Mutation

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Types of Mutations

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Presentation Transcript

Slide 1: 

MUTATIONS

Slide 2: 

A change in the genetic material of a cell. Good Bad Neutral Mutation

Germ cell mutations Somatic mutations occur in the organisms body cells occur in organisms germ cells 2 types:

Chromosome Mutations either changes in the structure of a chromosome or the loss of an entire chromosome. : 

Chromosome Mutations either changes in the structure of a chromosome or the loss of an entire chromosome. Where can mutations occur? Gene Mutations involve large segments of DNA or a single nucleotide within a codon.

Slide 5: 

Point mutation - substitution Frameshift mutation - insertions - deletions Gene Mutations

THECATSAWTHEDOG : 

THECATSAWTHEDOG THE CAT SAW THE DOG Word = Codon Sentence = Gene Letter = Nucelotide base

Substitution of one letter : 

Substitution of one letter THE BAT SAW THE DOG THE CAT SAW THE DOG 2. THE CAT SAW THE HOG 3. THE CAT SAT THE DOG ↑ ↑ ↑

Slide 8: 

- when a single nucleotide is replaced with a different nucleotide Base substitution Point Mutation

Sickle Cell Anemia : 

Sickle Cell Anemia DNA mRNA Amino acid C G T A Glutamic acid C A C G A U Valine T A Normal Substitution

Deletion- one nucleotide in a codon is deleted : 

Deletion- one nucleotide in a codon is deleted THE CAT SAW THE DOG THE ATS AWT HED OG Loss of one letter Loss of C

Insertion one nucleotide in a codon is added : 

Insertion one nucleotide in a codon is added THE CAT SAW THE DOG THE CMA TSA WTH EDO G Gain of one letter Insertion of M ↑

Slide 12: 

THE CAT SAW THE DOG THE ATS AWT HED OG THE CMA TSA WTH EDO G - Caused by the insertions or deletions of a nucleotide - Alters the triplet grouping of nucleotides into codons - Shifts the reading frame so that all nucleotides downstream will be improperly grouped. Frameshift mutations

Chromosome Mutations : 

Chromosome Mutations Deletions Inversions Translocations Nondisjunction

Deletion : 

Deletion Loss of piece of a chromosome due to chromosomal breakage Lethal mutation- cause death of the organism D E F G

Inversion : 

Inversion Chromosomal segment breaks off and reattaches in reverse orientation to the same chromosome

Translocation : 

Translocation Chromosome piece breaks off and reattaches to another nonhomologous chromosome

Nondisjunction : 

Nondisjunction homologous chromosomes during meiosis fail to separate ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑

Slide 18: 

Point Mutations- Substitutions Frameshift Mutations- Insertions or deletions Gene Mutations RECAP Chromosome Mutations Deletions Inversions Translocation Nondisjunction Homework due TOMORROW!