History and Introduction of Law Enforcement

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Learn about the history and development of law enforcement in society in United States

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History of Law Enforcement:

History of Law Enforcement Scott Bernstein

Cave Dwellers:

Cave Dwellers Tribes or clans Customs and traditions Chieftains had executive, legislative and judicial powers Crimes committed handled by individual or family

Justice System:

Justice System Punish the offender There was no attempt at rehabilitation. Punishment was strictly to extract revenge and as an example to others Some of the punishments included; Boiling in oil, Flaying, Impalement, Burning at the stake, Stoning, Branding, Mutilation, & Crucifixion

When and why did law enforcement begin?:

When and why did law enforcement begin? A system of law and law enforcement began earlier than 2000 B.C . as a means to control human conduct and enforce society’s rules. Keeping the peace was the responsibility of the group.

Slide 5:

c. 2300 B.C. Lipit Ishtar, Sumerian Ruler, set standards for conduct. 1 .    If a man entered the orchard of another man and was seized there for stealing, he shall pay ten shekels of silver. 2 .    If a man cut down a tree in the garden of another man, he shall pay one-half mina of silver. 3 .    If a man married his wife and she bore him children and those children are living, and a slave also bore children for her master but the father granted freedom to the slave and her children, the children of the slave shall not divide the estate with the children of their former master. 4 .    If a man's wife has not borne him children but a harlot from the public square has borne him children, he shall provide grain, oil and clothing for that harlot. The children which the harlot has borne him shall be his heirs, and as long as his wife lives the harlot shall not live in the house with the wife.

c. 2250 B.C.:

c. 2250 B.C. Sumerian ruler Eshumma set standards on what constituted an offense against society. debt bondage was limited to three years maximum prices were established for basic commodities, including beer Wages were fixed by law, as were fees charged by housebuilders, physicians, veterinarians, boat caulkers and leasers of work animals, wagons and boats…

2200 BC:

2200 BC The code of Hammurabi Set offenses and punishments The original legal principal lex talionis (an eye for an eye) “The strong shall not injure the weak”

Figure 1-1 From the Code of Hammurabi (2200 B.C.):

Figure 1-1 From the Code of Hammurabi (2200 B.C.) If a builder builds a house for a man and does not make its construction firm and the house collapses and causes the death of the owner of the house––that builder shall be put to death. If it causes the death of a son of the owner––they shall put to death a son of that builder. If it causes the death of a slave of the owner––he shall give the owner a slave of equal value. If it destroys property he shall restore whatever it destroyed and because he did not make the house firm he shall rebuild the house which collapsed at his own expense.

Bow Street Runners:

Bow Street Runners Created by Henry Fielding in 1748 First police organization to actually patrol the streets Before watchmen stayed in their watch boxes Due to the increased mobility many more criminals were captured

Metropolitan Police of London:

Metropolitan Police of London Established in 1829 Recognized as the worlds first organized police force Created by Sir Robert Peel Composed of over 1000 officers or “Bobbies” Used a military command structure First force to have special uniforms

Colonial Policing:

Colonial Policing Colonial police similar to those in England The county sheriff was the primary law enforcement agent Paid for each arrest Investigated complaints, ran the jail and collected taxes

Modern American Police Departments:

Modern American Police Departments Philadelphia- 1833 First Paid daytime Police Force (ended 3 years later) New York- 1844 (put into effect 1 year later) Chicago- 1851 New Orleans and Cincinnati- 1852 Baltimore and Newark- 1857

Early American policing:

Early American policing Primitive in nature Most patrolled on foot Corruption and brutality common Very little training or supervision The major role was to maintain order

Police problems Then and Now:

Police problems Then and Now Bribery Lack of training Lack of control Political control Lack of education Brutality (no back up)

20th Century Reforms:

20 th Century Reforms Police uniforms first used in the US in 1853 First telegraph boxes used in 1867 1910 first police car was introduced in Akron Ohio Used by supervisors Easier to get backup

Professionalism In Policing:

Professionalism In Policing International Chiefs of Police (IACP) founded 1893 Advocated centralized organizational structures and record keeping Curbed the power of precinct captains who were under political control

August Vollmer Police Chief of Berkeley CA:

August Vollmer Police Chief of Berkeley CA Strong proponent of police professionalism Strict department rules High levels of training and education Strict discipline Military type organization

Results :

Results Chief Vollmer’s department had a reduction in corruption There was increased control over the police officers This created incorruptible crime fighters who did not question the authority of the central command

Law Enforcement Today:

Law Enforcement Today 14,254 to 18,760 separate police agencies in the U.S. 3,100 Sheriff’s departments Over 15,000 municipal police agencies 1,376 special police forces including; animal cruelty, beach, harbor, hospital, housing, port, railroad, sanitation, school, transit, and transportation authorities. More than 1,000,000 people are employed in policing

Municipal Police :

Municipal Police Most police officers are city police NYPD is the largest with 39,520 officers lieutenant and below. NYC P.D. 39,520 NYC Transit 4,600 NYC School 3,200 NYC Housing 2,700 NYC Port Authority 1,700 Total 51,720

Policing is expensive :

Policing is expensive $80,600 per year per officer (includes salary, benefits, and equipment) Annual cost to citizens – $179 per person If you need four (4) officers to have at least one officer on duty 24 hours a day what will that cost? This dose not include vehicle costs

County Law Enforcement:

County Law Enforcement Usually a Sheriff’s department, some have a county police department Except for Hawaii and Rhode Island county sheriff’s are elected In small population counties the Sheriff is responsible for the jail and court services

The first state police :

The first state police Texas Rangers established in 1835 Colorado Mounted Rangers 1861 PA Capitol Police 1895 Arizona Rangers 1901 New Mexico Mounted Police 1905 Pennsylvania Constabulary 1905

Introduction To Law Enforcement:

Introduction To Law Enforcement Scott Bernstein – Bounty Hunter Training Academy

Why have a state police?:

Why have a state police? Most state police were created in the early 1900s. This was in response to the highly mobile criminal who now had access to automobiles Also created to help counteract corrupt county sheriff’s departments

Federal Law Enforcement Agencies*:

Federal Law Enforcement Agencies* Justice Department Treasury Department U.S. Marshals INS FBI Bureau of Prisons FDEA Border Patrols NCIC AFIS Bureau of Customs Secret Service BATF IRS

Justice Department:

Justice Department Headed by U. S. Attorney General ______. Justice Department agencies FBI DEA U.S. Marshals Immigration and Naturalization Service Organized Crime and Racketeering Unit

FBI:

FBI Formed in 1908 to enforce the Mann Act They are limited to enforcing federal laws Fingerprint files Crime laboratory Compiles the Uniform Crime Reporting statistics – (UCR)

FBI continued…:

FBI continued… NCIC – National Crime Information Center NCIC keeps records of all individuals convicted of a crime in the U.S. These records are available to all law enforcement agencies through out the U.S.

DEA :

DEA Drug Enforcement Administration Was the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs Formed in 1914 to enforce the Harrison act DEA established in 1973 They investigate illegal importation and use of drugs

U.S. Marshals:

U.S. Marshals Provide federal court services Transport prisoners Enforce court orders

Organized Crime and Racketeering Unit:

Organized Crime and Racketeering Unit Investigate mob and gang activity Enforce federal racketeering laws

ATF - Alcohol Tobacco and Firearms :

ATF - Alcohol Tobacco and Firearms Control sales of untaxed liquor and cigarettes Enforce firearms and explosives laws

IRS:

IRS Internal Revenue Service Enforces income, excise, stamp and other tax laws Investigate the unreported income of drug dealers, gamblers and other illegal businesses

Customs Service:

Customs Service Guards the U.S. ports of entry to insure no illegal or taxable goods enter the country

Secret Service:

Secret Service Created to enforce counterfeiting laws Today they are also responsible for the protection for the protection of the president, vice president, presidential candidates and ex-presidents

Private Security:

Private Security 1.5 million security guards in the U.S. Compare to 840,000 police officers Over 1 billion dollars are spent on private security each year.

Responsibilities:

Responsibilities Alarm response Misdemeanor investigation Parking enforcement Body guard

Problems:

Problems Questionable impact on crime Lack of training and standards Private security may cause additional problems for the police

What is law?:

What is law ? Law refers to all the rules of conduct established and enforced by the custom, authority or legislation of a group, community or country. Law implies both prescription (rule) and enforcement by authority. In the United States, those who enforce the laws are not the same as those who make them.

Criminal Law:

Criminal Law Felony : a serious crime generally punishable by death or imprisonment for more than one year Misdemeanor : a minor offense generally punishable by a fine or a short term of confinement, usually less than one year

To prove a crime has been committed, it is usually necessary to prove::

To prove a crime has been committed, it is usually necessary to prove: Actus reus – material elements of the criminal act Mens rea – criminal intent

Criminal vs. Civil:

Criminal vs. Civil Crime Public wrong State prosecutes Seeks to punish Criminal intent required Tort Private wrong Individual prosecutes Seeks redress for injury Intent not necessary

42 U.S.C. § 1983:

42 U.S.C. § 1983 Anyone acting under the authority of local or state law who violates another person’s constitutional rights – even though they are upholding a law – can be arrested. (Section 1983 of 42 U.S. Code)

Slide 45:

Thank You – Scott Bernstein Bounty Hunter

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