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See all Premium member Presentation Transcript Stress Analysis : Stress Analysis Saurabh S. Chandra Dept. Of Conservative Dentistry Contents : Contents Introduction to Biomechanics Aims & Objectives of Stress analysis Various types of Stress Stress & Strain Curve Tooth –restoration interface Stress analysis techniques Various experiments using FEA Conclusion References Introduction : Introduction Traditionally Dental materials were subjected to mechanical testing only Biological analysis was limited to soft & hard tissues Nowadays, both Biologic & Mechanical testing of dental materials is mandatory Slide 4: “Biomechanics is the study of the physical behavior of biologic structures and the interactions between biologic and restorative systems” It is the application of mechanics to biologic systems Dental Biomechanics : Dental Biomechanics Mechanical stresses (Physiologic and Pathological) that the orofacial complex are subjected to are determined Response of the various oral tissues and restorative materials to mechanical stresses Stress Analysis : Stress Analysis “Stress analysis is an engineering discipline that determines the stress in materials and structures subjected to static or dynamic forces or loads” Aims & Objectives : Aims & Objectives To determine whether the structure can safely withstand the specified forces Achieved when the determined stress from the applied force(s) is less than the ultimate tensile strength, ultimate compressive strength or fatigue strength the material is known to be able to withstand Slide 8: Deformed Body Body What is Stress ??? When a Force acts on a body to produce deformation, A resistance develops to this external force, which is called STRESS Slide 9: It is the Force per Unit Area acting on millions of atoms or molecules in a given plane of material Stress = Force / Area Expressed in Units of Load / Area (Pounds/in2 = PSI or N/mm2 = MPa) (Ref: Dental Materials 11th Ed. – Anusavice) Slide 10: Engineering stress or nominal stress is defined as the ratio of the applied load to the original cross section of the specimen Engineering stress = P (applied load) / A (cross sectional area) True stress or actual stress is defined as the ratio of the applied load to the actual cross sectional area of the specimen True stress = P (applied load) / A (actual cross sectional area) Slide 11: 3 Types of Forces in Oral Cavity Continuous (Constantly present) Impact (One time force) Cyclic (Multiple Impacts) The direction of the force determines the type of Stress Types of Stress : Types of Stress 1.) Based on forces acting on the specimen: Simple stress: Tensile stress Compressive stress Shear stress Complex stress: Flexural stress 2.) Based on temperature changes on the specimen: Thermal stress Slide 13: Force (Two Sets of Forces) Acting in the Same straight line Acting Parallel to Each Other Twisting or Sliding Shear Stress Directed away From each other Directed towards Each other Leads to Elongation Compression or Shortening Tensile Stress Compressive Stress When a load is applied, the structure undergoes deformation as its bonds are compressed, stretched or sheared Compressive Stress : Compressive Stress If a body is placed under a load that tends to compress or shorten it, the internal resistance to such a load is called a Compressive Stress and it is associated with a Compressive strain Calculated by dividing the applied force by the cross sectional area perpendicular to the force direction Tensile Stress : Tensile Stress A Tensile Stress is caused by a load that tends to stretch or elongate a body and it is always accompanied by Tensile strain Tensile stress is generated when structures are flexed Shear Stress : Shear Stress It is produced by a twisting or torsional action on a material. A shear stress tends to resist the sliding on a portion of a body over another Shear stress is calculated by dividing the force by the area parallel to the force of direction Slide 18: Mechanical properties of a material describe its response to Loading Most clinical situations involve complicated 3-D loading situations; it is common to describe the loads in terms of a single direction (Compression, Shear, Tensile) Combinations of these can produce Torsion (twisting) or Flexion (Transverse bending) Slide 19: During loading, bonds are not compressed as easily as when they are stretched Materials resist compression readily and are stronger in compression than in tension As loading continues, the structure is ultimately deformed Strain : Strain Strain is defined as change in length per unit initial length Strain (ε) is deformation (▲L) per unit of length (L) Expressed as inch/inch or cm./cm. The Stress-Strain Curve : The Stress-Strain Curve With a constant increase in loading, the structure is ultimately deformed At first, the deformation (Strain) is reversible – Elastic Strain With increased loading, there is some irreversible strain which results in permanent deformation – Plastic Strain Slide 22: Elastic Limit Strain Stress Ultimate Strength Linear straight line till Elastic Limit Afterwards, its concaves towards the strain axis Ultimately leads to a fracture Slide 23: Elastic Strain – the deformation that is recovered upon removal of an externally applied force or pressure Plastic Strain – the deformation that is not recoverable when an externally applied force is removed Slide 25: The point of onset of plastic strain is called the Elastic Limit (Proportional Limit, Yield Point) It is indicated on the stress – strain curve as the point at which the straight line starts to become curved Continuing the plastic strain leads to Fracture The highest stress before fracture is the Ultimate Strength Slide 26: Elastic limit of a material is defined as the greatest stress to which a material can be subjected to, such that it returns to its original dimensions when force is released Materials that undergo extensive plastic deformation before fracture are called Ductile (in Tension) and Malleable (in compression) Materials that undergo very little plastic deformation are called Brittle Elastic Modulus (E) : Elastic Modulus (E) Also called Young’s Modulus or Modulus of Elasticity It describes the relative stiffness or rigidity of a material, which is measured by the slope of the elastic region of the stress – strain graph It represents the amount of strain produced in response to each amount of stress Eg. Ceramics have a higher ‘E’ than polymers, which means ceramics are stiffer Slide 29: Elastic modulus has a constant value that does not change and it describes the relative stiffness of a material The Elastic modulus of Enamel is higher than that of Dentin Depending on the area of the tooth, studies have suggested that the value may be 3 to 7 times Slide 30: Stiff Flexible Shape of S-S curve and magnitude of stress & Strain helps in classifying materials For eg. If the longitudnal portion of the curve is closer to the long axis, material is stiff Strain Stress Stress – Strain plot for Enamel & Dentin : Stress – Strain plot for Enamel & Dentin Slide 32: Enamel is stiffer and more brittle than dentin Dentin is more flexible and tougher and is capable of sustaining significant plastic deformation under compressive loading before it fractures Clinical Significance : Clinical Significance When a load is applied to a tooth, it is transmitted through the material giving rise to stresses and strains. If these exceed the maximum value the material can withstand, a Fracture results Clinical Application : Clinical Application The most useful properties of a restorative material are Modulus of elasticity (E) and Elastic limit A restorative material should be very stiff so that under load, its elastic deformation is minimal An exception to this is in Class V cavities, where Microfill Composites are used – They should be less stiff to accommodate for tooth flexure Slide 35: When selecting a restorative material, the clinician must bear in mind the stress level during function This should not exceed the Elastic Limit If the stress level is beyond the elastic limit, a resulting deformation is likely to occur which may cause failure at some point of time Slide 36: The elastic limit can be determined by various “Hardness Tests” Various hardness tests include: Mohs Rockwell Knoop Brinell Vickers Tooth –Restoration Interface : Tooth –Restoration Interface The biomechanical behavior of a restored tooth is of immense significance to the clinician A standard biomechanical unit involves - Tooth structure Restorative material Interfacial zone (Interface) Slide 38: In a normal tooth – loads are transmitted to dentin through enamel Dentin undergoes a small amount of deformation (Tooth Flexure) This amount of strain is proportional to the amount of load applied on the tooth Slide 39: A restored tooth transmits stress differently Enamel is not continuous and its resistance lowered Therefore, restorations should be designed in a manner in which the stress is distributed to the dentin rather than enamel Once in dentin, they act in a similar way as a normal tooth Slide 41: Stress transfer occurs between Restorative material to tooth structure Tooth structure to PDL From teeth to underlying bone Most common analysis is the stress transfer at the Tooth – Restoration Interface Slide 42: Stress Analysis… Stress Analysis of Dental Restorations : Stress Analysis of Dental Restorations Mechanical properties of a material used in dental restoration must be able to withstand the stresses and strains caused by the repetitive forces of mastication It is necessary to use designs that do not result in stresses or strains that exceed the strength properties of a material under clinical conditions Historical perspective : Historical perspective The main method for determining stress values and distributions has been by means of indirect experimental techniques Hoppenstand and McConnell used a model simulation to study the mechanical failure of Class I type amalgam restorations Mahler et al used a similar technique to investigate design aspects of Class II restorations Traditional methods of experimental stress analysis, include transmission and reflection, 2-D & 3-D photoelasticity, brittle lacquers and electrical resistance strain gauge techniques Slide 45: Techniques used for Stress analysis are: Theoretical: Use mathematical formulation and solution of the resultant equations Experimental: Involves measurements of various types made directly on the structures of interest or through the use of modeling of structure Slide 46: Theoritical techniques: Finite Element Analysis (FEA) Experimental techniques: Strain gauge Photoelasticity Fine Element Analysis (FEA) : Fine Element Analysis (FEA) Developed in 1943 by Richard Courant Used the “Ritz method” of numerical analysis and variational calculus to obtain approximate solutions to vibration systems FEA is a computer stimulation technique used in engineering analysis. It uses a numerical technique called Finite element method A common use of FEA is for the determination of stresses and displacements in mechanical objects and systems Slide 48: Finite element method, is a modern technique of numerical stress analysis Has the advantage of being applicable to solids of irregular geometry and heterogeneous material properties It is therefore ideally suited to the examination of the structural behavior of teeth Slide 49: Development of the finite element method in structural mechanics is usually based on an energy principle such as the virtual work principle or the minimum total potential energy principle Computer-aided engineering (CAE) is the application of computer software in engineering to evaluate components and assemblies in stress analysis (FEA / FEM) Slide 50: 2-D, FEM solution for a magnetostatic configuration (lines denote the direction of calculated stress and colour - its magnitude) 2D mesh for the image above (mesh is denser around the object of interest) Slide 51: This technique simulates actual continuous structures with discrete element mathematical representations The basic concept of this technique is the visualization of the actual structure, as an assemblage of a finite number of structural elements connected at a finite number of points The finite elements are formed figuratively cutting the original structure into segments. For two-dimensional applications, triangles of various sizes and shapes are usually the finite elements of choice Slide 52: Each element retains the mechanical characteristics of the original structure A numbering system is required to identify the elements and their connecting points, called nodes and a coordinate system must be established to identify uniquely the location of the nodal points A large number of simultaneous linear equations are computer generated, which establish compatibility within each element Slide 53: Two types of analysis that are used: 2-D modeling 3-D modeling 2-D modeling conserves simplicity and allows the analysis to be run on a normal computer; Results are less accurate 3-D modeling, however produces more accurate results but can run only on specialized computers How Does Finite Element Analysis Work? : How Does Finite Element Analysis Work? FEA uses a complex system of points called nodes, which make a grid called a mesh The mesh is programmed to contain the material and structural properties, which define how the structure will react to certain loading conditions Nodes are assigned at a certain density throughout the material depending on the anticipated stress levels of a particular area Slide 56: Regions that will receive large amounts of stress usually have a higher node density than those, which experience little or no stress Points of interest may consist of: fracture point of previously tested material, corners, complex detail, and high stress areas The mesh acts like a spider web, whereby in each node, there extends a mesh element to each of the adjacent nodes. This web of vectors is what carries the material properties to the object, creating many elements Steps in Finite Element analysis : Steps in Finite Element analysis There are 3 phases in FEA: Pre-processing – defining the finite element model and environmental factors to be applied to it Analysis solver – solution of finite element model Post-processing of results using visualization tools Slide 58: Pre-processing This is the first step in FEA, whereby construction of a finite element model of the structure to be analyzed is made This can be in either 1D, 2D, or 3D form, modeled by line, shape, or surface representation (nowadays 3D models are predominantly used) The primary objective of the model is to realistically replicate the important parameters and features of the real model Slide 59: The simplest mechanism to achieve modeling similarity in structural analysis is to utilize pre-existing digital blueprints, design files, CAD models, and/or data by importing that into an FEA environment After the finite element geometric model has been created, a meshing procedure is used to define and break up the model into small elements In general, a finite element model is defined by a mesh network, which is made up of the geometric arrangement of elements and nodes Slide 60: Nodes represent points at which features such as displacements are calculated FEA packages use node numbers to serve as an identification tool in viewing solutions in structures such as deflections Elements are bounded by sets of nodes, and define localized mass and stiffness properties of the model Elements are also defined by mesh numbers, which allow references to be made to corresponding deflections or stresses at specific model locations Slide 61: Analysis (computation of solution) The next stage of the FEA process is analysis The FEM conducts a series of computational procedures involving applied forces, and the properties of the elements which produce a model solution Such a structural analysis allows the determination of effects such as deformations, strains, and stresses which are caused by applied structural loads such as force, pressure and gravity Slide 62: Post-processing (visualization) These results can then be studied using visualization tools within the FEA environment to view and to fully identify implications of the analysis Numerical and graphical tools allow the precise location of data such as stresses and deflections to be identified Slide 63: Visualisation Results can be studied using visualisation tools within FEA based computers To view and identify the implications of the analysis, Numerical and Graphical tools are used These tools allow the precise location of data such as Stresses and deflections Slide 64: Results of FEA FEA predicts failure of materials which results due to unknown stresses by showing their problem areas This method of product design and testing is far superior to the manufacturing costs that would accrue if each sample was actually built and tested Slide 65: Difficulties in using FEA in dentistry The difficulty associated with the models elaboration, for they present different shapes depending on the tooth to be analyzed The difficulty involved in obtaining the mechanical properties of the tooth’s constituent materials: enamel, dentin, cementum, pulp etc. Furthermore, little is known about the contact areas between such materials and their degree of influence on the mechanical behavior of the tooth as a whole Experimental Techniques : Experimental Techniques Various experimental techniques can be used to predict stresses or strains and measure the mechanical response of a structure to simulated or actual loads Use either models of the structure of interest or the actual structure, depending on the technique employed Strain Gauge Photoelasticity Strain Gauge : Strain Gauge A strain gauge is a device used to measure deformation (strain) of an object Invented by Edward E. Simmons and Arthur C. Ruge in 1938 The most common type of strain gauge consists of an insulating flexible backing which supports a metallic foil pattern The gauge is attached to the object by a suitable adhesive Slide 68: A strain gauge is a long length of conductor arranged in a zigzag pattern on a membrane When it is stretched, its resistance increases. Strain gauges are mounted in the same direction as the strain and often in fours to form a full 'Wheatstone Bridge' Slide 69: They use the principle that when a certain electrical resistance is subjected to an object, it produces strain Tension produces an increase in resistance; compression causes a decrease in resistance Therefore, if such a strain gauge were bonded to the surface of a structure under a load, monitoring the resistance changes would yield knowledge of the strain characteristics at that point An experimental analysis of stresses using Strain gauge : An experimental analysis of stresses using Strain gauge In vitro study evaluated the stress transfer of different post and core systems to the cervical part of the artificially created flared root canals, by using strain gauge The post–core systems investigated were: (a) cast post–core system without resin reinforcement, (b) cast post–core system with resin reinforcement, (c) pre-fabricated post and resin core with resin reinforcement Slide 71: The post–core systems which were cemented on simulated roots were subjected to a load applied at an angle of 45° to the long axis of the simulated roots The strain gauges which were cemented to the cervical part of simulated roots were connected to the data acquisition module to measure and record the changes in strain data Slide 74: Specimens restored with resin reinforcement either with cast post–core or pre-fabricated post and resin core transferred the stress to the cervical part of the artificial roots at a rate lower than conventional cast post–core system It was concluded that the resin reinforcement of root canals before post–core applications reduces the stresses at the cervical part of the root surfaces Photoelastic stress analysis : Photoelastic stress analysis Based on the property of some transparent materials to exhibit colorful patterns when viewed with polarized light These patterns occur as the result of alteration of the polarized light by internal stresses into two waves that travel at different velocities The pattern that develops is consequently related to the distribution of the internal stresses and is called Photoelastic effect Slide 76: To use this special characteristic, a model of the structure of interest must be fabricated in the right dimensions and proportions The model should be made from a transparent material capable of exhibiting a photoelastic response The stresses that develop in the model as the result of the applied loads can then be visualized by examining the model with polarizing filters Automated Photoelastic Stress Analysis : Automated Photoelastic Stress Analysis Automated photoelasticity uses a computer to calculate principal strain differences and directions without the need to count fringes or rely on the subjective interpretation of fringe colours. Furthermore, photoelastic coatings allow for full field strain measurements to be made on a structure under load. Slide 80: The general procedure for photoelastic analysis involves bonding a special plastic coating onto the structure, shining polarized light onto the plastic, and then analyzing the resultant images. Advantages : Advantages Stresses can be determined in models of complicated three-dimensional shapes, such as the oral structures thereby facilitating the location and magnitude of stress concentration Stresses resulting from complex loading conditions, such as forces of mastication and forces produced by restorative appliances can also be determined Slide 82: Photoelastic stress analysis has developed into a powerful, accurate and widely used technique in engineering and industry to analyze areas of excessive stress concentrations It has facilitated the design of complicated structures and machinery and has had wide application in dentistry Two-dimensional Photoelastic Stress Analysis of Traumatized Incisor : Two-dimensional Photoelastic Stress Analysis of Traumatized Incisor In this study, stress of traumatized incisor and the effect of stress on tooth and alveolar bone was studied with two-dimensional photoelasticity Two homogeneous two-dimensional maxillary central incisor models were prepared Loads were applied to the labial side of incisal edge and middle third of the crown at angles of 45° and 90° It was observed that stress was increased on teeth and alveoler bone when load was applied 90° on labial side of incisal edge Various Experiments using Finite Element Analysis : Various Experiments using Finite Element Analysis Finite Element Stress Analysis of a Normal Tooth : Finite Element Stress Analysis of a Normal Tooth Enamel presents a similar behavior to ceramics, being a fragile material and crystalline (hydroxyapatite crystals) Anisotropic characteristic of enamel Researches try to present differences of enamel’s mechanical behavior when submitted to occlusal loads depending on the load directions in relation to the enamel (Spears 1993, Las Casas 2003) Slide 87: Motta et al analyzed the influence of enamel anisotropy on stress distribution in a sound tooth (Neves, 2003) In order to describe the results, paths were created Results showed that there is a difference in stress distribution between the isotropic and anisotropic enamel models FEA on a Mandibular Premolar : FEA on a Mandibular Premolar Normal mastication generates considerable reactionary stresses in teeth and their supporting tissues Enamel is assumed to be isotropic, has greater stiffness over that of the dentin The masticatiory forces tend to “flow” around the enamel cap although the dentin core remains lightly stressed This is seen to be the cause for isotropic or orthotropic enamel under single or two-point loading. Slide 90: As the modular ratio between the enamel and dentin decreases, the distribution of force between two components becomes less unequal Enamel near the DEJ is highly stressed because the reacted forces have to flow into and through this thin wedge of tissue for them to be transmitted into the root of the tooth Slide 91: Therefore evident that restorations inserted into the cervical region of the teeth can be subjected to direct contact stresses of mastication This may be the reason for pain often experienced by patients who have received cervically placed restorations High stresses are generated in the fissure under masticatory type loading Although these stresses are not as large in magnitude as those induced near the DEJ, they have consequences Slide 92: Tensile stresses tend to pull the enamel prisms apart in this region and may thereby assist the attack of caries in the fissures of premolar and molar teeth once the chemical demineralization of the enamel has been initiated The distraction of the cups would also tend to open up the margins of any restoration placed between the two occlusal contact points An increase in the marginal crevice would obviously encourage the separation of cariogenic material into these spaces and consequently assist in the breakdown of cavity margins placed in this area First molar with amalgam restoration : First molar with amalgam restoration The model is divided into a number of triangles The smaller triangles are located in areas of great interest The ability of various types of cement bases to support the amalgam was also studied Slide 94: The stress induced in amalgam restoration was from 4-5 times higher when the amalgam was supported by 2mm zinc oxide eugenol cement base compared with an equal thickness of zinc phosphate cement base. Zinc oxide eugenol cement base does not function as a rigid material and induces larger displacement and even thin layers induced significant changes in the stress induced in amalgam. The fracture of the amalgam is influenced more by the modulus of elasticity of the base material then by the compressive strength of base The cement base must have moduluis of elasticity equal to that of restorative material. Teeth with direct composite restorations : Teeth with direct composite restorations “In vitro” analysis was done in teeth with Class I cavity preparation by using different axial wall inclinations (convergent or parallel), and by inserting composite resin Teeth were sliced in the middle and the defects on the tooth-restoration interface were measured. Based on the data, a 2D model was designed for each cavity The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of axial wall inclinations in relation to defect presence and stress distribution when submitted to occlusal loading Slide 96: Results show different stress distributions in the two analyzed models Stress analysis of an upper central incisor restored with different posts : Stress analysis of an upper central incisor restored with different posts The effect of different anatomic shapes and materials of posts in the stress distribution on an endodontically treated incisor was evaluated Compared three post shapes (tapered, cylindrical and two-stage cylindrical) made of three different materials (stainless steel, titanium and carbon fibre on Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate (Bis-GMA) matrix) Two-dimensional stress analysis was performed using the FEA. A static load of 100N was applied at 45° inclination with respect to the incisor’s edge Slide 99: The stress concentrations did not significantly affect the region adjacent to the alveolar bone crest at the palatine portion of the tooth Stress concentrations on the post ⁄ dentin interface on the palatine side of the tooth root presented significant variations for different post shapes and materials Post shapes had relatively small impact on the stress concentrations while post materials introduced higher variations on them Stainless steel posts presented the highest level of stress concentration, followed by titanium and carbon ⁄Bis-GMA posts 3-D analysis : 3-D analysis 3D models of natural and abfraction lesions were constructed and submitted to FEM analyses (ABAQUS) under physiological and on-lingual-cusp-only loading conditions. The choice for lingual cusp loading was made based on 2D model results Conclusion : Conclusion Stress analysis techniques are invaluable for manufacturers of dental materials as they help in evaluating critical stress levels of various materials They help in evaluating the mechanical properties of dental materials under laboratory conditions and also give a three dimensional view Their accuracy has been a point of confrontation for many years References : References Sturdevant’s Art & Science of Operative Dentistry Phillips Dental Material – 11th Ed. Applied Dental Materials – Mc’ Cabe (8th Ed.) Dental Materials – Richanrd van Noort (2nd Ed.) Materials of Restorative Dentistry – Parameswaran Journal of Oral Rehabilitation Journal of Operative Dentistry Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry Journal of Restorative Dentistry You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.