NRT CRT_Presentation

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Educational evaluation:

Educational evaluation Unit iv : Tools of evaluation C) Types of test- NRT & CRT

NRT- norm referenced test:

NRT- norm referenced test The NRT tests are designed to rank students in order of achievement, from high to low, so that decision based on relative achievements (e.g.. Selection, grouping, grading )can be made with greater confidence.-------------Grounlund.

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The NRT tests are designed to measure the growth in a student’s attainment and to compare his level of attainment with the levels reached by other students and norm group---------------------------------Bormuth

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The NRT are produced by commercial test publishers. The representative group is known as “norm group”. The norm group may be made up of examinees at the local level, district level, state level, national level.

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The derived scores generally reported for these published tests are Percentile rank : a number telling the percentage of examinees in a defined group scoring lower than the particular raw score.

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Linear standard score : a number telling the location of the particular raw score in relation to the mean and standard deviation of a defined group Normalized standard score : a number telling the location of the particular raw score in relation a normal distribution defined in terms of a particular group

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Grade score: a number telling the grade placement for which the particular raw score is the average for a defined group. Age score

Chief characteristics of the NRT :

Chief characteristics of the NRT Its basic purpose is to measure students achievement in curriculum based skills. It is prepared for a particular grade level. It is administered after instruction.

Uses of NRT:

Uses of NRT In aptitude testing for making differential prediction; To get a reliable rank ordering of the pupils with respect to the achievement we are measuring; To identify the pupils who have mastered the essentials of the course more than others; To select the bet of the applicants for a particular program; To find out how effective a program is in comparison to other possible programs

Chief characteristics of the NRT :

Chief characteristics of the NRT It is used for forming homogenous or heterogeneous class groups. It classifies achievement as above average ,average, or below average for a given grade. It is generally reported in the firm of percentile rank, linear score, normalized standard score grade equivalent score.

CRT:

CRT CRT- criterion referenced test Definitions :- Ivon (1970) defines a CRT as “one consisting of items keyed to a set of behavior objectives. Harris and stewart(1971) defines CRT as “One consisting of a sample of production tasks drawn from well defined population of performance.

Characteristics of CRT :

Characteristics of CRT Its main objective is to measure student’s achievement of curriculum based skills. It is prepared for a particular grade or course level. It has balanced representation of goals and objectives. It is used to evaluate the curriculum plan instruction progress and group student interaction.

Characteristics of CRT :

Characteristics of CRT It can be administered before and after instruction. It is generally reported in the form of, -Minimum scores for partial and total mastery of main skill areas. -Number of correct items. -percent of correct items. Derived scored based on correct items and other factors.

Uses of Criterion-Reference Testing:

Uses of Criterion-Reference Testing 1) to discover the inadequacies in learner’s learning and assist the weaker section of learners to reach the level of other students through a regular programme of remedial instruction. 2) to identify the master learners and non-master learners in a class. 3) to find out the level of attainment of various objectives of instruction.

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4) to find out the level at which a particular concept has been learnt. 5) to better placement of concepts at different grade levels. 6) to make instructional decisions of what to do with a learner in individually prescribed instruction programme.

1, Validity and reliability are needed in both. 2, Achievement domain is measured in both. 3, Sample of test items should be relevant and representative in both. :

1, Validity and reliability are needed in both. 2, Achievement domain is measured in both. 3, Sample of test items should be relevant and representative in both. Similarities between NRT and CRT

Similarities between NRT and CRT:

Similarities between NRT and CRT 4, Same types of items can be used in both. 5, Same rules are followed for writing items in both excepting the item of difficulty.

Differences in NRT and CRT:

Differences in NRT and CRT NRT NRT covers a large domain of learning task with just a few items measuring each specific task. It stresses discrimination among individuals. CRT It focuses on delimited domain of learning tasks with a relatively large number of items measuring each specific task. It stresses what examinees can do and what they cannot do.

Differences in NRT and CRT:

Differences in NRT and CRT It contains items of average difficulty. In this test, interpretation needs a defined group. It contains easy as well as difficult items. Interpretation needs defined as well as delimited achievement domain.

Students in NRT and CRT:

Students in NRT and CRT A student is tested after each unit (usually large) of the new material presented. A student is assigned the marks or grades to indicate his performance. A student is tested after each unit for mastery of objectives. A student is allowed to proceed to the new material if mastery is obtained.

Students in NRT and CRT:

Students in NRT and CRT A student is allowed to go to the next unit along with the whole class. A student is presented with the new materials of the next unit. A student is given remedial instruction if the material presented is not mastered. A student is tested again after remedial work to check for mastery of the material.

Students in NRT and CRT:

Students in NRT and CRT A student is tested for the new materials and assigned marks. A student is allowed to go to the next unit. A student is tested for mastery of objectives. A student is allowed to proceed to the next unit if mastery is obtained after remedial instruction.

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