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Volume 8 • Issue • 1000659 J Food Process Technol an open access journal ISSN: 2157-7110 OMICS International Research Article Journal of Food Processing Technology Journal of Food Processing T echnology ISSN: 2157-7110 Heiru J Food Process Technol 2017 8: DOI: 10.4172/2157-7110.1000659 Corresponding author: Menure Heiru Department of Chemical Engineering Dire Dawa University Institute of Technology PO Box-1352 Dire Dawa Ethiopia Tel: +251-251-118682 E-mail: heirumenure782gmail.com Received February 07 2017 Accepted February 27 2017 Published March 03 2017 Citation: Heiru M 2017 Effect of Grain Teff Sorghum and Soybean Blending Ratio and Processing Condition on Weaning Food Quality. J Food Process Technol 8: 659. doi: 10.4172/2157-7110.1000659 Copyright: © 2017 Heiru M. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use distribution and reproduction in any medium provided the original author and source are credited. Abstract This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of grain teff sorghum and soybean blending ratio and processing condition on weaning food quality with three specifc objectives. Therefore this study was initiated to address the protein energy malnutrition and sensory quality of weaning food. The proximate composition and sensory quality of blended samples were analyzed using standard methods. Processing condition had signifcant effect on nutritional and sensory properties of weaning food products. Moisture ash and crude fber were signifcantly p0.05 higher 7.76 3.21 2.34 respectivily. A signifcant high ash 3.85 crude protein 17.50 and crude fat 16.33 contents were observed in weaning food blend processed via fermentation. So the proximate analysis results obtained from feremented blend B 1 showed signifcantly higher p0.05 crude protien ash and crude fat contents 16.62 3.47 11.35 respectively and lower fber 1.2 content. The mean values of moisture protein fat fber ash and carbohydrate were 4.19 17.17 14.33 1.26 3.11 and 59.91 respectively in fermented weaning foods. Sensory analysis revealed that highly acceptable product was obtained from fermented blends of teff sorghum and soybean four. The color favor taste and overall acceptability scores of fermented blends were 5.72 5.83 5.77 and 5.77 on 7- point hedonic scale respectively. Among the treatments fermented weaning food was found to produce acceptable weaning food gruel enriched by protein ash and carbohydrate contents. So fermented weaning food was enriched by proximate composition and acceptable sensory quality as compared to other processing conditions. Effect of Grain Teff Sorghum and Soybean Blending Ratio and Processing Condition on Weaning Food Quality Menure Heiru Department of Chemical Engineering Dire Dawa University Institute of Technology Dire Dawa Ethiopia Keywords: Blending ratio Soybean Sorghum Tef Processing condition Weaning food compositiont Introduction Te growth and survival of infants afer the recommended period of exclusive breast feeding for up to six months depend on the nutritional quality of the weaning food 1. Breast milk is a sole and sufcient source of nutrition during the frst six month of infant life. It contains all the nutrients and immunological factors infant require to maintain optimal health and growth. Towards the middle of the frst year breast milk is insufcient to support the growing infant. Terefore nutritious complementary foods are needed to be introduced from six to twenty-four months of age 2. Tese complementary foods are traditionally composed of staple cereals and legumes prepared either individually or as composite gruels 3 and they are supposed to serve as the main source of energy and nutrients for babies at weaning 1. Tef Eragrostisis tef Zucc Trotter is one of the major and indigenous cereal crops in Ethiopia where it is believed to have originated and has the largest share of area under cereal crop production 4. It provides over two-thirds of the human nutrition in the country 5. Tis cereal is considered high in nutritional quality but limited information is available about its usefulness in weaning blends 6. Tef four is primarily used to make a fermented sourdough type fat bread called Injera 7. Soybean Glycine max is a source of high quality cheap protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids that are ofen used to improve protein quantity and quality of most cereals and starch based foods. It is rich in iron calcium and some B-vitamins though low in sulfur containing amino acids methionine and cysteine 8. Sorghum Sorghum bicolor L. Moench is a critically important crop in sub- Saharan Africa on account of its drought tolerance. Te main foods prepared with sorghum are: thin porridge in Africa and Asia stif porridge in West Africa injera and bread in Ethiopia traditional beers in Africa baked products in USA Japan and Africa etc. In Africa the majority of cereal-based foods is consumed in the form of porridge and naturally fermented products. Cereal-based thin porridge is prepared for fasting sick or convalescent people nursing mothers and weaned infants 9. Commercially made weaning foods are not available and if available most of them are priced beyond the reach of the majority of the population in less-developed countries. Tese foods are mostly manufactured using high technology and are sold in sophisticated packaging 10. Such weaning foods may not be feasible in developing countries like Ethiopia due to limited income and inaccessibility. Terefore there is a need for low-cost weaning foods which can be prepared easily at home and community kitchens from locally available raw materials such as sorghum soybean and tef using simple technology like germination and fermentation. And the most important nutritional problems in weaning foods consumed by the children in many parts of developing nations are protein energy malnutrition and defcient in essential macronutrients and micronutrients 1112. Te high cost and inadequacy in production of protein-rich foods have resulted in increased protein energy malnutrition among children and other vulnerable groups in the developing world 13. Terefore this work was initiated to evaluate the efect of grain tef sorghum and soybean blending ratio and processing condition on weaning food quality with the following specifc objectives: i. To determine the nutritional composition of weaning food blends of tef sorghum and soybean. ii. To determine the processing condition with the best potential for improving the nutritional quality of weaning food. iii. To evaluate the sensory characteristics of weaning blends processed.

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Citation: Heiru M 2017 Effect of Grain Teff Sorghum and Soybean Blending Ratio and Processing Condition on Weaning Food Quality. J Food Process Technol 8: 659. doi: 10.4172/2157-7110.1000659 Page 2 of 5 Volume 8 • Issue • 1000659 J Food Process Technol an open access journal ISSN: 2157-7110 Micro-Kjeldal method AOAC 17. Crude fat content was determined according to the method of AOAC 17 using soxlet apparatus and carbohydrate content was calculated as the percentage diference of proximate compositions. Sensory evaluation Sensory evaluation of the ready-to-eat formulated complementary foods semi-liquid were carried out on the taste favor color and overall acceptability by 30 staf members mothers and students using seven-point hedonic scale with score ranging from ‘like extremely 7’ to ‘dislike extremely 1’in Food Technology and Process Engineering Laboratory of Haramaya University. Statistical analysis Analysis of variance ANOVA was used to test for signifcant diferences between means of three replicate of blends and processing methods using the statistical analysis system. Results and Discussion Proximate composition of grain tef sorghum and soybean used in the weaning food Te proximate composition of weaning food ingredients used in this experiment is shown in Table 1. Te moisture contents were 8.08 7.80 and 5.39 for tef sorghum and soybean respectively. Te protein content of tef was 9.10 which was appreciably high compared to common cereals like maize rice and sorghum. Tis value was lower than 10.7 reported by Laike 18. Compared to other cereals tef has higher protein content than maize 8.3 sorghum 7.1 barley 9.0 millet 7.2 and almost equivalent to wheat 10.3 19. Te fat content of tef appeared to be lower than maize 4.6 but higher than wheat barley and millet and equivalent to sorghum 2.8. Whereas the ash content was lower than millet and higher than others. Apparently the ash content of tef observed in Gemechis variety was higher than sorghum Teshale variety. Carbohydrate contents were 76.74 78.24 and 37.98 for tef sorghum and soybean respectively. Te carbohydrate content of Gemechies tef variety was in close agreement with National Research Council 20 content 72. Te proximate composition of sorghum used in the weaning food were 7.80 moisture 1.14 ash 1.77 crude fber 7.87 crude protein 2.83 crude fat and 78.29 carbohydrate respectively. Carbohydrate content was high as compared to other common cereals and legumes. So the nutritional content of sorghum grain in close agreement with other varieties of sorghum i.e. it contains a reasonable amount of protein 7.5 to 10.8 ash 1.2 to 1.8 oil 3.4 to 3.5 fber 2.3 to 2.7 and carbohydrate 71.2 to 80.7 with a dry matter ranged from 89.2 to 95.3 depending on the type of cultivars 21. Such variations may be contributed by genotype water availability soil fertility temperature and environmental condition during grain development Serna-Saldivar and Rooney 22. Te proximate composition of soybean was 5.39 moisture 4.75 ash and 1.98 crude fber and 27.00 crude protein 22.88 crude fat and 37.98 total carbohydrate Table 1. Famurewa and Raji 8 reported Materials and Methods Experimental materials Ingredients of the composite blends were acquired from the following sources: Tef and sorghum were obtained from MARC Melkassa Agricultural Research Center and soybean was obtained from AARC Awassa Agricultural Research Center that grown 2013/2014 crop years. All grains were stored at room temperature until analyzed. Weaning blend formulation Weaning blends were formulated in 60 cereals to 40 legume ratios which yield the highest projected amino acid scores based on infant lysine requirements FAO/WHO/UNU 14. Ingredients were weighed and formulated in proportions as follows: B 1 20 tef + 40 sorghum + 40 soybean and B 2 30 tef + 30 sorghum + 40 soybean and B 3 40 tef + 20 sorghum + 40 soybean Processing methods Unprocessed control: All the test samples were cleaned free from abnormal odors broken seeds dust and other foreign materials including living or dead insects before ground to four. Sorghum and tef were milled in cyclone mill to a fne powder that able to pass through ≤ 250 µm sieve size. Ten the powder obtained was placed in plastic bag and stored at room temperature prior to blend. Soybean seed was grind to four using grinding mill. Natural fermentatio n: Fermentation was performed using the microorganisms naturally present on the grain. Slurries of the three composite blends 1:4 w/v were made from unprocessed control ingredients by mixing 200 g of four with 800 mL of distilled water in a sterile beaker. Slurries were fermented in a temperature-controlled incubator at 30°C for 72 hrs 15. Afer 72 hrs fermentation period the slurries were transferred into aluminum pans and then oven-dried at 55°C for 48 hrs. Fermented dry blends were further milled in to fne four using a home cofee grinder. Germination/sprouting: Germination was performed in a dark room following the modifed method Grifth et al. 16. Sorghum and soybean seeds were rinsed and soaked in distilled water 1:3 w/v for 9 hrs. at ambient temperature 23°C to 25°C. Seeds were dried and placed on perforated aluminum pans lined with flter paper then placed in a dark temperature controlled cabinet at 30°C for 12 hrs 24 hrs and 36 hrs germination. Germinating seeds were rinsed twice daily with distilled water to reduce microbial growth and to maintain adequate hydration. Sprouted seed was dried in forced air oven at 50°C for 20 hrs. Dried sprout sorghum and soybean were dehulled using mortar and pestle and milled to four by grinding mill. Proximate composition analysis Proximate composition of initial ingredients and blended samples of weaning food four were conducted using standard methods. Moisture content ash and fber content of ingredients and weaning blends were determined according to AOAC 17. Protein was determined by Ingredients Moisture Ash Crude fber Crude fat Protein Carbohydrate Teff 8.08 ± 0.51 a 1.84 ± 0.49 b 1.03 ± 0.18 b 3.19 ± 0.01 b 9.10 ± 0.35 b 76.74 ± 0.95 a Sorghum 7.80 ± 0.71 a 1.41 ± 0.13 b 1.77 ± 0.12 a 2.83 ± 0.09 b 7.87 ± 0.17 c 78.29 ± 1.06 a Soybean 5.39 ± 1.24 b 4.75 ± 0.83 a 1.98 ± 0.18 a 22.88 ± 0.37 a 27.00 ± 0.89 a 37.98 ± 1.34 b All values are mean ± Std. Dev on dry basis except moisture wet basis Table 1: Proximate composition of grain teff sorghum and soybean used in processing of weaning food .

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Citation: Heiru M 2017 Effect of Grain Teff Sorghum and Soybean Blending Ratio and Processing Condition on Weaning Food Quality. J Food Process Technol 8: 659. doi: 10.4172/2157-7110.1000659 Page 3 of 5 Volume 8 • Issue • 1000659 J Food Process Technol an open access journal ISSN: 2157-7110 interaction efect on crude fber content 2.66 was in B 3 of 36 hrs germinated weaning food blends and lowest 1.20 and 1.26 was in B 1 and B 2 of fermented weaning food four. Te crude fber content of germinated soybean blended weaning food signifcantly increased as compared to unprocessed control weaning food four. Tis is might be the decomposition of starch during germination to simple sugar. Te expected decrease in crude fber content during fermentation could be attributed to the partial solubilization of cellulose and hemicelluloses type of material by microbial enzymes and partly also by leaching. A previous study has reported a signifcant decrease of crude fber contents afer four days of maize fermentation 25. Te crude fber content of infant food is expected to be low as foods with higher fber content tend to cause indigestion in babies 26. Hence sample with lower fber content were rated good as potential weaning food. Fermentation as a process is promising to meet crude fber stands in the preparation of weaning foods from locally available cereals. Crude fat content for all blends varied signifcantly p0.05 resulting from diferences among individual ingredients and processing conditions. Te highest crude fat content 16.33 was recorded in fermented blend and lowest 8.83 was for unprocessed control blends. Interaction efects of blend on crude fat content was highest 16.33 in fermented weaning food blend B 2 and lowest 8.83 was in controlled weaning food four at B 3 . Weaning blend formulation of soybean increases fat provided more concentrated calorie source rich in the essential fatty acid linoleic acid. In reality desirable and more expensive oils are ofen consumed by household members other than the targeted child 3. Te interaction of blending and processing condition had signifcant p0.05 efect on protein contents Table 2. Te highest protein content 17.50 was observed in fermented weaning food blend B 2 and lowest 15.98 was in unprocessed control blend B 1 . Te protein content of weaning blends was increased probably due to a reduction of phytic acid which might have contributed to the improved digestibility observed in germinated and fermented blends. Khetarpaul that the proximate composition of soybean seed contains 40 protein 21 oil 34 carbohydrate and 5 ash. Te crude fat and ash content of soybean were in close agreement with Famurewa and Raji 8 but it varies in crude protein content. Te variation in crude protein content might be the varieties geographical location and soil fertility. Proximate composition of blended weaning food Efect of blending ratio and processing condition interaction on proximate composition of weaning food: Te proximate composition of each weaning blends made by fve processing method were summarized in Table 2. Te moisture content of weaning blend varied signifcantly p0.05 among processing and blending methods. Moisture content of 24 hrs germinated blend had highest 8.12 as compared to other processing methods. Te interaction efect of blend was highest at 24 hrs germinated blend B 3 8.12 and lowest 3.42 was observed in B 2 of fermented weaning food. Tis was most probably due to dry matter losses. Furthermore the values obtained for the moisture content and the associated dry matter of the weaning blend were suitable for an increase shelf-life of the food that was formulated from cereal and legumes. High moisture content aid microbial growth and reduce shelf-life of food products. Tus the reduced moisture content of the weaning food especially the signifcant drop in the moisture content serve as a positive processing step that will improve the quality of the product 23. Tese also reduce the cost of preservation and processing of the grain for both industrial and domestic uses. Te interaction efect of blending ratio and processing condition on ash content was highest in fermented and 36 hrs. germinated weaning food blend B3 3.81 and B1 3.90 respectively and lowest 2.50 was in B3 of fermented weaning food four. Lorenz 24 reported that ash content increases during germination to be apparent rather than true increases and resulted from the losses of dry matter. Te interaction of blending ratio and processing condition had signifcant p0.05 efect on crude fber content of weaning food four Table 2. Te highest B Moisture Ash Crude fber Crude fat Crude protein Carbohydrate Control B1 7.69 ± 0.45 abc 3.47 ± 0.15 ab 1.83 ± 0.30 cd 10.02 ± 0.34 def 15.98 ± 0.40 d 60.98 ± 0.63 abc B2 7.39 ± 0.36 cde 3.18 ± 0.17 b 0.95 ± 0.14 g 9.63 ± 0.11 ef 16.14 ± 0.35 cd 62.68 ± 1.12 ab B3 6.80 ± 0.43 e 3.16 ± 0.16 eb 1.39 ± 0.14 ef 8.83 ± 0.38 f 16.55 ± 0.21 bcd 63.25 ± 0.68 a Fermented B1 4.85 ± 0.49 f 3.85 ± 0.52 a 1.20 ± 0.02 fg 14.14 ± 0.85 b 16.91 ± 0.53 abc 59.02 ± 0.82 cd B2 3.42 ± 0.18 f 2.99 ± 0.00 bc 1.26 ± 0.13 fg 16.33 ± 1.93 a 17.50 ± 0.35 a 58.47 ± 2.17 d B3 4.31 ± 0.34 f 2.50 ± 0.17 d 1.31 ± 0.03 fg 12.51 ± 2.3 c 17.10 ± 0.44 ab 62.24 ± 2.82 ab 12 hrs. Germinated blend B1 7.04 ± 0.23 ed 2.65 ± 0.00 cd 1.61 ± 0.05 def 11.10 ± 0.61 cde 16.92 ± 0.21 ab 60.68 ± 0.58 bcd B2 7.16 ± 0.16 cde 3.31 ± 0.00 b 1.91 ± 0.21 cd 9.90 ± 0.01 def 16.48 ± 0.25 bcd 61.21 ± 0.17 abc B3 7.29 ± 0.63 cde 3.48 ± 0.17 ab 1.90 ± 0.15 cd 11.04 ± 0.29 cde 16.90 ± 0.54 ab 59.37 ± 1.01 cd 24 hrs. Germinated blend B1 7.47 ± 0.17 bcd 3.49 ± 0.50 ab 2.09 ± 0.14 bc 10.96 ± 0.21 cde 16.63 ± 0.17 abc 59.30 ± 0.48 cd B2 7.69 ± 0.18 abc 3.17 ± 0.14 b 2.43 ± 0.34 ab 9.77 ± 0.53 ef 16.55 ± 0.21 bcd 60.37 ± 0.33 bcd B3 8.12 ± 0.15 a 2.98 ± 0.00 bc 2.49 ± 0.30 ab 10.27 ± 0.13 def 16.78 ± 0.64 abc 59.34 ± 0.56 cd 36 hrs. Germinated blend B1 7.30 ± 0.33 cde 3.90 ± 0.34 a 1.75 ± 0.38 cde 10.51 ± 0.19 de 16.90 ± 0.14 abc 59.62 ± 0.78 cd B2 7.39 ± 0.15 cde 3.18 ± 0.16 b 2.36 ± 0.43 ab 11.59 ± 0.40 cd 17.05 ± 0.99 abc 58.41 ± 1.98 d B3 8.03 ± 0.20 ab 3.19 ± 0.50 b 2.66 ± 0.05 a 10.06 ± 0.58 def 16.91 ± 0.53 abc 59.11 ± 0.75 cd CV 4.9 8.31 12.72 7.85 2.84 2.04 All values are expressed as Mean ± STDV of dry basis except moisture wet basis Values in a column with the same letter are not signifcantly different p0.05. Note: B: Blending CV: Coeffcient of variation in B 1 : 20 teff + 40 sorghum + 40 soybean B 2 : 30 teff + 30 sorghum + 40 soybean B 3 : 40 teff + 20 sorghum + 40 soybean. Table 2: Effect of blending ratio and processing condition on proximate composition of weaning food .

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Citation: Heiru M 2017 Effect of Grain Teff Sorghum and Soybean Blending Ratio and Processing Condition on Weaning Food Quality. J Food Process Technol 8: 659. doi: 10.4172/2157-7110.1000659 Page 4 of 5 Volume 8 • Issue • 1000659 J Food Process Technol an open access journal ISSN: 2157-7110 Efect of blending ratio and processing condition interaction on sensory quality of weaning food: Te interaction efect of blending ratio and processing condition had signifcant p0.05 efect in the color of weaning food gruel. Te color of the thin porridge made from fermented weaning blended four was most preferred like very much by the panelists while the thin porridge prepared from 12 hrs. germinated blend and control four were least preferred for color like slightly. Te highest weaning food gruel color 6.33 was observed in B 3 of fermented weaning food blend like very much and least 5.10 were obtained in B 2 like slightly of control weaning food gruel. Te interaction of processing condition and blending ratio were signifcant p0.05 on weaning food favor Table 3. Te highest value of gruel favor 6.16 was recorded in fermented weaning food gruel of B 2 like very much and lowest 5.00 was recorded in B 2 of control weaning food gruel like slightly. Also interaction efect of processing condition and blending ratio had signifcant efect on taste of weaning food gruels. Te highest value 5.83 was in fermented blend B2 and B3 and lowest 5.00 was in B2 of control weaning food gruel. During fermentation the taste of weaning food gruel was preferred very much as compared to other processing conditions. Te panelists however noted that color taste and overall acceptability of the gruel prepared were highly acceptable. Overall acceptability of weaning food gruel were signifcantly p0.05 afected by processing condition and blending ratio Table 3. Te highest processing mean 6.00 like very much was recorded in fermented and lowest 5.10 like slightly was obtained in 24 hrs. germinated weaning food gruels. Te highest 6.00 overall acceptability of weaning food was observed in fermented sample blended at B 1 and the lowest 5.10 was observed in the 24 hrs. germinated sample of blended at B 3 . Generally sugar is by far the most important addition to complementary foods and is commonly added to improve the favor and to encourage infants to eat while fat acts as favor retainer and increases the mouth feel of foods 31. Oil also improves the taste/favor and Chauhan 27 reported improved in-vitro protein digestibility during germination and while improvements in in-vitro protein digestibility with fermentation were associated with proteolytic enzyme production by micro-organisms. Abdelhaleem et al. 28 reported that the observed increment in protein content afer fermentation was probably due to shif in dry matter content through depletion during fermentation by action of the fermenting microorganisms. However cells of the fermenting microorganisms could have contributed to the protein therefore fermentation of weaning blend results in an observable increase in crude protein content. In most human diets the protein is more limiting than others. Terefore application of fermentation process that appears to increase the protein content even at the expense of other nutrients may be advantageous nutritionally 28. Improvements in protein quality have also been documented afer fermenting blended mixtures of plant-based complementary foods based on maize and legumes groundnut and millet and cereal and soybean blends 29. Te improvement in protein digestibility afer germination dry heating could be attributed to the reduction of anti-nutrients such as phytic acid tannins and polyphenols which are known to interact with proteins to form complexes 30. Carbohydrate content was determined by diference. Te interaction of blending ratio and processing condition had signifcant p0.05 efect on carbohydrate content Table 2. Te highest 63.25 was recorded for controlled weaning food blend B 3 and lowest 58.41 was observed in 36 hrs germinated blends of weaning food B 2 . Te processing method signifcantly decreases carbohydrate content of weaning foods. Moreover fermentation and germination treatments decreased signifcantly the carbohydrate contents. Te decrease in total carbohydrate content of weaning food ingredient may be the starch and simple sugars are the principal substrates for fermenting microorganisms therefore degradation and subsequent decrease in starch content are expected 25. Te decrease in carbohydrate content might be the degradation of sugar by processing conditions. Blend Flavor/aroma Taste Color Overall acceptability Unprocessed control B 1 5.50 ± 0.90 bc 5.00 ± 0.90 c 5.36 ± 0.49 cde 5.16 ± 0.74 ef B 2 5.00 ± 1.08 cd 5.50 ± 0.90 ab 5.10 ± 0.54 e 5.16 ± 0.74 ef B 3 5.03 ± 0.80 cd 5.63 ± 0.96 ab 5.20 ± 0.71 de 5.56 ± 0.62 bcd Fermented B 1 5.66 ± 0.75 b 5.83 ± 0.69 a 5.50 ± 0.50 cd 6.00 ± 0.00 a B 2 6.16 ± 0.69 a 5.83 ± 0.37 a 5.33 ± 0.47 cde 5.66 ± 0.47 abc B 3 5.66 ± 0.75 b 5.66 ± 0.95 a 6.33 ± 0.47 a 5.66 ± 0.47 abc 12 hrs. Germinated blend B 1 4.80 ± 1.18 d 5.80 ± 0.61 a 5.33 ± 0.75 cde 5.36 ± 0.55 cdef B 2 5.23 ± 0.67 bcd 5.20 ± 0.61 bc 5.36 ± 0.66 cde 5.26 ± 0.63 def B 3 5.23 ± 0.85 bcd 5.56 ± 0.72 ab 5.10 ± 0.75 e 5.33 ± 0.66 cdef 24 hrs. Germinated blend B 1 5.33 ± 0.71 bc 5.43 ± 0.67 ab 5.36 ± 0.49 cde 5.46 ± 0.86 bcdef B 2 5.23 ± 1.13 bcd 5.40 ± 0.72 ab 5.66 ± 0.54 bc 5.56 ± 0.81 bcd B 3 5.23 ± 0.77 bcd 4.83 ± 0.69 c 5.26 ± 0.52 de 5.10 ± 0.54 f 36 hrs. Germinated blend B 1 5.10 ± 0.92 cd 5.56 ± 0.81 ab 5.40 ± 0.56 cde 5.50 ± 0.68 bcde B 2 5.23 ± 0.50 bcd 5.46 ± 0.57 ab 5.66 ± 0.47 bc 5.53 ± 0.57 bcde B 3 5.70 ± 0.59 b 5.63 ± 0.66 ab 5.86 ± 0.81 b 5.80 ± 0.61 ab Mean 5.34 5.49 5.45 5.47 CV 15.83 13.55 10.98 11.54 Values followed by different letters within a column indicate signifcant difference p0.05 using DMRT. : Mean ± SD CV: coeffcient of variation B 1 : 20 teff + 40 sorghum + 40 soybean B 2 : 30 teff + 30 sorghum + 40 soybean B 3 : 40 teff + 20 sorghum + 40 soybean. Table 3: Effect of blending ratio and processing condition interaction on sensory quality of weaning food.

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Citation: Heiru M 2017 Effect of Grain Teff Sorghum and Soybean Blending Ratio and Processing Condition on Weaning Food Quality. J Food Process Technol 8: 659. doi: 10.4172/2157-7110.1000659 Page 5 of 5 Volume 8 • Issue • 1000659 J Food Process Technol an open access journal ISSN: 2157-7110 13. Otegbayo BO Sobande FO Aina JO 2002 Nutritional quality of soybean- plantain extruded snacks. Ecology Food Nutri 41: 463-474. 14. FAO/WHO/UNU 1985 Energy and protein requirements: Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation. Tech. Rep. Ser. No. 724. World Health Organization Geneva Switzerland. 15. Chavan JK Kadam SS 1989 Nutritional improvement of cereals by fermentation. Critical Rev Food Sci Nutri 28: 349-400. 16. Griffth LD Castell-Perez ME Griffth ME 1998 Effects of blend and processing method on the nutritional quality of weaning food made from select cereals and legumes. J Cereal Chem 75: 105-112. 17. AOAC 1990 Offcial methods of analysis. 16th edn Association of Offcial Analytical Chemists Arlington Virginia USA. 18. Kebede L 2006 Effect of extrusion operating conditions on the physicochemical and sensory properties of grain teff puffed products. School of Graduate Studies Haramaya University. 19. Asrat W Frew T 2001 Utilization of Teff in Ethiopian diet. Narrowing the rift: Teff Research and Development Proceedings of the International Workshop on Teff Genetics and Improvement Debre Zeit Ethiopia pp: 239-243. 20. National Research Council 1996 Lost crops of Africa Volume I: Grains. National Academy Press Nutrition Society Washington DC 56: 105-119. 21. Idris WH Abdel Rahaman SM El Maki HB Babiker EE Tinay AH 2007 Effect of malt pretreatment on HCl extractability of calcium phosphorus and iron of sorghum cultivars. Inter J Food Sci Technol 42: 194-199. 22. Serna-Saldivar S Rooney LW 1995 Structure and chemistry of sorghum and millets. In: Dendy DAV ed. Sorghum and millets chemistry and technology. American Association of Cereal Chemists St. Paul MN pp: 69-124. 23. Kikafunda JKL Abenakyo Lukwago FB 2006 Nutritional and sensory properties of high energy/nutrient dense composite four porridges from germinated maize and roasted beans for child-weaning in developing countries: A case for Uganda. Ecology Food Nutri 45: 279-294. 24. Lorenz K 1980 Cereals sprout: Composition nutritive value food applications. CRC Critical Review of Food Sci Nutri 28: 353-385. 25. Ejiqui J Savoie L Desrosies TM 2005 Benefcial changes and drawbacks of traditional fermentation process on chemical composition and anti-nutritional factors of yellow maize Zea mays. J biol Sci 5: 590-596. 26. Olorunfemi OB Akinyosoye FA Adetuyi FC 2006 Microbial and nutritional evaluation of infant weaning food from mixture of fermented food substrates. Res J Biol Sci 1: 20-23. 27. Khetarpaul N Chauhan BM 1990 Effect of germination and fermentation on in vitro starch and protein digestibility of pearl millet. J Food Sci 55: 883-884. 28. Abdelhaleem WH El-Tinay AH Mustafa AI Babiker EE 2008 Effect of fermentation malt-pretreatment and cooking on antinutritional factors and protein digestibility of sorghum cultivars. Pak J Nutri 7: 335-341. 29. Gibson RSL Perlas-Hotz C 2006 Improving the bioavailability of nutrients in plant foods at the household level. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 65: 160-168. 30. Abbey TK Alhassan A Ameyibor K Essiah JW Fometu E 2001 Integrated science for senior secondary schools. Unimax Maxmillan Ltd Accra North 75: 376-451. 31. Walker AF Pavitt S 2007 Energy density of third world weaning foods. Nutri Bulletin 14: 88-101. 32. Helland MH Wicklund T Narvhus JA 2002 Effect of germination time on alpha-amylase production and viscosity of maize porridge. Food Res Inter 35: 315-321. 33. Inyang CU Zakari UM 2008 Effect of germination and fermentation of pearl millet on proximate chemical and sensory properties of instant “fura”: A Nigerian Cereal Food. Pak J Nutri 7: 9-12. of the product and reduces bulkiness of starchy food in the mixture 31. Germination also improves the consistency mouth feel and taste of the product 32. Inyang and Zakari 33 reported that sensory panelists are highly rated for formulations from germinated grains for all the sensory parameters investigated. Conclusion 1. An infant weaning food of high nutrient density could be formulated and prepared from a combination of tef sorghum and soybean. Blend formulation showed the strongest impact on nutritional quality and should receive attentions in the design and development of an infant weaning food. 2. Te present study showed that blending ratio and processing condition signifcantly infuenced the proximate composition mineral content and sensory characteristics blended weaning food four. 3. Processing conditions fermentation and sprouting were improved the proximate composition mineral content and sensory quality weaning food gruel. 4. Generally the present result suggests that blending ratio and processing condition signifcantly improved the nutrient density and sensory quality of weaning foods. References 1. Ogbeide ON Ogbeide O 2000 Mineral content of some complementary foods in Edo state Nigeria. West Afri J Food and Nutri 2: 26-30. 2. Mamiro SP Kolstreren P Roberfroid D Tatala S Opsomer AS et al. 2005 Feeding practices and factors contributing to wasting stunting and iron defciency anemia among 3-23 months old children in Kilosa District Rural Tanzania. J Health Popul Nutri 23: 222-230. 3. Huffman SL Martin LH 1994 First feedings: Optimal feeding of infants and toddlers. Nutri Res 14: 127-159. 4. Bultosa G 2007 Physico-chemical characterization of grain and four in 13 tef Eragrostis tef ZUCC. Trotter grain varieties. J Appli Sci Res 3: 2042-2051. 5. 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Brabin BJ Coulter JBS 2003 Nutrition associated disease. In: Cook GC Zumla AI eds. Manson’s Tropical Diseases. Saunders London pp: 561-580. 12. Millward DJ Jackson AA 2004 Protein/energy ratios of current diets in developed and developing countries compared with a safe protein/energy ratio: Implications for recommended protein and amino acid intakes. Public Health Nutri 7: 387-405. Citation: Heiru M 2017 Effect of Grain Teff Sorghum and Soybean Blending Ratio and Processing Condition on Weaning Food Quality. J Food Process Technol 8: 659. doi: 10.4172/2157-7110.1000659

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