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To Completely Understand The Modern Technology, Have To Know What is 3G Standards and 3G Spectrum . 3G Technology PowerPoint Presentation: The Third Generation (3G) digital mobile multimedia offering broadband mobile communications with voice, video, graphics, audio and other information. The mobile communications industry has evolved in three stages, and correspondingly three generations of mobile phones have emerged thus far. Each one has provided more flexibility and usability than the previous ones . (1G) Analog : Analog phones helped to make voice calls inside one's country without roaming facilities. (2G) Digital mobile phone systems added fax, data and messaging capabilities as well as voice telephone service in many countries offering worldwide roaming. (3G) Multimedia services add high speed data transfer to mobile devices, allowing new video, audio and other applications (including Internet services) through mobile phones. 3G Introduction PowerPoint Presentation: 1. With 3G, the information is split into separate but related packets before being transmitted and reassembled at the receiving end. Packet switched data formats are much more common than their circuit switched counterparts. 2. The World Wide Web (WWW) is becoming the primary communications interface. People access the Internet for entertainment, services, and information collection, the intranet for accessing enterprise information and connecting with colleagues and the extranet for accessing customers and suppliers. 3. Speeds of up to 2 Megabits per second (Mbps) are achievable with 3G. The data transmission rates will depend upon the environment, the call is being made in, however, only indoors and in stationary environments that these types of data rates will be available. For high mobility, data rates of 144 kbps are expected to be available. 3G Features PowerPoint Presentation: 3G facilitates several new applications that have not previously been readily available over mobile networks due to the limitations in data transmission speeds. These applications range from Web Browsing to file transfer to Home Automation (the ability to remotely access and control in-house appliances and machines). Because of the bandwidth increase, these applications will be even more easily available with 3G than they were previously with interim technologies. 3G Applications PowerPoint Presentation: 3G Technology History PowerPoint Presentation: 3G Concepts we have to Know Simplex vs. Duplex TDD vs. FDD Symmetric vs. Asymmetric Transmission TDMA vs. CDMA Spread spectrum Circuit Switching vs. Packet Switching PowerPoint Presentation: When people use walkie-talkie radios to communicate, only one person can talk at a time (the person doing the talking has to press a button). This is because walkie-talkie radios only use one communication frequency - a form of communication known as simplex : Simplex vs. Duplex Simplex: Using a walkie-talkie you have to push a button to talk one-way. Of course, this is not how mobile phones work. Mobile phones allow simultaneous two-way transfer of data - a situation known as duplex (if more than two data streams can be transmitted, it is called multiplex): PowerPoint Presentation: Duplex: Allows simultaneous two-way data transfers. The communication channel from the base station to the mobile device is called the downlink , and the communication from the mobile device back to the base station is called the uplink . How can duplex communication be achieved? Well, there are two possible methods which we will now consider: TDD and FDD . What is Duplex ? PowerPoint Presentation: Wireless duplexing has been traditionally implemented by dedicating two separate frequency bands: one band for the uplink and one band for the downlink (this arrangement of frequency bands is called ( paired spectrum ). This technique is called Frequency Division Duplex, or FDD. The two bands are separated by a "guard band" which provides isolation of the two signals: TDD vs. FDD PowerPoint Presentation: FDD: Uses paired spectrum - one frequency band for the uplink, one frequency band for the downlink. TDD: Duplex communications can also be achieved in time rather than by frequency. In this approach, the uplink and the downlink operate on the same frequency, but they are switched very rapidly one moment the channel is sending the uplink signal, the next moment the channel is sending the downlink signal. Because this switching is performed very rapidly. This is called Time Division Duplex, or TDD. TDD requires a guard time instead of a guard band between transmit and receive streams. PowerPoint Presentation: Data transmission is Symmetric if the data in the downlink and the data in the uplink is transmitted at the same data rate. This will probably be the case for voice transmission - the same amount of data is sent both ways). Symmetric Transmission vs. Asymmetric Transmission Asymmetric applications, e.g., the internet- 384kbps for the downlink, and 64kbps for the uplink PowerPoint Presentation: We have considered how a mobile phone can send and receive calls at the same time (via an uplink and a downlink). Now we will examine how many users can be multiplexed into the same channel (i.e., share the channel) without getting interference from other users, a capability called multiple access . For 3G technology, there are basically two competing technologies to achieve multiple access: TDMA and CDMA. TDMA is Time Division Multiple Access. It works by dividing a single radio frequency into many small time slots. Each caller is assigned a specific time slot for transmission. CDMA is Code Division Multiple Access. CDMA works by giving each user a unique code. The receiver has knowledge of the sender's unique code, and is therefore able to extract the correct signal no matter what the frequency TDMA vs. CDMA PowerPoint Presentation: Traditional connections for voice communications require a physical path connecting the users at the two ends of the line, and that path stays open until the conversation ends. This Kind of connection is called circuit switching . Most modern networking technology is radically different from this traditional model because it uses packet data. chopped into pieces (packets), given a destination address, mixed with other data from other sources, transmitted over a line with all the other data, reconstituted at the other end. Circuit Switching vs. Packet Switching Packet data was originally developed as the technology behind the Internet A data packet. PowerPoint Presentation: Macro Cells, Micro Cells, and Pico Cells The 3G network might be divided up in hierarchical fashion: Macro cell - The area of largest coverage, e.g., an entire city. Micro cell - The area of intermediate coverage, e.g., a city centre. Pico cell - The area of smallest coverage, e.g., a "hot spot" in a hotel or airport. smaller regions (shorter ranges) allow higher user density and faster transmission rates. This is why they are called " hot spots ". How 3g network works PowerPoint Presentation: TDD mode does not allow long range transmission (the delays incurred would cause interference between the uplink and the downlink). For this reason, TDD mode can only be used in environments where the propagation delay is small (Pico cells). As was explained in the previous section on symmetric transmission vs. asymmetric transmission,. TDD mode is highly efficient for transmission of internet data in Pico cells. How 3g network works PowerPoint Presentation: In the old days, when all phones were fixed rather than mobile, making a call involved establishing a direct electrical connection between your handset and the one you were calling. The same happens with GSM mobiles, but instead of setting up a dedicated circuit, a small portion of the airwaves are reserved for your call. This is a really bad way of dividing up the available airwaves because it means that the spaces and pauses in speech get the same priority as the words. 3G networks change all this. Instead of reserving airspace each conversation is chopped up into packets, each one of which is labelled with a code denoting which dialogue it is from. Routing networks PowerPoint Presentation: This radical change means 3G mobile networks can support lots more subscribers and let them download data much faster. On current GSM networks data chugs around at 9.6 kilobits per second (kbps). By contrast the upper limit for 3G networks is 2 megabits per second if you are standing still and 384 kbps for those on the move. These are maximum rates and possible speed will fall as more people download data in any particular cell. It is possible that at peak times phone users will be lucky to do better than the 56kbps possible over a fixed phone. New flavours - high speeds PowerPoint Presentation: Using packets of information to carry voice and data also means that your phone is effectively always connected to the network. This will mean a huge change in the way that you pay for your phone. Mobile operators will have to stop charging on the basis of talk time and move to a model based on the packets you download or a single charge per month covering anything and everything you do. The day of 3G may be dawning but it will be a long time before the sun sets on our existing mobile phones . 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