Is Nano Medicine And Nano Technology The Most Trending Thing Now?

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Nano medicine is nothing but application of Nano technologies as medicines. It may include application of non-material as biological devices or nano-electronic biosensors. Molecular nanotechnology as biological machines may have medical applications in future.

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Research Article OMICS International Journal of Nanomedicine Nanotechnology Journal of Nanomedicine Nanotechnology ISSN: 2157-7439 Fathy J Nanomed Nanotechnol 2016 7:6 DOI: 10.4172/2157-7439.1000409 J Nanomed Nanotechnol an open access journal ISSN: 2157-7439 Volume 7 • Issue 6 • 1000409 Green Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Marine Red Algae Acanthophora specifera and its Antibacterial Activity Fathy WA Beni Suef University Faculty of Science Egypt Abstract Silver has been known since ancient history for its antimicrobial property. Synthesis it by eco-friendly method is a good thing due to its cost effective stability and environmentally favorable. In this study silver nanoparticles AgNPs were obtained by a green synthesis method. Alcoholic extraction of Acanthophora specifera was used to reduce silver nitrate salt to AgNPs. Structure of synthesized AgNPs which observed by the dark brown color development was characterized by X-Ray diffraction XRD where the crystalline nature of silver nanoparticles were cubic and its size was range in 33 nm to 81 nm. Moreover infrared spectroscopy FT-IR was identifed. Additionally the anti-microbial activity of AgNPs was recorded by using disk diffusion methods. AgNPs signifcantly reduced the growth of both gram positive Staphylococcus aureus Bacillus subtillis and gram negative Salmonella spp. Escherichia coli in addition to the unicellular fungus Candida albicans. Corresponding author: Wael Ahmed Fathy Beni Suef University Faculty of Science Egypt Tel: 201 082/2334551 E-mail: waelahmed770ymail.com Received August 28 2016 Accepted November 28 2016 Published December 05 2016 Citation: Fathy WA 2016 Green Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Marine Red Algae Acanthophora specifera and its Antibacterial Activity. J Nanomed Nanotechnol 7: 409. doi: 10.4172/2157-7439.1000409 Copyright: © 2016 Fathy WA. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use distribution and reproduction in any medium provided the original author and source are credited. Keywords: Marine algae Acanthophora specifera Silver nanoparticles XRD Antibacterial activity Introduction In this era nanotechnology has gained wide acceptance and importance. Te outcome of which is the production of nanomaterials like nanoparticles carbon nanotybes quantum dots and many more. A nanomaterial is any material that is synthesized under control conditions in the size range of 1:100 nm 1. Particles within this size range exhibit superior optical electrical and mechanical properties and therefore its extensive application 2. Nanoparticles are commonly synthesized using top-down and bottom-up strategies 34. In top- down approach the bulk materials are gradually broken down to nanosized materials whereas in bottom-up approach atoms or molecules are assembled to molecular structures in nanometer range. Bottom-up approach is commonly used for chemical and biological synthesis of nanoparticles. A wide variety of physical and chemical processes have been developed for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles but these methods are expensive and require the use of toxic and aggressive chemicals as reducing and/or capping agents 3. Moreover Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by biological method using algae has more advantages due to their benign process and ability of large scale production over chemical and physical methods 4. Terefore green chemistry should be integrated into nanotechnologies especially when nanoparticles are to be used in medical applications which include imaging drug delivery disinfection and tissue repair 5. Nanoparticles are one of the nearly every one sought materials for the future signifcant in many of the felds. Noble metals are silver palladium platinum and gold they exhibit a particular wide range of material behavior along the atomic to bulk transition 6. Among these noble metals silver have wide applications in jeweler dental alloy and health additive in traditional Chinese and Indian medicine 7. Silver nanoparticles have received considerable attention because of their unique chemical and physical properties which difer greatly from those of bulk materials as well as their potential for technological applications 8 Silver nanoparticles exhibit tremendous application in drug delivery 9 wound healing 10 sensor applications textile industry cosmetics and also used as antimicrobial agent 8 also it involved in the medical science due to their antimicrobial action in food pathogens 11. Te literature survey found that the marine red algae are rich sources of phenolic compounds especially bromophenols. Phenolic substances were reported to possess a wide range of biological efects including antioxidant antimicrobial anti-infammatory and vasodilator actions. Furthermore tannis and favonoids are defned as naturally occurring seaweed polyphenolic compounds which have been found only in marine algae 12. Marine red algae Acanthophora specifera is one of the macro algae that come under the order Ceramiales and family Rhodomelaceae. Te algae extraction is rich with a large scale of biomolecules compounds used as an antioxidant antiviral antifungal and antimicrobial activities have been detected in red algae 13. Reduction of AgNO 3 by using of the red alga Acanthophora specifera is an efective method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Tis alga is a very abundant biomass in nature easy performance at room temperature using dead biomass and environmental friendly compared to other chemical methods that use toxic chemicals. Material and Methods Collection of Acanthophora specifera and chemicals Alga was collected from red sea Hurghade Egypt AgNO 3 and the test microorganisms were kindly supplied by the Phycological Lab. Botany and Microbiological Department Faculty of Science Beni-Suef University. Preparation of alga extract Alga was dried well afer washing it by distilled water and pufng it from other associated materials. Afer drying alga was grind into fne powder. Te extract was prepared by taking 10 gm of powder and soaking it on 50 ml ethanol 95 for 24 hour with shaking. Ten

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Citation: Fathy WA 2016 Green Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Marine Red Algae Acanthophora specifera and its Antibacterial Activity. J Nanomed Nanotechnol 7: 409. doi: 10.4172/2157-7439.1000409 Page 2 of 4 J Nanomed Nanotechnol an open access journal ISSN: 2157-7439 Volume 7 • Issue 6 • 1000409 making centrifuge for 20 minute at 4000 rpm at room temperature. Finally keep the supernatant for using it on the reduction of silver salt to synthesis AgNPs. Syntheses of AgNPs It was achieved by adding 10 ml of algae extraction to 90 ml 0.001 M of AgNO 3 at room temperature. You note at once the color change to greenish yellow color on mixture AgNO 3 solution + Algae extraction which change gradually till become dark brown color which indicates the formation of AgNPs. Characterization of synthesized AgNPs Crystalline nature of the silver nanoparticles and its size were detected by XRD. FT-IR was used to identify the possible biomolecules responsible for the reduction of the Ag ions and capping of the bio- reduced silver nanoparticles synthesized by Acanthophora specifera. Antibacterial activity Is done by using disc difusion method on both gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtillis and gram negative bacteria Salmonella sp and Escherichia coli in addition to the unicellular fungus Candida albicans. Tese bacteria were freshly cultivated for 24 hour on nutrient agar and then each bacterial culture was inoculate on Muller Hinton agar then preparing discs 6 mm and loaded it by 200 µ of nanoparticles by the help of micropipette under aseptic conditions and plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Te zone of inhibition was measured using a ruler and expressed in mm 1415. Results and Discussion Before adding algae extract to AgNO 3 solution algae extract was green and AgNO 3 solution was colorless afer addition the algae extract to AgNO 3 solution the color change till be dark brown Figure 1. Dark brown color was observed indicate the formation of AgNPs. Such a color transition is ofen indicative of changes in the metal oxidation state. In this case Ag + was reduced to Ag 0 by some biomolecules in algae extract. So as the reaction time increasing the reaction rate was gradually increased. Tis clear in increasing the brown color gradually Figure 2. Tus the synthesized silver nanoparticles by algae extract increased which still stable for months due to the presence of stabilizing agents in algae extract. Te results were analyzed by XRD Figure 3 to ensure from the fnal product and crystalline nature of AgNPs. Tat was cubic crystalline also the size of silver nanoparticles were obtained range of 33 to 81 nm. Te 2θ values of XRD pattern was range from 5° to 80°. Tere are two peaks for AgNPs at 45.2° and 58.5° and other unknown peaks were observed it may be due to the fewer biomolecules of stabilizing agents are enzymes or proteins in the algae extract and other peaks don’t identifed it may belong to biomolecules of algae extract. In order to determine the functional groups on Acanthophora specifera ethanolic extract and predict their role in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles FTIR analysis was performed. Te spectrum showed a number of peaks thus refecting a complex nature of Acanthophora specifera. FT-IR absorption spectra of ethanol extract afer reduction of Ag + ions indications the capping ligand of the silver nanoparticles may be an aromatic and/or alkanes compounds Figure 4. Whereas the band at 3279.78 cm -1 assigned to O-H or COOH stretched the band at 2129.628 cm -1 assigned to CO 2 the band at 1639.579 cm -1 assigned to CC the band at 1016.139 cm -1 assigned to C-C and the band at 607.638 cm -1 assigned C-O group. Te groups of monosaccharide polysaccharide uronic acids and biological molecules such as secondary metabolites found on marine algae 1617. Could possibly play major role in the synthesis and stabilization of metal nanoparticles. Proteins could most possibly form a coat covering the metal nanoparticles i.e. capping of silver nanoparticles to prevent agglomeration of the particles and stabilizing in the medium 16. Antibacterial activity Te antimicrobial activity against these types done by disc difusion Algae extract AgNO 3 solution AgNPs synthesized Figure 1: Formation of dark color after adding algae extract. Next day 3h 1h 0.5 h At once Figure 2: Dark brown colour increase with time. 150 100 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Figure 3: XRD show Ag-NPs synthesized by alcohol extraction.

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Citation: Fathy WA 2016 Green Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Marine Red Algae Acanthophora specifera and its Antibacterial Activity. J Nanomed Nanotechnol 7: 409. doi: 10.4172/2157-7439.1000409 Page 3 of 4 J Nanomed Nanotechnol an open access journal ISSN: 2157-7439 Volume 7 • Issue 6 • 1000409 method. Ag-NPs signifcantly reduced the growth of the tested bacteria Figures 5-9. Although gram positive bacteria have a thick cell wall contain peptidoglucon. which sometimes no signifcant efects of nanoparticles on it. On the other hand a sharply clear zone was appeared for prepared nanoparticles against the tested gram negative bacteria which contain thin lipid layer. Where nanoparticles easily enter to the cell and disrupt it. Clear zone of Escherichia coli were 23.5 mm and it was the biggest one. Tat is means that it is more sensitive to Ag-NPs synthesized by Acanthophora specifera than other bacteria then come Salmonella sp its clear zone was19.5 mm those two types are gram negative type. Clear zone on Bacillus subtillis was also19.5 mm. But at Staphylococcus aureus was 18.75 mm. Tose two types are gram positive type. On Candida albicans clear zone was 20 mm. Te antimicrobial activity of AgNPs come from its ability to destroy the bacterial membrane. Trough binding with protein and it is also reported to uncouple respiratory electron transport from oxidative phosphorylation which inhibits respiratory chain enzymes or interferes with membrane permeability to protons and phosphate 18. Tree most common mechanisms were suggested on the activity of nano-silver on bacteria up to now: uptake of free silver ions followed by disruption of ATP production and DNA replication formation of Reactive Oxygen species ROS and direct damage to cell membranes 1920. Conclusion Silver nanoparticles were synthesized through an environment friendly method. Te ethanol extract of algae acted as a reducing agent and capping. Till prevent its aggregation. Tese AgNPs were characterized by XRD its size was range in 33 nm to 81 nm and crystalline nature was cubic. In addition to the may possible groups for reduction detected by FT-IR. Te anti-microbial activity carried against gram positive Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtillis gram negative Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli and yeast strain Candida albicans. Which give positive results against all. Results also revealed that the AgNPs synthesized here are a wide distribution anti-microbial agent. So it could use on various medicinal applications as a sterilizing agent on coating medicinal devices and on dental material. References 1. Abdel-Raouf N Al-Enazi NM Ibraheem BM 2013 Green biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Galaxaura elongate and characterization of their antibacterial activity. Arabian Journal of Chemistry. 2. Al-Amoudi OA Hawazin H Mutawie Patel AV Blunden G 2009 Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of Jeddah cornice algae Saudi Arabia. Saudi Journal of Biological Science 16: 23-29. 3. Albrecht MA Evan CW Raston CL 2006 Green chemistry and the health implications of nanoparticles. Green Chem 8: 417-432. Figure 4: FT-IR show the functional groups response for AgNO 3 reduction. Figure 5: Antibacterial activity of Ag-NPs against Salmonella sp. Figure 6: Antibacterial activity of Ag-NPs against Escherichia coli. Figure 7: Antibacterial activity of Ag-NPs against Staphylococcus aureus. Figure 8: Antibacterial activity of Ag-NPs against Bacillus subtillis. Figure 9: Antibacterial activity of Ag-NPs against Candida albicans.

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Citation: Fathy WA 2016 Green Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Marine Red Algae Acanthophora specifera and its Antibacterial Activity. J Nanomed Nanotechnol 7: 409. doi: 10.4172/2157-7439.1000409 Page 4 of 4 J Nanomed Nanotechnol an open access journal ISSN: 2157-7439 Volume 7 • Issue 6 • 1000409 4. Balantrapu K Goia D 2009 Silver nanoparticles for printable electronics and biological applications. J Mater 24: 2828-2836. 5. Cox S Abu-Ghannam N Gupta S 2010 An assessment of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of six species of edible Irish seaweeds. Int Food 17: 205-220. 6. Feng QL Wu J Chen GQ Cui FZ Kim TN et al. 2000 A mechanistic study of the antibacterial effect of silver ions on E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus Journal of Biomed and Mater 52: 662-668. 7. Gandesign M Anand M Ravikumar S Maruthupandy M Syed Ali M et al. 2012 Antibacterial potential of biosynthesis silver nanoparticles using Avicennia marina mangrove plant. Journal of Applied Nanoscience 2: 143-147. 8. Kumar A Vemula PK Ajayan PM Johan G 2008 Silver nanoparticles embedded antimicrobial paints based o vegetable oil Nat Mater 7: 236-241. 9. Kumar V Yadav SK 2009 Plant-mediated synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles and their applications. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 84: 151-157. 10. Kyung HC Park JE Osaka T Park SG 2005 The study of antimicrobial activity and preservative effects of nano silver ingredient. Electrochimica 51: 956-960. 11. Li H Carter JD Labean TH 2009 Nanofabrication by DNA self-assembly. Material stoday 12: 24-32. 12. Li W Xie XB Shi QS Zeng HY Yng YOU et al. 2010 Antibacterial activity and mechanism of silver nanoparticles on Escherichia coli. Appl Microb Biotechnol 85: 1115-1122. 13. Maneerung T Tokura S Rujiravait R 2008 Impregnation of silver nanoparticles into bacterial cellulose for antimicrobial wound dressing. Carbohydrate Polymers 72: 43-51. 14. Mohanpuria P Nisha K RANA Yadva SK 2008 Biosynthesis of nanoparticles: Technological concept and future application. J Nanopart 10: 507-517. 15. Prabhu N Raj DT Gowrik Y Siddiquas A Innocentd JP 2010 Synthesis of silver phyto nanoparticles and their antibacterial effcacy. Dig J Nanomater Biostruct 5: 185-189. 16. Sahayaraj K Rajesh S 2011 synthesis and antimicrobial applications. Science against microbial pathogens communicating current research and technological advances. 17. Shiny PJ Mukhejee A Chandraskaran N 2013 Marien algae mediated synthesis of Ag nanoparticles and its antibacterial effciency. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science 5: 239-241. 18. Simi CK Abraham TE 2007 Hydrophobic grafted and cross linked starch nanoparticles for drug delivery. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 30: 173-180. 19. Singh M Singh S Prasada S Gambhir IS 2008 Nanotechnology In medicine and antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles. Digest Journal of nonmaterials and Biostrucutres 3: 115-122. 20. Vaidyanathan R Kalishwaralal K Gopalrm S Gurunathan S 2009 Nanosilver- -the burgeoning therapeutic molecule and its green synthesis. Biotechnlogy Advances 27: 924-937. Citation: Fathy WA 2016 Green Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Marine Red Algae Acanthophora specifera and its Antibacterial Activity. J Nanomed Nanotechnol 7: 409. doi: 10.4172/2157-7439.1000409 OMICS International: Open Access Publication Benefits Features Unique features: • Increased global visibility of ar ticles thr ough w or ld wide distribution and inde xing • Sho w casing recent researc h output in a timely and updated manner • Special issues on the current trends of scientifc researc h Special features: • 700+ Open Access Journals • 50000+ editorial team • R apid revie w pr ocess • Quality and quic k editorial revie w and publication pr ocessing • Inde xing at major inde xing ser vices • Sharing Option: Social Netw or king Enabled • Authors R evie w ers and Editors re w arded with online Scientifc Credits • Better discount f or y our subsequent ar ticles Submit y our manuscript at: http://www .omicsonline .org/submission

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