Ethical Decision Making Frameworks: Hartashika Kaur Rajiv Purohit Saurabh Tiwari Sourav Sengupta Ethical Decision Making Frameworks The Need for Frameworks: It is important to have a method for ethical decision making as it will help explore the ethical aspects of a decision and in weighing the considerations that should impact our choice of a course of action. The more novel and difficult the ethical choice we face, the more we need to rely on discussion and dialogue with others about the dilemma. Only by careful exploration of the problem, aided by the different frameworks and insights of others, can we make good ethical choices in such situations. The Need for Frameworks Ross’s Framework: Relevant for the study of obligations Distinguishes between prima facie and actual duties based on intuitionism Prima facie duties are which we always have, provide a guiding framework Actual duty which we have to fulfill in specific and particular circumstances Ross’s Framework PowerPoint Presentation: DUTY OF… MEANING APPLIES TO FIDELITY Faithfulness, truth telling Actions previously taken such as contracts, promises GRATITUDE Keeping commitments with whom we have a relationship All past relationships from which we have benefitted, enjoyed support and nurture JUSTICE Go more by the spirit of the law rather than the laid-down letter of the law Recognize merit in general, not favour a specific group BENEFICENCE Do good to others SELF-IMPROVEMENT Person has to realise one’s self actualization Personal life NON-MALEFICENCE Not to harm or injure others and ourselves Politics and society Ross’s Framework Hodgson’s Three Stage Framework: Hodgson’s Three Stage Framework Emphasizes wants of stakeholders Rion’s Five Stage Model: Built around the need to have the ability to resolve ethical issues To make the leap from “Analysis” to making “Integrated Judgment” The set of questions one need to ask himself/herself: Why is this bothering me? What else matters? Is it my problem? What do others think? Am I being true to myself? Whether the problem decision maker is confronted with is an ethical one or not? The answer to this question makes way for further solution. Rion’s Five Stage Model Langenderfer & Rockness’s Seven Stage Framework: Consists of asking a series of questions when faced with the challenge of making an ethical decision Makes ethical issues and ethical norms and principles & values central to making decisions Langenderfer & Rockness’s Seven Stage Framework Langenderfer & Rockness’s Seven Stage Framework: The seven stages are: What are the facts of the case? What are the ethical issues in the case? What are the norms, principles & values related to the case? What are the alternative courses of action? What is the best course of action that is consistent with the norms, principles and values identified? What are the consequences of each possible course of action? What is the decision? Langenderfer & Rockness’s Seven Stage Framework Hall’s Seven Stage Framework: Two additional insights: Identifying immeasurable economic consequences How to implement decisions which are important from the point of view of the managers Hall’s Seven Stage Framework Hall’s Seven Stage Framework: The seven stages are: Define the problem Identify the stakeholders Identify the practical alternatives Determine the measurable economic impact of each alternative Identify the immeasurable economic consequences of each alternative Arrive at a tentative decision Decide how to implement the decision Hall’s Seven Stage Framework PowerPoint Presentation: Guy’s Ten S tage F ramework (1990) Built around certain core values such as goals or ends to be achieved, accountability, fairness, etc. Define the problem. Identify the goal to be achieved. Specify all dimensions of the problem. List all possible solutions to each dimension. Evaluate alternative solutions to each dimension regarding the likelihood of each to maximise the important values at stake. Eliminate alternatives which are too costly, not feasible or maximise the wrong values when combined with solutions to other dimensions. Rank the alternatives to each dimension according to which are most likely to maximise the most important values. Select the alternative to each dimension that is most likely to work in the context of the problem while maximising the important values at stake. Combine the top ranking alternatives for each dimension of the problem in order to develop a solution to the problem as a whole. Make a commitment to the choice and implement it. Guy’s Ten Stage Framework : Guy states that her ten core values are 'ethical standards that have survived the ages'. She adds that they also provide ' benchmarks for ethical decision making'. When put into practice, she states , they promote the virtues of moderation, order , resolution, industriousness, sincerity and humility '. Guy’s Ten Stage Framework Paine’s Three Lenses Framework: Framework is based on three dimensions of “responsible decisions”: Contribution to purpose Consistency with guiding principles Impact on people Although this framework does not provide a decision rule or a “right” solution to complex business decisions, it can help provide a view of the different perspectives , facilitating an examination of the necessary trade-offs and leading to responsible decisions. The framework is only useful, however, when decision-makers have the authority and ability to implement it and take responsibility for the action. Paine’s Three Lenses Framework Reference : Lynn S. Payne, “ Three Lenses for Decision Making ,” Harvard Business School, August 7, 1996, 2-396-200 Nash’s Twelve Questions Framework: Laura L. Nash poses 12 questions to help managers address ethical dilemmas. The questions are notable for: acknowledging that different parties may define the problem differently, comparing intentions against likely consequences , and considering the symbolic value of the decision. Nash’s Twelve Questions Framework Reference : L. Nash, L. (1981). “ Ethics without the Sermon ”. Harvard Business Review, Vol. 59, Nov/Dec. 1981. Nash’s Twelve Questions Framework: Have you defined the problem accurately? How would you define the problem if you stood on the other side of the fence ? How did this situation occur in the first place ? To whom and to what do you give your loyalty as a person and as a member of the corporation? What is your intention in making this decision? How does this intention compare with the probable results ? Who could your decision or action injure ? Can you discuss the problem with the affected parties before you make your decision? Are you confident that your position will be as valid over a long period of time as it seems now? Could you disclose without qualm your decision or action to your boss, your CEO, the board of directors, your family, society as a whole? What is the symbolic potential of your action if it is understood or misunderstood? Under what conditions would you allow exceptions to your stance? Nash’s Twelve Questions Framework Johnson’s Systematic Toolkit: The first step includes five considerations a decision maker should take into account before implementing the toolkit, namely : What motivated the need for choice : a sense of inquiry, improvement, or uneasiness? Is one framing a question, developing an argument, or deciding how to act? For the purposes of this decision only, what can be reasonably assumed to be true ? What is meant by the concept " values ", and what is the significance of values in making a choice? What constitutes a " quality judgment " and " quality action " under these circumstances? Johnson’s Systematic Toolkit Reference: K. Johnson, " An Approach to Ethics & Policy Decision Making ," EtchialEdge , 1999. http://www.ethicaledge.com/ethical_decisions.html Johnson’s Systematic Toolkit: Identify the desired result . A vision of a desired future? A question to pursue? An argument to support a position? A resolution of a dilemma? A solution to a problem? Describe the conditions or criteria that the result must meet to be satisfactory. An organization’s essential requirement is that the result is consistent with the organization's purpose and values, is feasible, suitable, cost-acceptable considering opportunity costs. Identify all stakeholders , i.e. who are involved, affected, and knowledgeable in the decision making process or will be in the result. What are their relationships? Search for all reasonably promising results and list them. Use brainstorming. What else is possible? Obtain all the relevant facts concerning the extent to which each of the proposed solutions will or will not meet the criteria for an acceptable result—or be likely to do so. Evaluate all the alternatives by examining them in terms of the criteria or conditions that a result must meet (essentials) and also those that are considered desirable(s ). Compare the alternatives and choose the one that best meets the essential and desired criteria. Carry the choice forward . Take responsibility for the choice, the quality action required to take it forward, and the consequences. Reflect on the consequences of the choice and the actions effecting it and learn from both the process and the consequences. Johnson’s Systematic Toolkit Thank you for patient hearing.: Hartashika Kaur Rajiv Purohit Saurabh Tiwari Sourav Sengupta Thank y ou for patient hearing.