SPICES N CONDIMENTS

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SPICES & CONDIMENTS:

SPICES & CONDIMENTS UNDER GUIDENCE OF Mrs. S. NAMRATHA Asst.Professor BY SATYA SWAPNA.P 1 M.Pharm Aditya college of pharmaceutical sciences

CONTENTS:

CONTENTS INTRODUCTION ADULTERANTS ANALYSIS TESTS REFERENCES

INTRODUCTION:

INTRODUCTION Spices Spices are the substances which are obtained from aromatic parts of plants such as leaves, roots, barks, rhizomes, fruits, flower buds. These are mainly used for the flavoring food, medicine & in pharmaceutical purposes.The main important chemical constituent is volatile oil which is responsible for its flavour & aroma. They possess strong antioxidant , antimicrobial & antibacterial properties. Apart from this they helps in digestion of food and inhibit thrombus formation thus facilitates the thrombolysis. Commonly used spices are pepper,cloves,fennel,cinnamon.

Condiments Condiments are the edible substances which are added to impart the flavour to food.These are either added while cooking the food as that of salt,sauce or added prior to serving the food as that of cream, olive oil, pepper. Most commonly used condiments are pepper, mustard, salt, ketchups, sauces, olive oil, cream , syrups and vinegar :

Condiments Condiments are the edible substances which are added to impart the flavour to food.These are either added while co oking the food as that of salt,sauce or added prior to serving the food as that of cream, olive oil, pepper. Most commonly used condiments are pepper, mustard, salt, ketchups, sauces, olive oil, cream , syrups and vinegar

ADULTERANTS:

ADULTERANTS Spices are generally adulterated with inferior grade of same species , exhausted spices, sand ,dirt and sand The common adulterants of spices are as follows Fennel - exhausted fennels Cinnamon - cinnamon chips, jungle cinnamon Pepper - papaya seeds Ginger - exhausted ginger Turmeric - lead chromate mustard - argimone seeds salt - white sand

Analysis of spices:

Analysis of spices Determination of ash Determination of crude fiber Moisture content Alcoholic extract Fixed ether extract Filth test Water extract Nitrogen content Microscopic examination Adulterant detection

Ash determination a) Total ash value:

Ash determination a) Total ash value

b)Acid insoluble ash:

b)Acid insoluble ash % ash = initial wt-final wt x 100 initial wt Limits- total ash 5-7 acid insoluble ash 0.1-2

Moisture content :

Moisture content Moisture can be determined by two methods a) Toulene distillation b)Oven drying method a) Toulene distillation- it is carried out by using distillation apparatus by distillating the sample and toulene for3 hrs till all the moisture in the sample is collected Moisture, % = Vol. of water ( mL ) x 100 Correction factor Weight of sample (g) .Correction factor = ml distilled ml added Limits – 12 to 15%

Moisture distillation apparatus:

Moisture distillation apparatus

b)Oven drying method:

b)Oven drying method 5 gm of powdered sample is taken in a china dish and keep it in oven for 3 hrs the weight of the sample was taken for every 15 min interval till it attains a constant weight, this gives the final weight. Moisture content can be determined by using the following formula % moisture = loss in weight weight of sample

Crude fiber determination:

Crude fiber determination 2gm sample extracted vit ether +asbestos+boiling sulfuric acid fix to a reflux condenser boil for 1/2hr Remove the flask and filter, Wash the filtrate with hot water to remove excess of free acids Again transfer the residue to flask and add boiling NaOH and fix reflux now &boil for ½ hr &remove the flask &filter wash it vit hot water& again transfer the residue to flask & wash with water Then transfer the residue to gooch crucible & add alcohol Allow to dry the crucible at 110 degree centigrade to obtain const weight.

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Remove the crucible and place in muffle furnace at 500degree centigrade Sample will be ignited, remove the crucible ,cool it &calculate the wt difference report it as crude fiber Calculation: % of crude fiber = w1/w×100 w1=weight difference w=weight of sample Limits – 7 to 20

Alcoholic extract:

Alcoholic extract 5gm of the sample is taken and continuously shake with 100 ml of 95% ethanol for 8hrs, it is kept aside for 18 hrs & filter the solution. The filtrate is collect and evaporated at 100 c in oven, finally weigh the residue it denotes the amount of drug that is soluble in ethanol. Fixed ether extract It is done in continuous extraction apparatus. About 2 to 3 gm of sample is taken and extracted with diethyl ether for 1 hr,giving an interval for 15 min again repeat the extraction for another 2 hr.Finally the residue is collect and dried and weighted.

Filth test :

Filth test It determines the amount of filthy materials present in the spices and condiments as these are commonly adulterated with mineral matter like sand and dirt. The sample is treated with excess of tetra chloromethane ,the supernatant liquid is collected This process is repeated for 2 times, it is then filtered through ash less filter paper. Dry it then ignite it in a platinum dish, the residue is collected and weighted which gives the amount of mineral matter.

Cold water extract:

Cold water extract 5gm of the sample is taken and continuously shake with 100 ml of distilled water for 8hrs, it is kept aside for 18 hrs & filter the solution. The filtrate is collect and evaporated at 100 c in oven, finally weigh the residue it denotes the amount of drug that is soluble in cold water.

Nitrogen determination kjeldahl-gunning-arnold method :

Nitrogen determination kjeldahl-gunning- arnold method Take about 5gm of powdered sample in kjeldahl flask add sulfuric acid and potassium sulphate, mercuric oxide heat the solution in the incline position Boling is continued 3 hrs after the color disappears and allowed to cool for 10 min, add water and sodium thiosulpathate it is fixed to the distillation apparatus, then neutralize the solution by pouring the NaOH from the sides of flask Boil till 150ml of distillate was received this distillate is then titrated against 0.1 N NaOH using methyl red as indicator. %N=(x moles/1000cm3)*((v1v2)/mg)*(14g)/moles)*100

Microscopic determination:

Microscopic determination Water slide Take the sample on slide, add a drop of alcohol and glycerol, then a drop of iodine solution is added, the slide turns to blue color, indicates the presence of starch ,the shape of the starch grains can be observed under microscope. Cleared slide The sample is placed on the slide and add chloralhydrate,boil on steam still it turns to transperent,now add phloroglucinol & con HCl . The sclerenchymatous tissue turns to pink color and the slide is observed under microscope

Adulteration detection:

Adulteration detection Turmeric - to the powder add H2So4 & filter it diphenylcarbazide is added to the filtrate gives pink color indicates presence of Pb chromate Mustard - argimone seeds are not round & smooth Pepper - papaya seeds float on water Clove - exhausted cloves appears shrunken Cinnamon - cassia bark when placed in water turns brown Fennel - exhausted fennels looks dark greenish brown and sink in water.

References:

References Handbook On Spices And Condiments (cultivation, Processing And Extraction) by H. Panda. Woodman, food analysis http://www.ipcnet.org/index.php?p=technical&sp=2

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