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A disaster is the product of a hazard such as earthquake, flood or windstorm coinciding with a vulnerable situation which might include communities, cities, villages Two main components -- Hazard and Vulnerability 2 j m ovasdiDistinction between Hazard & Disaster: Distinction between Hazard & Disaster A hazard is a natural or man-made event, while the disaster is its consequence. The term disaster usually refers to the natural event – earthquake, floods in combination with its damaging effects –loss of life /property Hazard refers to the natural event, and vulnerability to the susceptibility of a population or system to the effects of the hazard. The probability that a particular system or population will be affected by the hazards is known as “RISK” Risk = Vulnerability x Hazard 3 j m ovasdiDistinction between Hazard & Disaster…: Distinction between Hazard & Disaster… There is no such thing as natural disaster – there are natural hazards Disaster is the large scale effect of the hazard on a community or environment The impact of disaster is determined by the extent of a community’s capacity to cope, that is the extent of a community’s vulnerability to the hazard – Disaster is the whole range of human dimension ----economic, social, cultural, institutional, political lives 4 j m ovasdiDisaster : Disaster The term ‘disaster’ is of French origin – combination of two words ‘ des ’ meaning bad or evil and ‘ astre ’ meaning star. The combined meaning is “Bad or Evil Star”. People all over the world have been considering natural calamities as ‘God’s punishment’. Thus disaster may be defined as an event, concentrated in time and space, which threatens a society or a relatively self-sufficient sub-division of a society with major unwanted consequences as result of the collapse of precautions which had hitherto been culturally accepted as inadequate. 5 j m ovasdiTypes of Disasters: Types of Disasters Natural Disasters Wind-related: Storm, cyclone, tornado, hurricane, tidal waves Water-related: floods, cloud burst, flash floods, excessive rains, drought, communicable diseases etc. Earth-related: earthquakes, tsunamis, avalanches, landslides, volcanic eruptions 2. Man-made Disasters Wars, battles, hostile enemy actions Arson, sabotage, internal disturbances, riots Accidents of vehicles, trains, aircraft, ships, forest and urban fires etc. Ethnic conflicts, terrorism etc. Biological disasters: epidemics, pest attacks, food poisoning etc. 6 j m ovasdiImpact of Disasters: Impact of Disasters People – loss of life in large numbers Property --Damage, destruction of property Infrastructure, Services --Damage, destruction of infrastructure, public service system Environment -- Damage, destruction of environment Crops -- Damage, destruction of crops Productivity -- Disruption, loss of production Economy -- Loss to national, local economies Life-style --Disruption, loss of community or lifestyle Social & Psychological -- Sociological and psychological consequences 7 j m ovasdiOrganization for Disaster Management: Organization for Disaster Management To take preventive and relief operations organizations have been set up at international, national and local levels IDNDR – International Decade of Natural Disaster Reduction: Secretariat in Geneva – Scientific and Technical Committee Union Level Organization for Disaster Management – Advisory committee and national executive committee National Disaster Management Authority and Sub-committee 8 j m ovasdiState & District Level: State & District Level State Executive Committee and its sub-committee State Disaster Management Committee and an advisory committee District Level – Local authority and its sub-committee District Disaster Management authority and advisory committee. 9 j m ovasdiRole of IDNDR: Role of IDNDR IDNDR works through IDNDR National Committee and Focal Points which exist in 138 countries (1989) IDNDR, located in Geneva, is part of the UN department of humanitarian affairs The IDNDR Scientific and Technical Committee is an advisory body with experts in economics, social sciences, engineering, public health, industry, geology, meteorology, etc. A group of well-known personalities, the Special High Level Council promotes global awareness of disaster reduction A UN inter-agency group works regularly with the IDNDR secretariat, as well as a contact group of Geneva-based diplomatic missions 10 j m ovasdiUnion Level Organization: Union Level Organization The National Disaster Management Authority Consists of the chairperson and nine members The Prime Minister is the Chairperson – ex officio All the members, not exceeding nine are nominated by the chairperson A Vice-chairperson is also nominated by the chairperson from among the members 11 j m ovasdiPowers & Functions of the National Authority: Powers & Functions of the National Authority Lay down policies on disaster management Approve the National Plan Approve plans made by the Ministries or departments of the Government of India Guidelines for the State Governments Guidelines for the Union Departments for the purpose of integrating the measures for prevention of disaster or the mitigation of its effects in their development plans and projects Coordinate the enforcement and implementation of the policy of plan for disaster management Recommend provision of funds Provide support to other countries as decided by the GoI Lay down broad policies and guidelines for the functioning of the National Institute of Disaster Management. 12 j m ovasdiNational Plan: National Plan The national Plan shall be prepared by the National Executive committee having regard to the National Policy and in consultation with the State Governments and expert bodies or organizations in the field of disaster management to be approved by the National Authority. The National Plan shall include -- Measures to be taken for the prevention of disasters, or the mitigation of their effects j m ovasdi 13National Plan …: National Plan … 2. Measures to be taken for the integration of mitigation measures in the development plans 3. Measures to be taken for preparedness and capacity building to effectively respond to any threatening disaster situations or disaster 4. Roles and responsibilities of different Ministries or departments of the Government of India in respect of the above The National Plan shall be reviewed and update annually Appropriate provisions shall be made by the Central Government for financing the measures to be carried out under the National Plan j m ovasdi 14Guidelines for Minimum Standards: Guidelines for Minimum Standards The National Authority shall recommend guidelines for the minimum standards of relief to be provided to persons affected by disaster, which shall include, -- The minimum requirements to be provided in the relief camps in relation to shelter, food, drinking water, medical cover and sanitation; The special provisions to be made for widows and orphans; Ex gratia assistance on account of loss of life as also assistance on account of damage to houses and for restoration of means of livelihood; Such other relief as may be necessary. j m ovasdi 15State & District Level: State & District Level At the state level Chief Minister , ex-officio, is the chairperson and eight other member nominated by him. The Chairperson of the State Executive Committee, ex officio, is also a member of the State Authority and he is the Vice-Chairperson of the State Authority. District Disaster Management Authority is headed by the DM/Collector/Deputy Commissioner with seven other members including the elected representative of the local authority (co-chairperson) / Chief Executive Officer of the District Authority in the Tribal Areas, ex-officio, the SP/SSP, ex-officio, the Chief Medical Officer, and two other district level officers to be nominated by the state government. 16 j m ovasdiState & District Level…: State & District Level… In a district where zila parishad exists, the chairperson thereof shall be the co-chairperson of the District Authority. Additional Collector of the district shall be the Chief Executive officer of the District Authority . Advisory Committee -- The State Authority may constitute an advisory committee, consisting of experts in the field of disaster management and having practical experience of disaster management to make recommendations on different aspects of disaster management. j m ovasdi 17Powers & Functions of State Authority: Powers & Functions of State Authority Lay down the State disaster management policy Approve the State Plan in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the National Authority Approve the disaster management plans prepared by the departments of the State Government Lay down guidelines to be followed by the departments of the State Government for the purpose of integration of measures for prevention of disasters and mitigation in their development plans and projects and provide necessary technical assistance thereof; Coordinate the implementation of the State Plan; Recommend provision of funds for mitigation and preparedness measures; j m ovasdi 18Functions of the State Executive Committee: Functions of the State Executive Committee Coordinate and monitor the implementation of the National Policy, the National Plan and the State Plan Examine the vulnerability of different parts of the state to different forms of disasters and specify measures to be taken for their prevention or mitigation Lay down guidelines for preparation of disaster management plans by the departments of the State Government and District Authorities Evaluate preparedness at all governmental and non-governmental levels to respond to any threatening disaster situation or disaster and give directions j m ovasdi 19Functions of the State Executive Committee…: Functions of the State Executive Committee… Promote general education, awareness and community training in regard to the forms of disasters to which parts of the state are vulnerable and the measures that may be taken by such community to prevent the disaster, mitigate and respond to such disaster Provide technical assistance to District and local authorities for carrying out their functions effectively Advise the State Government regarding all financial matters relating to disaster management Examine the suitability of the infrastructure planned and executed for disaster prevention and mitigation Provide information to the National Authority relating to different aspects of disaster management. j m ovasdi 20Role & Responsibility of District Authority: Role & Responsibility of District Authority Prepare disaster management plan including district response Coordinate and monitor the implementation of the National and State policy Identification of vulnerable areas of the district for taking preventive as well as relief arrangements Give directions to the various district authorities for prevention and mitigation of disasters Organize special training programs for different levels to officers, employees, volunteers Set-up, maintain, review, update early warnings system and district response mechanism …. 21 j m ovasdiRole & Responsibility of District Authority…: Role & Responsibility of District Authority… Establish stockpiles of relief and rescue materials Identify buildings and places which could be used in the event of a threat or actual disaster Involve the NGOs and other social-welfare institutions working at grass-roots level in the district for disaster management Ensure the efficient working of communication system and devise an alternative system of communication Carry out periodical drills involving authorities, NGOs and the general public. 22 j m ovasdiRole & Responsibility of District Authority…: Role & Responsibility of District Authority… Provide information to the State Authority relating to different aspects of disaster management Review the state of capabilities for responding to any disaster or threatening disaster situation in the district and give necessary directions to the relevant departments or authorities at the district level for their up gradation as may be necessary Perform such other functions as the State Government or State Authority may assign to it for disaster management in the district. j m ovasdi 23In the Event of Threat or Disaster…: In the Event of Threat or Disaster… The District Authority may Give directions for the release and use of resources available with any department of the government and the local authority in the district; Control and restrict the vehicular traffic to, from within, the vulnerable, or affected area; Control and restrict the entry of any person, his movement within and departure from, a vulnerable or affected area; Remove debris, conduct search and carry out rescue operations; Provide shelter, food, drinking water and essential provisions, healthcare and services; Establish emergency communication systems in the affected area; … j m ovasdi 24In the Event of Threat or Disaster…: In the Event of Threat or Disaster… Make arrangements for the disposal of the unclaimed dead bodies; Consult experts in the relevant fields to advise and assist it may deem necessary; Procure exclusive or preferential use of amenities from any authority or person; Construct temporary bridges or other necessary structures and demolish structures which may be hazardous to public or aggravate the effects of the disaster; Ensure that the NGOs carry out their activities in an equitable and non-discriminatory manner; Take any other such step as may be necessary. j m ovasdi 25Disaster Management: Disaster Management Four major Components Preparedness – measures designed to organize and facilitate timely and effective rescue, relief and rehabilitation measures at all levels international to national and local Prevention – advance planning and environment protection Mitigation – to reduce both the effect of hazard and vulnerable conditions through sustainable development Rehabilitation – returning to normal or better life through well laid out plans. j m ovasdi 26Preparedness, Prevention, Mitigation and Rehabilitation : Preparedness, Prevention, Mitigation and Rehabilitation Prevention is better than cure Preparedness is the first initiative of prevention Preparedness for disasters done meticulously means half of the problem is solved In developed countries preparedness and prevention help them in minimizing loss to life and property In developing countries, including India, the story is different 27 j m ovasdiDisaster Preparedness: Disaster Preparedness Disaster preparedness is a continuous process It involves the following steps: Identification of disaster prone areas and regions Establishing communication, information, and warning system Designing coordination and response mechanism Planning for financial and other resources for increased readiness which can be mobilized in disaster situations Public education and involvement of civil society organizations Regular drills to check the responses of the various systems, authorities and organizations Identification of existing and/ or building infrastructure required for sheltering the people at the time of threat or after the disaster has struck 28 j m ovasdiPrevention : Prevention A culture of prevention is to be installed in all communities and among disaster managers. Principles of disaster management are Risk assessment is necessary for adoption of adequate and effective disaster reduction policies Disaster prevention & preparedness are of primary importance in reducing the need for disaster relief It should be apart of development policy and planning at the national, regional, bilateral, multilateral and international levels Early warning system and effective communication system are a must Participation of local communities and CSOs and NGOs International community to share necessary technology to prevent, reduce and mitigate disasters. j m ovasdi 29Mitigation : Mitigation Mitigation is the measures taken to reduce both the effect of the hazard itself and the vulnerable conditions to it in order to reduce the scale of a future disaster Examples – water management in drought prone areas, building of dams/ bunds and other such measures to reduce the chances of floods, early and correct warning systems for the people and fishermen on the coastal areas, regular inspection of infrastructure to avoid their collapse, building bunkers for citizens in case of war, adequate pre-storage of necessities required for use after a disaster. 30 j m ovasdiPrinciples of Mitigation: Principles of Mitigation Integrating disaster mitigation with development plans Effective communication systems Use of latest IT technology Insurance in all relevant sectors Extensive public awareness and education campaigns in urban and rural areas Legal and legislative support Greater involvement of NGOs/private sector Allocating separate funds for disaster relief in normal budget Strict review of housing, drainage, pollution control measures. j m ovasdi 31Relief and Rehabilitation : Relief and Rehabilitation Relief and rehabilitation are the most important steps needed to be taken immediately after a disaster Indians are very sympathetic to the people in distress. Whenever there are floods, serious accidents or any other calamity people contribute old clothes and food necessary for the immediate help needed by the victims of the calamities NGOs, volunteers, doctors rush to the site of a calamity and after a couple of days they leave for the safety of their own homes. 32 j m ovasdiIngredients of Effective Rehabilitation: Ingredients of Effective Rehabilitation Prepare Disaster plans area-wise Effective coordination to avoid delays and provide timely helps Psychological counseling to kindle will power among the disaster affected people Effective coordination in assessment of the damages and the priorities of relief arrangements Harmony and goodwill among all sections of the society avoiding political and community discrimination Good governance through dedicated, honest and hardworking personnel in administration Involvement of CSOs, NGOs, and general public in different levels of relief and rehabilitation measures – immediate, short-term, and long term Permanent rehabilitation measures should be taken to minimize possibilities of similar disasters in future j m ovasdi 33Disaster Management Act 2005: Disaster Management Act 2005 Definition: “Disaster means a catastrophe, mishap, calamity or grave occurrence in any area, arising from natural or man-made cause, or by accident or negligence which results in substantial loss of life or human suffering or damage to, and destruction of property, or damage to or degradation of environment, and is of such nature or magnitude as to be beyond the coping capacity of the community of the affected area.” 34 j m ovasdiDisaster Management Act 2005: Disaster Management Act 2005 Disaster Management means a continuous and integrated process of planning, organizing, coordinating and implementation measures which are necessary or expedient for – Prevention of danger or threat of any disaster; Mitigation or reduction of risk of any disaster or its severity or consequences; Capacity-building; Preparedness to deal with any disaster; Prompt response to any threatening disaster situation or disaster; Assessing the severity or magnitude of effects of any disaster; Evacuation, rescue and relief; and Rehabilitation and reconstruction. 35 j m ovasdiBasic Features of NDMA: Basic Features of NDMA Coordination and monitoring The role of elders, senior citizens, and locally respected leaders; The role of the NGOs, Self-Help Groups and other Community Based Organizations (CBOs); The role of women as active participants in DM including risk reduction, mitigation, preparedness and awareness generation; The role of urban and Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) j m ovasdi 36Sections of the Frame Work: Sections of the Frame Work Operational Administrative Financial Legal The process Seven battalions of the National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) have been positioned at nine different locations to cover the entire country and their role is To help the states in capacity building, running of mock drills and the process of central assistance to the states j m ovasdi 37Vulnerability of India: Vulnerability of India India has been traditionally vulnerable to natural disasters on account of its geo-climate conditions. Floods, draught, cyclones, earthquakes and landslides have been a recurrent phenomena About 60% of the landmass is prone to earthquakes of various intensities Over 40 million (4 crore ) hectares is prone to floods About 8% of the area is prone to cyclones 68% of the area is susceptible to drought Between 1990 and 2000 an average of 4344 people lost their lives and about 30 million (3 crore ) people were affected by disasters every year 38 j m ovasdiGlobal Phenomena: Global Phenomena Natural and man-made disasters are a global phenomena In 1989 UN General Assembly declared the decade 1990-2000 as the International decade for Natural Disaster Reduction with the objective to reduce loss of loves and property and restrict socio-economic damage through concerted international action, specially in developing countries 39 j m ovasdiPrinciples of Disaster Management: Principles of Disaster Management Risk assessment – proper assessment of the probability and risk involved of a hazard is the first step for preparing an adequate and successful disaster reduction policies Disaster prevention and preparedness are of primary importance in reducing the need for disaster relief Integration -- It should be an integral part of the development policy and planning at the local, regional, national, multilateral and international levels Development and deployment of early warning systems to avoid the magnitude of the effects of a hazard 40 j m ovasdiPrinciples of Disaster Management…: Principles of Disaster Management… Involvement of communities – preventive measures are most effective when it involve participation at all levels, from the local community, civil society organizations(CSO), corporate sector, national, international organizations Design --Vulnerability can be reduced by the application of proper design and patterns of development focused on target groups through appropriate education & training Collaboration -- International understanding of sharing technology and resources to mitigate disasters Primary Responsibility -- Each nation has the primary responsibility of protecting its people, infrastructure and other national assets from the impact of natural and man-made disasters 41 j m ovasdiMitigation : Mitigation Mitigation embraces all measures taken to reduce both the effect of the hazard itself and the vulnerable conditions to it in order to reduce the scale of a future disaster. Two Approaches to mitigation Engineered Structures, and Non-engineered Structures 42 j m ovasdiMitigation : Mitigation Engineered structures involve architects and engineers during the planning, designing, and construction of structures, including buildings, dams, embankments, roads, bridges, etc. Many countries have laid rules and laws that are strictly followed for engineered construction. Japan is a classic example. The country is prone to earth-quakes on almost daily basis, but the effects are minimal. For example the trains stop automatically when there is seismic activity; all building are designed and constructed to withstand high magnitude earth quakes. 43 j m ovasdiLatur & Los Angeles: Latur & Los Angeles Vulnerability is linked with the level of socio-economic ability to cope with the resulting event in order to resist major disruption or loss In 1993 the earth-quake in Latur , Maharashtra, left over 10,000 dead and destroyed houses and other properties of 20,000 households. In 1971, the earth-quake of higher magnitude in Los Angeles resulted in the deaths of 55 only. Physical and socio-economic vulnerabilty is high in India. Disasters are more disastrous where the victims happen to be poor, living in densely populated areas, closely located to flood prone, drought prone or coastal areas prone to tsunami and cyclones. j m ovasdi 44Environmental Concerns: Environmental Concerns Nature is an abundant resource but indiscriminate and rampant exploitation creates threat of destruction The balance in nature, between man, animal and resources must be maintained/nurtured Oil spills; forest fires or nuclear leaks can cause widespread and irreparable damage to environment Time cycles to renew these resources are long and therefore measures of safety, maintenance and containment have to be strengthened j m ovasdi 45Ganga Maili: Ganga Maili We have become so stupid in our use of natural resources that we are using the Holy Ganga to carry the whole lot of municipal waste of all the towns and cities located on its banks. The factories and tanneries located on its banks are discharging their chemical waste directly into it. We have Ganga Action Plan to clean it, but the net result is disappointing. Same is the story of all the water-bodies of the country j m ovasdi 46Global Warming & Climate Change: Global Warming & Climate Change Global warming and climate change is a matter of great concern that is likely to have far reaching changes in the human existence, affecting all fauna and flora. The speed of glacier melting in India and elsewhere is going to flood the island nations and coastal areas all over the world Large scale deforestation will also affect the climate on large scale Urbanization is leading to heavy concentration of population in limited areas increasing vulnerability of communities Urbanization is a sign of development but it is a strain on the natural resources, like water that is already seriously affecting the lives of urban population. j m ovasdi 47Development vs Environment: Development vs Environment Disasters and development are interrelated, both in a positive and negative ways Rational choices in developmental planning can reduce the risk of negative effects. Disaster cycle is development – crisis –disaster – relief – recovery – development. Risk management cycle is more appropriate. Sustainable development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. j m ovasdi 48Disaster-- Development: Disaster-- Development Economic Development Social Development Disaster limits development Destruction of fixed assets Damage to transport system, communication, infrastructure, Erosion of livelihood Destruction of health or education infrastructure and personnel. Death, migration, of key social actors leading to an erosion of social capital Development causes –disaster risk Unstable development practices that create wealth for some at the expense of unsafe working and living conditions of others or degrade the environment Development path generating cultural norms that promote social isolation or political exclusion Development reduces disaster risk Access to adequate drinking water, food, waste management and a secure dwelling increases people’s resilience. Trade and technology can reduce poverty. Investing in financial mechanism and social security can cushion against vulnerability. Building community cohesion, Recognizing excluded individuals or social groups, Providing opportunities for greater involvement in decision-making, Enhanced educational and health capacity increases resilience. j m ovasdi 49Disaster Management Cycle: Disaster Management Cycle The concept of Disaster Management Cycle has been developed since Yokohama Conference (1994). Before this disaster management was perceived as a short-term relief undertaking, which lasted till some time after the disaster. Other purposive activities undertaken in the pre or post-disaster stages by the CSOs and the Government towards mitigating the impact of disaster or tackling long-term vulnerabilities and dealing with newer threats in the wake/aftermath of a disaster were not included in disaster management activities. j m ovasdi 50Disaster Management Cycle: Disaster Management Cycle The concept of disaster management cycle integrates isolated attempts on the part of different actors, government and non-government, towards vulnerability reduction or disaster mitigation, as phases occurring in different time periods in disaster management continuum. Planned Approach – this concept has facilitated a planned approach to disaster management. j m ovasdi 51Disaster Management Cycle: Disaster Management Cycle Prevention, mitigation and preparedness form pre-disaster activities in the disaster management cycle Response, comprising relief, recovery and rehabilitation are post-disaster management activities The complete cycle of disaster management, therefore is the complete realm of activities and situations that occur Before During, and After disasters This documentation is a learning process to reduce the vulnerability and to increase the effectives of preparedness and relief. It is a holistic approach. j m ovasdi 52Stages in Disaster Management: Stages in Disaster Management Disaster management is disaster risk management – systematic process of using administrative decisions, organization, operation skills, and capacities to implement policies, strategies and coping capacities of the society and communities to lessen the impact of natural hazards and related environmental and technological disasters. Phases – disaster event, response, recovery, development, mitigation, and preparedness. Case Study of Gujarat Earthquake of 26 Jan, 2001 Within two years the affected area emerged as a more vibrant and capable of effectively coping with future calamities. j m ovasdi 53Disaster Event: Disaster Event Real-time event of a hazard occurring and affecting the elements at risk The duration may be a few seconds, like an earthquake; tsunami a few minutes, cloud burst a few hours, floods a few days and drought a couple of months. The suffering of lives and property may differ in similar events Economically weaker sections of society, women, children, handicapped, old people suffer more because they have lesser capability to fight the natural & man-made hazards. Each event may require different response j m ovasdi 54Disaster Response: Disaster Response Disaster response – rescue, medical aid, food, shelter –temporary, intermediate, and long range, restoration of communications, affected infrastructure, means of livelihood etc. defects in planning may be noticed during this period, highlighting procedural, systems flaws or failures in implementing the plan. In 2001 high velocity hurricane hit Cuba, but only five people died due to near perfect disaster management plan in design and execution – 700,000 people were evacuated from Havana and other threatened areas. About 80 % of disasters are classified as ‘natural’ j m ovasdi 55Flaws in Disaster Response: Flaws in Disaster Response The World Disaster Report of 2002 states that thousands of lives are lost and millions of people left weakened each year because of donor reluctance to invest in measures that reduce the impact of disasters. Investing in mitigation issues like building long-term resilience of vulnerable communities would better serve the purpose of disaster management. There is widespread corruption/ leakage in disaster relief disbursements. Business interests press on projects planning and execution to suit their personal gains rather than public good. j m ovasdi 56Suggestions for Improving NDM : Suggestions for Improving NDM Strengthen the Nodal Planning Agency with experts from Different Areas . At present the existing nodal agency is acting like a post office devoid of expertise in different areas of DM. It should be strengthened with: Part time experts for different areas Furnish Control room of nodal agency with latest technology and manned by technical experts Documentation – historical, present plans, future design for DM must be systematically compiled to have easy assess and availability Positive interest by politicians and bureaucrats Constant monitoring and evaluation even after the disaster to ensure long-term rehabilitation j m ovasdi 57Suggestions for Improving NDM …: Suggestions for Improving NDM … 2. Permanent Machinery -- Permanent establishment of State Disaster Planning Preparedness Management Machinery and not ad-hoc arrangements as and when disasters occur 3. Genuine NGO’s participation in Disaster Preparedness Plan according to their specialization and track record 4. Participation of the people . They are the real architects of a nation. 5. Government administration should be transparent, responsive, accountable and like a learning organization j m ovasdi 58Suggestions for Improving NDM …: Suggestions for Improving NDM … 6. Need to create effective preparedness at local level – conduct regular exercises 7. Disaster Mapping – mapping is made to assess the impact of disaster on population, property and natural resources. This will help in providing pre and post-disaster relating information which will further help in matters such as risk assessment, systematic rescue and relief operations; j m ovasdi 59Suggestions for Improving NDM …: Suggestions for Improving NDM … 8. Leadership for Disaster Preparedness – bureaucrats with proven leadership dynamism should be in-charge of nodal agencies 9. Leadership & Crisis Preparedness Man agement – important features of crisis management are i ) Identify the problems that could lead to a crisis and learn when and how to intervene most effectively ii) Know how to carry out the difficult planning and coordination activities associated with preparing for, and managing crisis; iii) Develop special negotiation & communication skills required to reduce conflict or ensure cooperation in a crisis situation iv) Develop social knowledge and expertise in the field. j m ovasdi 60DROUGHT MANAGEMENT – A CASE STUDY 2002: DROUGHT MANAGEMENT – A CASE STUDY 2002 Prof. J M OVASDI j m ovasdi 61DROUGHT MANAGEMENT -- A Case Study: DROUGHT MANAGEMENT -- A Case Study The Crop Weather Watch Group (CWWG), an Inter-Ministerial body set-up in the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, anticipated weak monsoon in early July 2002. In July 2002 the monsoon was actually 51% lower than normal By mid-July itself the Central Government initiated drought management related initiatives On 24 th July the agriculture and relief ministers of all the states likely to be affected by severe drought was held by the Union Agriculture Minister j m ovasdi 62DROUGHT MANAGEMENT --A Case Study : DROUGHT MANAGEMENT --A Case Study Immediately a Task Force on Drought Management was set up in July 2002 under the chairmanship of Deputy Prime Minister with Agriculture Minister, Finance Minister, Rural Development Minister, Food and Public Distribution Minister and Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission as members to continuously monitor the situation and to provide assistance to the affected states well in time. The worst affected states were – Rajasthan, MP, Chattisgarh , Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Rajasthan was worst affected. j m ovasdi 63Drought – Case Study: Drought – Case Study As desired by the Task Force, the Central Government took a number of initiatives like: Advance release of funds from Calamity Relief Fund, under relaxed norms Release of food grains free of cost f or relief work and employment Deferment /waiver of agricultural loans or interest Free transportation of fodder and water . The total resources mobilized in advance of the actual drought was, ` 20,000 crore to finance relief programs. Expenditure for relief works was given precedence by the central and state financial departments j m ovasdi 64Case Study contd…: Case Study contd … Drought of 2002 was so severe that huge areas remained unsown – 180 lakh hectares Under normal rules agriculture input subsidy is payable to Small and Marginal Farmers when their crops suffer damage of 50 % or more as a result of natural calamity. In this case no crop could be sown and farmers were not eligible for relief in the form of subsidy. 50 % of such area was in Rajasthan. Most of the affected states adopted the unusual method of declaring draught on eye-estimation States were asked to submit their need for funds and relief much before the draught actually took place j m ovasdi 65Drought – Case Study…: Drought – Case Study… Special Measures to combat impact of Drought Agriculture input subsidy was extended to farmers owning more than two hectares of land. 10 million (1 crore ) farmers got this benefit. Expenditure ` 7000 crore Improving flow of credit in draught affected areas by NABARD Power supply for minimum 8-10 hours to agriculture sector j m ovasdi 66Drought – Case Study…: Drought – Case Study… Water resources sector Departments of the State Governments advocated water budgeting – first priority to drinking water, next, fodder, then agriculture. Rainwater-harvesting program was the outcome of the drought of 2002. WATER HARVESTING INITIATIVE Tamil Nadu was the first state to promote rainwater-harvesting through an ordinance in 2003. The Chief-Minister personally wrote to the municipal and PRI officials to building the desired infrastructure by 30 September 2003 and it was actually accomplished. j m ovasdi 67Drought – Case Study…: Drought – Case Study… Employment Generation – with 180 lakh hectares unsown due to monsoon failure in early July the Task Force, in its very first meeting understood the need to initiate employment generation works at an early date instead of waiting for the people to suffer and then ask for relief measures. Allocation of Food grains – the affected states were put in three categories A: UP, Uttranchal , Punjab, Haryana, HP, Jharkhand and Kerala. B- MP, Chattisgarh , Orissa, Gujarat, Maharashtra, AP, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu. C: Rajasthan j m ovasdi 68Relief as per Category A, B, C: Relief as per Category A, B, C A category states -- allocation of food grains was made for 20 % of BPL families B category states – up to 50 % of willing rural BPL families For both A and B categories of affected states the quantum of food grains was 5 kg for ten days a month Rajasthan – 74 worst affected blocks covering all BVPL and vast majority of APL For the remaining 163 blocks, each willing rural BPL family were employed for at least 10 days with 8 kg foodgrains per day for worst affected 74 blocks and for the remaining blocks 6 kg per day, later on increased to 8 kg. the employment days per month were increased to 12 for all blocks. j m ovasdi 69Monitoring : Monitoring Monitoring teams , vigilance squads, field visits of area officers and involvement of peoples’ representatives and voluntary agencies functioned as watch dogs against mal practices on drought relief program. Longest Employment G eneration – the duration of the employment generation prog . Started in August 2002 and continued till July 2003. It was one of the longest ever employment generation program as a relief measure. j m ovasdi 70Employment Generation…: Employment Generation… At the peak drought period, 32 million people were employed on 3 lakh relief projects. 1400 million man-days were generated at a cost of ` 9,000 crore , including 9 million tonnes of foodgrains . Both income security and food security objectives were achieved World Record of Logistics -- 40 million tonnes of foodgrains were transported by rail within 5 months. It was one of the largest ever transportation management in the world. j m ovasdi 71Fodder for the Cattle & Drinking Water: Fodder for the Cattle & Drinking Water Fodder scarcity was noticed in September 2002 and mostly in Rajasthan. 15,000 cattle camps were set up in different states where 110 million cattle were provided fodder from December 2002 to June 2003. 3.19 million tonnes of fodder was transported by rail from Punjab and Haryana to Rajasthan, and 5000 trucks daily Drinking Water – 1,75,000 habitations and 500 cities and small towns were provided with potable water by the Indian Railways through 75,000 tankers @ 75 million liters per day. j m ovasdi 72DISASTER MANAGEMENT EARTH QUAKE: DISASTER MANAGEMENT EARTH QUAKE A CASE STUDY OF KUTCH (GUJARAT) 2001 From the book “ Management of Non-Governmental Organisations – Towards a Developed Civil Society ” by Prof. J M OVASDI j m ovasdi 7326 January 2001: 26 January 2001 Kutch district : Population 1,263,000 (1991 census); Men: women 643,000: 620,000; Area 45,652 sq. km.; Villages 949; Talukas 9. Nature’s Fury : The severe earthquake that struck Gujarat on 26 January 2001 flattened much of the state. Out of the 21 affected districts, those most affected were Kutch- Bhuj , Ahmedabad , Jamnagar and Rajkot. Within these districts more than 37.8 million people were affected. According to official figures released by the central Government as of 6 February 2001, the earthquake killed 16,459 people and injured 68,478. Unofficial sources estimated any thing between 20,000 and 50,000 deaths. The Natural Disaster Management Control Room located at the Ministry of Agriculture in Delhi reported on 6 February 2001 that 12,250 cattle died, 228,906 houses/huts were destroyed and 397,615 houses/huts were damaged. According to preliminary assessments, the damage to buildings and infrastructure amounted close ` 6 billion. j m ovasdi 74Response to the Disaster: Response to the Disaster The Government of India, the State Government of Gujarat, national and international NGOs, the UN System and bilateral donors responded with a variety of initiatives. National/Government Response : The central Government immediately launched a massive rescue and relief operation by mobilizing available resources and personnel to mitigate the suffering of the victims. The initial relief effort was centrally coordinated by the Natural Disaster Management Control Room, which worked closely together with the State Government of Gujarat. j m ovasdi 75Response to the Disaster: Response to the Disaster As of 5 February 2001 , the Central Government had announced financial assistance of IRS 500.00 Crore equaling USD 1 billion. In addition, the Central Government made available close to 95,000 MT of food. Other relief items dispatched through the Central Government included clothing and tents, medical supplies and personnel, fuel and communication equipment. Several states including the neighboring States of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra had provided food, blankets, medical supplies and personnel and a wide variety of other relief items. j m ovasdi 76NGOs Involvement: NGOs Involvement The Relief Commissioner of Bhuj established an NGO coordination centre with 300 NGOs. Later several Sub- centres were established. The Kutch Navnirman Abhiyan network was started to undertake a monumental relief operation, probably the greatest ever trial of their physical, moral and emotional strength. Over 200 NGOs of Gujarat state had come together under the aegis of Janpath Citizen's Initiative to support the Abhiyan network. Experienced Self-Employed Womens ’ Association (SEWA ) teams were in the field since the day of the earthquake, trying to get an accurate assessment of the damage amid the confusion and rumors, going directly to the people affected in order to ascertain their needs. j m ovasdi 77Rescue Initiatives: Rescue Initiatives In addition, many international NGOs have been responding and are active in the area. 22 Search and Rescue (SAR) teams made up of 399 rescuers and 26 rescue dogs equipped with technical and rescue equipment assisted in the search and rescue operation. Medical and SAR teams from Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Israel, Italy/Spain, Japan, Mexico, Poland, the Russian Federation, South Africa, Switzerland, Turkey, USA, and the United Kingdom were involved in the Search and Rescue operation. After the rescue phase was over, most SAR teams left. j m ovasdi 78United Nations Response: United Nations Response The in-country UN System through the UN Disaster Management Team (UNDMT) led by the UN Resident Coordinator, immediately mobilized and deployed a five-member United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination (UNDAC) Team on 27 January. In Ahmedabad , a Reception Centre for registering in-coming teams and relief items was established at the airport during the rescue operation. The team established an On-Site Operations Coordination Centre (OSOCC), in close collaboration with the Indian authorities and the relevant UN agencies. The UNDMT together with Ericsson and Ham Radio set up communications systems in the affected area. However even after ten days of the earthquake the UN teams could not quantify the full extent of aid required. j m ovasdi 79 Army's Initiative : Army's Initiative The Gujarat earthquake had resulted in a collapse of the local health command and control structure. The military hospital at Bhuj , whose role was to supplement civil services had to serve as a first responder and was left as the only functional hospital in the city. The civil hospitals were completely destroyed due to structural damages. Since the military hospital had structural damages as well, the surgeries had to take place under tent cover. A massive effort was mounted by the Armed Forces to manage the disaster. j m ovasdi 80 Practical Problems Assessed by UN Team : Practical Problems Assessed by UN Team The armed forces, in the management of casualties and injuries of such great extent, faced a number of practical problems. These problems ranged from administrative domain to media management and other related aspects. Logistics: The structural damage to the hospital led to a collapse of the local health command and control structure. There was also a lack of communication, which led to delaying of organizing the medical teams and medical camps. The water and electricity supply had been completely ripped off initially which led to associated problems like absence of laundry services etc. One of the areas of concern, which needed proper attention and lacked strength in the field, was of logistics management. Inflow of medical supplies, in many cases not need based, was a major management problem due to inappropriate donations and absence of a supply management system. j m ovasdi 81 Practical Problems… : Practical Problems… Un-preparedness : Numerous difficulties were faced in the realm of patient care and casualty of such great extents. A field hospital was established out in the open and operated thousands of patient in spite of many problems such as shortage of hospital beds, linen, operating rooms, equipment, instruments and disinfectants which was basically due to the un-preparedness of the medical team to address such a situation. Such situations could be suitable avoided with proper planning and preparedness in the medical sector. The issue of casualty evacuation also needed to be properly dealt. j m ovasdi 82 Practical Problems… : Practical Problems… Bio-medical Waste Disposal: One of the major issues of the health sector during a disaster situation, which were faced in the Gujarat earthquake, was of biomedical waste disposal and disposal of dead bodies. Since no prior plan was made for post disaster management of the area, the authorities and the concerned departments were at a total loss to deal with such disposal. There existed no alternative arrangement to deal with the human refuse generation in the aftermath of the disaster even beyond the initial period, which poses another major task for effective post disaster planning. j m ovasdi 83 Lessons learned : Lessons learned The health authorities and the health professionals need to ensure that mitigation methodologies are applied during the reconstruction of health facilities. Coordination and health disaster management is essential and there should be special equipped space and personnel for this purpose. Proper information management can bring about a lot of difference in the disaster management scenario. There exists a need to create an information cell, which should be entrusted with the job of information collection and information dissemination. j m ovasdi 84 Lessons learned… : Lessons learned… 4. Circulation and dissemination of proper information can be a great aid in controlling panic and unfounded stories about the disaster. 5. Proper media management can act as an effective tool for the same. The health professionals need training in dealing with the media in disasters. j m ovasdi 85 Lessons learned as per NGOs Assessment : Lessons learned as per NGOs Assessment The Gujarat earthquake witnessed tremendous, unprepared, and spontaneous response of citizens. The positive points of this response were continuous supply of food, water and medicine and provision of first aid, transport and care of patients & their relatives. However, there existed many drawbacks in the post earthquake management scenario, some of which are: j m ovasdi 86Drawbacks in Relief: Drawbacks in Relief Lack of coordination & direction – The various agencies (government, NGOs and international agencies), which had come for the aid of the earthquake victims failed to collaborate with each other and supplement each other’s task. The net result being that there was total lack of coordination, direction and information exchange between the various agencies. Irrationalities in the medical sector – The injured patients were treated without any analysis of the kind of injuries being faced by them. An ad-hoc approach of treatment existed creating more complications for future. There also existed a lack of systematic follow-up of the injured patients. j m ovasdi 87Drawbacks in Relief…: Drawbacks in Relief… Charity without respect for human dignity – The Gujarat earthquake saw immense charity being poured into the state; however, in most cases the items received in these charities were sent without any respect for human dignity. Charity of torn and unusable clothes highlights the point . Short-term involvement – In the aftermath of the earthquake, there was a massive involvement of voluntary agencies, individuals etc. mainly in relief activities. However, this involvement was short termed and failed to provide assistance to the victims on a continuous basis till the rehabilitation phase was complete. j m ovasdi 88Drawbacks in Relief…: Drawbacks in Relief… Ignorance : It would be worth mentioning that there existed a total lack of information and awareness about the affected parts of Gujarat being in the high seismic zone (zone 5) and its implications among all sections of the society. Consequently, the community was not prepared to face a disaster of this scale. Lack of preparedness for dealing with disasters was evident in almost all realms and particularly in communication, coordination & control, rescue operation & medical relief. There also existed a lack of information on local & international resources for disaster relief. Thus, it can be concluded that a lack of planning for post disaster management was manifested in almost all the sectors and activities. j m ovasdi 89Suggestions for future preparedness : Suggestions for future preparedness Community First -- In any disaster, the community is the first responder and should be made an integral part of the disaster information system. It would be advisable to evolve a system for prediction and continuous information to the community for capacitating it to face disasters. Mapping of resources can act as an effective tool for disaster management. The law of secrecy, binding the departments who are involved in mapping activities to keep the information a secret and not share it with other authorities and the public, should be removed. Maps of road, population, medical facilities and communication should be made readily available. A Data bank on relief facilities like the fire brigade, earth-moving equipment etc. and their source should be created to ease their procurement in times of disaster. j m ovasdi 90Suggestions…: Suggestions… Centralized Information System -- It would also be advisable to have a single web site for disaster information to avoid confusion and duplicity of information on the Internet. Emergency medical response system -- An emergency medical response system should be evolved to facilitate the work of medical sector in times of disaster. The medical colleges, civil defense, district health & medical services, state transport and railways should have emergency hospitals to cater to the medical needs of a disaster situation. Manual -- A manual for voluntary and charitable agencies working in the field of disaster management should be developed to act as a guide for these agencies. j m ovasdi 91Well Done Bill Gates!: Well Done Bill Gates! We would like to conclude with the role performed by the richest Voluntary Organization in the world " Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation " through Save the Children Alliance. This group was functional for nearly two years after the disaster. On their behalf one of the officials of Save the Children (SC) prepared a brief of his observations on disaster management. An edited version is reproduced here which gives us the perspective of a foreign aid agency of our disaster management system in action. j m ovasdi 92 Disaster Management- Some of the experiences during the first ten days or early weeks: : Disaster Management- Some of the experiences during the first ten days or early weeks: 1 ) Flood of Volunteers : Thousands of volunteers reached the earthquake area and they were keen to help people. However they added to the chaos. Be careful with the volunteers. Other than those who are professional in medical, technical areas, being experienced in rescuing operations or managing/organizing in crisis situations, and do real work in medical care, sanitation, fixing the infrastructural services, etc. discourage the others who just want to be there and support the people to go to the area, and willing to do anything, something. After two weeks only they were deployed to the region to do some real work around organized programs fitting to their any kind of expertise (even cooking), as very well oriented before. Otherwise, of course there was no doubt about their good intentions, but especially for some young volunteers this could happen to be an adventure like mountain climbing, survival exercise etc. j m ovasdi 93Experiences during the first ten days: Experiences during the first ten days 2) Coordination is a must and it was a very difficult exercise. Coordination needs leadership. In this type of devastating and large disasters, usually the local officials undergo the same shock and trauma, you should not expect too much from them. This is true for the central ones too. Once the hierarchy collapses it is very difficult (more than NGOs or people themselves) to re-establish it where all the decision making process based on, and this might take such a time, enough to make people crazy. In the disaster area authority demolishes and a process can be hardly established for decision-making. Groups or even individuals (some Heroes) suddenly emerge and claim leadership. Sometimes nobody knows even who are these groups /individuals and where they come from. Each one described the situation, the needs differently (from their individual perspective) and was directing the emergency aids and operations. j m ovasdi 94Experiences during the first ten days: Experiences during the first ten days 3) Beware of Opportunists : Such critical situations create gaps for any type of groups with agendas different than humanitarian purposes from where they might get in, and they might see this as an opportunity. They might join the whole process and claim space for their own agendas using the chaos and the frustration of the people and also clash with each other. Even if their reasons are right, they do add to the chaos. j m ovasdi 95Experiences during the first ten days: Experiences during the first ten days 4) Changing Needs: The list of the needs change day by day; First days the focus was on rescue equipment and excavators/machines, then food, together with medical equipment/medicine, then body (corps plastics, lime, dis -infection, burying/funeral material) clothing and then sheltering. So you have to be ready in estimating the needs before really needed. In early days both helpers and victims can be hardly realistic in terms of identification of real needs. There is a possibility that main part of the resources/money might be spent in the first two weeks, is wasted because of panic and lack of coordination. Realistic needs assessment is very important. Besides the people who can do real work and support, send one people in each settlement for realistic needs assessment; what is needed in terms of emergency and humanitarian needs. j m ovasdi 96Experiences during the first ten days…: Experiences during the first ten days… Usually people (officials, NGOs, etc involved in this process) tend to describe the situation in the small area where they are located as if it is something general and valid for the whole area This tendency might have crucial results especially in terms of assessing humanitarian and emergency needs. Misleading information might be created by different type of psychologies, misperception etc. So, in a coordinated way, assign one to each settlement/neighborhood for realistic needs assessment and inform before what is crucial, urgent and indispensable for health etc. j m ovasdi 97Work through Local Women: Work through Local Women Ensure them to work with local women, who are most knowledgeable about survival things, and what is really needed. In our case, women were later saying that they were not involved in this process and lots of resources were just wasted and spoilt. Food has special place; and especially in these situations, people (both the helpers and victims) think that (since they do not think about any other things) food is very important, and they will never find it and they will die because of hunger. We saw in most places huge piles of bread and milk boxes just thrown away on the edge of roads, and same as for the clothes... j m ovasdi 98Monitoring Relief Agencies: Monitoring Relief Agencies 5) Monitor the international Emergency relief agencies : Though they might be experienced and work in different counties, each context has its own peculiarities and they might easily fail to determine the needs realistically in a context that they work through translators who have no experience with these situations, and community work. Usually they have lots of monies and they want to spend it immediately. Direct them to use their money in an efficient way determined by the locals. On the other hand, it is a fact that in individual contacts disaster victims too tend to mislead foreigners, exaggerating their immediate needs or get something extra. It is advisable to ensure that the foreign NGOs work though local NGOs or organized groups and not directly work with victims. j m ovasdi 99The Fizz is Gone: The Fizz is Gone 6) Diminishing Enthusiasm : Remember that all the foreign aids, local aids, volunteers come with great enthusiasm but within a few days or weeks they loose their motivation. "I remember, when we turned to the volunteers list a month later, we could hardly get one tenth of them who were very keen to be useful in some ways" recalled an official of Save the Children. j m ovasdi 100Aid Distribution: Aid Distribution 7 ) Aid Distribution Problems : The distribution of aids is another important one. Officials, NGOs and volunteers, especially charity people tend to pour the aid unconsciously like a rain and they prefer to do it by themselves. At each settlement set up an aid distribution center managed by the officials and monitored by the NGOs and local peoples representatives. Distribution (window) should be in a centralized way. No democracy here, and ensure those charity people and organizations to leave their goods at these centers where they could be distributed in an organized way, and don't let them distribute here and there as they like. j m ovasdi 101Slide 102: 8) Lack of Monitoring -- NGOs were heavily involved in emergency /humanitarian aids activities but they are reported to have not bothered about their monitoring role, i.e. in terms of governmental works and policies. Women were found to be best in monitoring distribution of aids. 9) Start with Women and Children : Right on the first day, create safe, homely places for women and children. As soon as you go there just erect something. Tent etc. Children are very important. When the children are taken care of their mothers become willing volunteers to help the needy in the neighborhood. j m ovasdi 102 You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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