Unit 10 : Unit 10 Content Reading and Writing: Strategies for Organizing and Remembering Part 1 : Part 1 Post-reading Strategies Our mission: : Our mission: Aid student comprehension and memory. Our mission: : Our mission: Most strategies involve restructuring information A good source: : A good source: The following source has information about writing portfolios, journals, and assessment. It is a look at the book “Teaching Writing in Contents Areas” by Vicki Urquhart and Monica McIver.
Source: http://books.google.com/books?id=iMmBlhUghvcC&pg=PA37&lpg=PA37&dq=Journal+writing+in+content+areas&source=web&ots=6Dhr26JloX&sig=4O-qe9iYRgWcehBXn5BDQPQISjk&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=3&ct=result#PPA40,M1 How? : How? Graphic organizers are... How? : How? Some examples are… What are graphic organizers? : What are graphic organizers? Why organize? : Why organize? To organize is to remember. Why organize? : Why organize? Post-reading activities help… The BenefitsofGraphic Organizers : The BenefitsofGraphic Organizers The Benefits : The Benefits Need we say more?
YES! Check out the next slides. How-to? : How-to? 1. Semantic Feature Analysis : 1. Semantic Feature Analysis Logic Puzzles: A kind of Semantic Feature Analysis : Logic Puzzles: A kind of Semantic Feature Analysis Rehearsing is not just reading. : Rehearsing is not just reading. So what is it? 2. Venn Diagram : 2. Venn Diagram 3. Mapping : 3. Mapping Mapping Part 2 : Mapping Part 2 What do you think? : What do you think? Part 2 : Part 2 Writing for Learning What? : What? Writing is another powerful strategy that promotes discovery, comprehension, and retention of information. It helps students clarify their thoughts and remember what they have learned. ELLs should write journals, in notebooks: to summarize and comment on their own learning, and perform research projects. How? : How? Learning Logs or Learning Journals are premised on the fact that reflective writing reinforces learning. The “VARK” model, where "R" refers to "Reading/Writing" states that reading, or better still writing, is a learning preference for many learners. Learning Logs are also useful tools for recording actions to be taken to reinforce or apply learning. Learning Logs : Learning Logs Teacher Prompt: In your own words, tell what you have learned about the human brain from today’s reading and activities.
Student Log Entry: I learned that the brain has a right and left half that are called cerebral hemispheres. But really the brain has four main parts—the cerebrum, the pons, the cerebellum, and the medulla oblongata. I also learned that when the arteries in the brain become blocked it can cause strokes. The brain doesn’t get enough oxygen and is damaged. Journal : Journal The purpose is to develop fluency with daily writings, to clarify ideas, monitor their own learning, and develop awareness of their preferred learning strategies.
There are a variety of journal types that can be useful in solidifying content knowledge.
It is important to note that comments on journal writing should concentrate on content not grammar.
For example, clarify a concept over which a student indicates confusion or give support for their entries. Journal Questions : Journal Questions 1) What did I do?
A description of the work that you and your group have been working on. Be detailed. We worked on...
2) What information about the topic did I already know?
A description of the things you knew about your topic and you used during the project. We knew that...
3) What did I learn?
What new things did you learn about the topic of your project? We learned that... We learned how to...
Give some examples of things you learned to do.
5) Troubles? Questions?
What do you still need help with? We can't figure out... It was really hard to... Example of PERSONAL journal entry : Example of PERSONAL journal entry Jan. 22, 2005
Today I was really annoyed at my coop because he told me I wasn’t putting enough enthusiasm into my delivery. I am using every BIT of energy I have. After all, last night I was up until 1:30AM doing these plans, correcting HIS tests for him. What does he think I am anyway? I can’t wait until he isn’t in the room with me anymore so I can teach on my own! What to write? : What to write? The general consensus of that self-selected topics are preferable. In a content area such as habitats, a student may write on dessert animals or plants of the rainforest .
Where possible context-enriched topics which embed abstract concepts in real-life experiences are preferable. Photo Essay: A Definition : Photo Essay: A Definition A photo essay, or picture story, is a way of showing a more complete story than is possible with one image. It is a collection of images that work together to tell a story. Generally, there are between 5 and 15 images, although more or less images are sometimes appropriate. Sometimes these images have captions, other times they do not. Why photo essays work? : Why photo essays work? This is a method using visual to organize thinking before speaking or writing. Students choose a topic for which they take a set of photographs, or they bring in photos already taken. They organize the photos to aid in their presentation of the topic. Water : Water Living Things Need Water http://www.windsorind.com/images/green/icons/Protect_Water_icon.jpg Slide 38: For Preparing
Food Microsoft Office Clipart Slide 39: For Transportation http://www.unitedstreaming.com Slide 40: For Drinking For Keeping Cool Microsoft Office Clipart Slide 41: Microsoft Office Clipart For Having Fun Slide 42: Without Clean Water… Microsoft Office Clipart Slide 43: Conserve water at Home http://www.unitedstreaming.com Slide 44: Take Short Showers or Baths Microsoft Office Clipart Slide 45: Conserve water in your Yard http://www.unitedstreaming.com Slide 46: Cover Pools When Not in Use Microsoft Office Clipart Slide 47: Sweep Sidewalks Instead of Washing with Water Microsoft Office Clipart Slide 48: Conserve Water at School Microsoft Office Clipart Water : Water Help Protect It! http://www.bonestroo.com/.../tabid/100/Default.aspx Curriculum Standards Kindergarten : Curriculum Standards Kindergarten II. Life Science Units of Study: Animals and Plants, My Body A. Characteristics of Organisms b. Investigate and identify the natural resources (food, water, and air) that living things need to survive.
II. Earth Science Units of Study: Rocks, Soil, and Water A. Properties of Earth Materials 1. Solid rocks, soils and water are earth materials. c. Describe a way to conserve water at home or at school. Kinds of Photo Essays : Kinds of Photo Essays Time sequence
Event Collaborative Research Projects : Collaborative Research Projects Oral, written, and oral-written
Written research projects involve collaborative reading and writing, and students need to be fairly proficient in English to be totally involved in them. Example: : Example: Oral history project: research topic by reading and interviewing people and report information to class orally and write a report Procedures : Procedures Step 1: Types of questions and purpose of the project
Step 2: Make questions for interview and how to conduct a good interview
Step 3: Conduct interview
Step 4: Transcribe notes; make chart of important elements of the interview
Step 5: Make generalizations and consolidate information
Step 6: Present material K-W-L Chart : K-W-L Chart Example : Example Part 3 : Part 3 Thematic Studies 1 : 1 The textbook covers an example of the learning program for an ELL studying the thematic unit of plants. Points of Interest : Points of Interest Teacher should make sure student have opportunity for scientific inquiry: observing, communicating, comparing events and objects, organizing information, relating concrete and abstract ideas, inferring and applying knowledge. This process helps develop critical thinking. Interest (con’d) : Interest (con’d) The teacher must ensure basic information is understood by all her students. Instructional Modifications for ELLS : Instructional Modifications for ELLS Maximize comprehension and participation
Illustrate not only talk about vocabulary
Use collaborative grouping with a balance of native speakers and ELLs
Assigned structured roles for activities
Meet one on one with teams and ensure that each student could contribute and share knowledge
Give many chances to speak, read and write for learning Assessment : Assessment It is similar to assessment in writing and literature.
Use a variety of assessment criteria: portfolio, informal observation, and student self-assessment
Always try to evaluate students’ knowledge through their modalities of strength Part 4 : Part 4 Assessment Why portfolios? : Why portfolios? Helps students to view what they have learned and it is easier to evaluate with students so that they know where they are and what they need to do What to include? : What to include? Assignments
Notes from Interviews
Tapes or pictures collected How? : How? All of the materials can be evaluated with the students to determine their level of participation in your class
Students self-select material for inclusion in the portfolio with the instructor assisting students to recognize their best work. Teacher’s Responsibility : Teacher’s Responsibility Set up an evaluation rubric. Give students explicit information concerning excellent and poor papers and their associated characteristics.
Students should know what they are working toward and have models of excellent, good and fair work.
Being explicit helps prevent problems with students and parents.
Making a checklist can help students track progress. How they help students. : How they help students. Portfolio systems empower students to take charge of their own learning and self-evaluations and to become more involved with assignments. Multiple Measures : Multiple Measures ELLs should be assessed in many different ways.
Students should be able to demonstrate their knowledge in the most comfortable mode: written, experimentation, oral to get a true picture of what information they understand. Grade-level Curriculum : Grade-level Curriculum NOT covered
Personal feeling is that it is not applicable to the Korean situation as the standards aren’t disseminated in English.
It mentions that the student’s native language is allowed in content teaching. How many of us have the proficiency to allow this? Does this apply to the Korean situation? Complaint : Complaint The situation in the textbook is difficult to relate to because: no longer teaching juniors, do not teach the hours required for thematic lessons, the environment is 100% EFL with no natives Summary : Summary Students must learn to read longer, more complex text.
Students need strategies to assist them.
Reading for academic learning involves reading to understand and remember.
Students must learn to set a purpose for reading, use background knowledge, monitor their reading based on purpose, & organize and remember what is important.
Discussed a variety of ways for writing to learn across the curriculum.
Strategies are to be used at the teacher’s discretion.
Thematic studies help to solidify knowledge.
Multiple modes of assessment emphasized. Questions for thought… : Questions for thought… What is the role of teaching vocabulary after reading? How does it help students’ memory?
What is the role of writing in remembering?
Why are colloborative projects valuable for ELLs?
How can thematic units enhance learning and retention?
How can we assess ELLs in content area learning?