy pine forest" in Russian the taiga biome is home to the most beautiful and clean forests in the world also known as boreal or coniferous forests, forests of dense evergreen trees that extend across North America, Europe, and Asia


LOCATION Alaska Central Canada Europe Northern Asia - Siberia


CLIMATE extremely cold winters are long and harsh with temperatures averaging below freezing summers are short and cool with temperatures ranging between 20-70 OF annual precipitation is usually between 15-30 inches, mostly in the form of snow because the water remains frozen and unusable to plants for most of the year, taigas are considered to be dry regions


PLANTS due to cold temperatures and slow organic decomposition, taigas have thin, acidic soil coniferous, needle-leaf trees abound in the taiga these include pine, fir, and spruce trees other species of trees include the deciduous beech, willow, poplar and adler trees

Slide 25: 

taiga trees are well suited for their environment their cone-like shape allows snow to fall off more easily and prevents branches from breaking under the weight of the ice the shape of the leaves of the needle-leaf conifers and their waxy coating helps to prevent water loss


ANIMALS few species of animals live in the taiga biome due to the extremely cold conditions the taiga is home to various seed eating animals like finches, sparrows, squirrels and jays large herbivores like elk, caribou, moose, musk ox, and deer can also be found in taigas

Slide 27: 

other taiga animals include hares, beavers, lemmings, minks, ermines, geese, wolverines, wolves, grizzly bears and various insects to escape the harsh conditions of winter, many animals like squirrels and hares burrow underground for shelter and warmth other animals like the grizzly bear, hibernate through the winter still other animals like elk, moose, and birds migrate to warmer regions during winter


DESERTS dry areas that experience extremely small amounts of rainfall they can be either cold or hot


LOCATION Some locations of deserts include: Hot North America・West Coast of South America・Central Australia・ North Africa・Middle East Cold Antarctic・Central Asia・Greenland


CLIMATE determined by low amounts of rainfall, not temperature they typically receive less than 30 cm of rain per year the driest deserts often receive less than 2 cm of rain per year temperatures in the desert are extreme.

Slide 33: 

because of the lack of moisture in the air, heat quickly dissipates as the sun sets in hot deserts, the temperatures can range from above 100 degrees Fahrenheit in the day to below 32 OF at night cold deserts generally receive more rainfall than do hot deserts in cold deserts, temperatures in winter range between 32-39 OF with occasional snowfall


PLANTS due to very dry conditions and poor soil quality in the desert only a small number of plants can survive desert plants have many adaptations for life in the desert in very hot and dry deserts, plants such as cacti have thin needle-like leaves to reduce water loss

Slide 35: 

plants in coastal desert regions have broad thick leaves or large root systems to absorb and retain large amounts of water examples of desert plants include: cacti, yuccas, buckwheat bushes, black bushes, prickly pears and false mesquites.


ANIMALS deserts are home to many burrowing animals these animals include badgers, jack rabbits, toads, lizards, snakes, and kangaroo rats other animals include coyotes, foxes, owls, eagles, skunks, spiders and various kinds of insects

Slide 37: 

many desert animals are nocturnal they burrow underground to escape the extremely high temperatures in the day and come out at night to feed this allows them to conserve water and energy other adaptations to desert life include light color fur that can reflect sunlight some insects and amphibians adapt to their conditions by burrowing underground and remaining dormant until water


also known as deciduous forest areas with high levels of precipitation, humidity and contain a variety of deciduous trees deciduous trees lose their leaves in winter TEMPERATE FOREST


LOCATION Some locations of temperate forests include: Eastern Asia Central and Western Europe Eastern United State


CLIMATE have a wide range of temperatures that correlate with the distinctive seasons temperatures range from hot in the summer with highs of 86 OF, to extremely cold in the winter with lows of - 22 OF temperate forests receive abundant amounts of precipitation, usually between 20-60 inches of precipitation annually. this precipitation is in the form of rain and snow


PLANTS due to abundant rainfall and thick soil humus, temperate forests are able to support a wide variety of vegetation this vegetation exists in several layers ranging from lichens and mosses on the ground layer to large tree species like oak and hickory that stretch high above the forest floor

Slide 44: 

Other examples of temperate forest vegetation include: Forest Canopy Tier: Maple trees, Walnut trees, Birch trees Small Tree Tier: Dogwoods, Redbuds, Shadbush Shrub Tier: Azaleas, Mountain Laurel, Huckleberries Herb Tier: Blue Bead Lily, Indian Cucumber, Wild Sarsaparilla Floor Tier: Lichens and Mosses


ANIMALS home to a wide variety of animals animals include various insects and spiders, wolves, foxes, bears, coyotes, bobcats, mountain lions, eagles, rabbits, deer, skunks, squirrels, racoons, squirrels, moose and hummingbirds

Slide 46: 

animals have many different ways to deal with the cold and lack of food in winter some animals hibernate during the winter and arise in spring when food is more plentiful other animals store food and burrow underground to escape the cold many animals escape the harsh conditions by migrating to warmer regions in winter


SAVANNA Savannas are areas of open grassland with very few trees there are two types of savannas: tropical and semi-tropical savannas A savanna is one type of grassland biome


LOCATION Some locations of savannas include: Africa - Kenya, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa, Namibia Australia Central America - Belize and Honduras South America - Venezuela and Columbia Southern Asia


CLIMATE temperatures vary according to the season. in the dry season temperatures can be either extremely hot or cool in the wet season temperatures are warm savannas are typically dry receiving less than 30 inches of rain on average per year

Slide 52: 

tropical savannas may receive as much as 50 inches of rain in the wet season, but as little as 4 inches during the dry season the dry climate combined with the extreme heat in the dry season makes savannas ripe areas for grass and brush fires


PLANTS described as areas of grasslands with dispersed singular or clusters of trees the lack of water makes savannas a difficult place for tall plants such as trees to grow. grasses and trees that grow in the savanna have adapted to life with little water and hot temperatures

Slide 54: 

grasses, for example, grow quickly in the wet season when water is abundant and turn brown in the dry season to conserve water due to frequent fires, grasses also stay close to the ground some examples of vegetation in the savanna include: wild grasses, shrubs, baobab trees, and acacia trees


ANIMALS home to many large land animals including elephants, giraffes, zebras, rhinoceros, buffalo, lions, leopards and cheetahs other animals include baboons, crocodiles, antelopes, meerkats, ants, kangaroos, ostriches and snakes many of the animals that live in savannas rely on speed for survival, as the vast open areas provide little means of escape from quick predators

Slide 56: 

If the prey is too slow, it becomes dinner. If the predator is not fast enough, it goes hungry Camouflage is also very important to animals of the savanna Predators often need to blend in with their environment in order to sneak up on unsuspecting prey On the other hand, prey may use this same technique as a defense mechanism to conceal themselves from predators


GRASSLAND temperate grasslands and savannas are two types of grassland biomes. like savannas, temperate grasslands are areas of open grassland with very few trees. temperate grasslands, however are located in colder climate regions and receive less precipitation on average than savannas


LOCATION Grasslands are located on every continent with the exception of Antarctica Some locations of temperate grasslands include: Argentina - pampas Australia - downs Central North America - plains and prairies Hungary - puszta New Zealand - downs Russia - steppes South Africa - veldts


CLIMATE temperatures in temperate grasslands vary according to the season in winter, temperatures can plummet to well below 0OF in some areas in summer, temperatures can reach above 90OF temperate grasslands receive low to moderate precipitation on average per year (20-35 inches) most of this precipitation is in the form of snow in temperate grasslands of the northern hemisphere


PLANTS a difficult place for tall plants such as woody shrubs and trees to grow grasses of this area have adapted to cold temperatures, drought, and occasional fires these grasses have deep, massive root systems that take hold in the soil this allows the grasses to remain firmly rooted in the ground to reduce erosion and to conserve water

Slide 62: 

temperate grassland vegetation can either be short or tall in areas that receive little precipitation, grasses remain low to the ground taller grasses can be found in warmer areas that receive more rainfall examples of plants in temperate grasslands include: buffalo grass, cacti, sagebrush, perennial grasses, sunflowers, clovers, and wild indigos


ANIMALS temperate grasslands are home to many large herbivores some of these include bison, gazelles, zebras, rhinoceroses, and wild horses carnivores like lions and wolves are also found in temperate grasslands Other animals of this region include: deer, prairie dogs, mice, jack rabbits, skunks, coyotes, snakes, foxes, owls, badgers, blackbirds, grasshoppers, meadowlarks, sparrows, quails, and hawks


TROPICAL RAINFOREST earth's most complex biome in terms of both structure and species diversity it occurs under optimal growing conditions: abundant precipitation and year round warmth. there is no annual rhythm to the forest; rather each species has evolved its own flowering and fruiting seasons. sunlight is a major limiting factor


LOCATION found between 10 ° N and 10 ° S latitude at elevations below 3,000 feet. Rainforest Neotropical (Amazonia into Central America) African (Zaire Basin with an outlier in West Africa; also eastern Madagascar) Indo- Malaysian (west coast of India, Assam, southeast Asia, New Guinea and Queensland, Australia


CLIMATE tropical wet and dry climate predominates in areas covered by savanna growth mean monthly temperatures are at above 64° F and annual precipitation averages between 30 and 50 inches at least five months of the year, during the dry season, less than 4 inches a month are received dry season is associated with the low sun period


PLANTS A vertical stratification of three layer of trees is apparent.. These layers have been identified as A, B, and C layers: A layer: the Emergents. Widely spaced trees 100 to 120 feet tall and with umbrella-shaped canopies extend above the general canopy of the forest. Since they must contend with drying winds, they tend to have small leaves and some species are deciduous during the brief dry season

Slide 70: 

B layer: a closed canopy of 80 foot trees. light is readily available at the top of this layer, but greatly reduced below it C layer: a closed canopy of 60 foot trees. there is little air movement in this zone and consequently humidity is constantly high

Slide 71: 

trees are very tall and of a great variety of species One rarely finds two trees of the same species growing close to one another the vegetation is so dense that little light reaches the forest floor most of the plants are evergreen, not deciduous the branches of the trees are festooned with vines and epiphytes


ANIMALS animal life is highly diverse common characteristics found among mammals and birds (and reptiles and amphibians, too) adaptations to an arboreal life (for example, the prehensile tails of New World monkeys), bright colors and sharp patterns, loud vocalizations, and diets heavy on fruits

Slide 73: 


authorStream Live Help