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INTRODUCTION India ranks 2nd in the aquaculture Anibiotics lead to some resistant strains &residual problems Vaccination also cause only specifi form of immunity


IMMUNOSTIMULANT It is a chemical,drug,stress or action that elevates the NS or S immune response Given directly or along with vaccines


FUNCTIONS Phagocytic activity of phagocytic cells Natural killer cells Improves complement, lysozyme Stimulators of Tcells & B cells Act as inflammotary agents


TYPES Plant extract or animal extract Microbial compounds Vitamins & harmones Synthetic compounds

Plant extract : 

Plant extract YEAST Saccharomyces cervisae Also favoured by feed fomulators Contain B vitamin& protein Two week lag necessary


YEAST Effect attributed to vivo stimulation of phagocytosis B 1-3 glucan isolated from yeast Increase the activity of macrophages In shrimps causes degranulation thus enhance the ppo system


GLUCANS Effective immunostimulant Are polyglucose present in cellwalls of fungi including yeast Also extracted from barley & seaweed source Injection has generally produced more favorable responses than oral administration (~0.2% of diet)


FUNCTIONS Mechanisms of action complement activation enhanced lysozyme production increased oxidative capacity of phagocytes


DIFFERENT GLUCANS Poly glucose (b(1,3) –d glucan) Curdlan Scleroglucan Schizophyllan Lentinin M-glucan

Cont.. : 

Cont.. In rainbow trout enhanced the NS defence mechanism In brook trout, protect against A.salmonicida Oral administration – elevated phagocytic index , total plasma,total immunoglobulin In P.monodon protection against v.vulnificus (imm treatment) In 2 -10 ppm in yellow tail against streptococcus sp & Pasturella piscida

Derivatives of plants : 

Derivatives of plants Amla, ashavgandha, guduchi, haritaki, karkatshingri, pippali, punarwana, shatavari, tinoapora cardifolia,spray dried prep of tetraselmis suecica against V.alginolyticus, V.anguillarium, V.parahemolyticus, A.salmonicida , A.hydrophila, staphyylococcus & Yersina ruckeri


ANIMAL EXTRACTS Chitin & chitosan Extracts of abalone ( Haliotis discus ) Extracts of tunicates (Ecteinascida turbinata) Whey (thin serum of milk that remains after the curd and cream have been removed) chicken egg (EF 203)


SYNTHETIC COMPOUNDS Muramy peptides Levamisole (2,3,5,6 – tetra hydro-6 Phenyl medaza (2,1,-b0 thiazole) Modified friend’s complete adjuvant Hepatomoyl Glutamoyl Alanine Dimecyl


VITAMINS & MINERALS Vit C Vit E Selenium Dimethylglycine (DMG) Role vit C & vit E documented in fishes in reducing stress


HARMONES Growth harmones Prolactin Melanin stimulating harmone Melanin concentrating harmone

Reduce stress effects : 

Reduce stress effects M- glucan (yeast extract in salmo salar) Baker’s yeast derived glucan injected to catfish Vitastism fed to juv of chinook salmon levamisole


ADJUVANTS Adjuvants are substances that, when used incombination with vaccine antigens, induce a stronger and more effective response to the vaccine as compared to that induced by the vaccine given alone • Different adjuvants have different activities on the immune system driving it towards different functional responses

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Today the most common adjuvants for human use are aluminium hydroxide, aluminium phosphate and calcium phosphate their ability to enhance the immune response—their adjuvanticity. The discovery of adjuvants dates back to 1925 and 1926

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Today the most common adjuvants for human use are aluminium hydroxide, aluminium phosphate and calcium phosphate. Alum is the first but it is intrinsically poor adjuvant Alum induces antibody responses only


MODE OF ACTION Chedid 1985 The formation of a depot of antigen at the site of inoculation With slow release The presentation of antigen immunocompetent cells And the production of various and different lymphokines (interleukins and tumour necrosis factor).,

Types of adjuvants : 

Types of adjuvants Oil emulsions Mineral compounds Bacterial products Liposomes Immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs ) Other adjuvants Squalene

Oil emulsion : 

Oil emulsion water-in-oil and water-in-vegetable-oil adjuvant Freund’s adjuvant Studies of tuberculosis was a remarkable increase in complement-fixing antibody response as well in delayed hypersensitivity reaction. Drakeol 6VR and Arlacel A

Freund’s adjuvants: : 

Freund’s adjuvants: The incomplete Freund’s adjuvant The complete Freund’s adjuvant. Mechanism of action continuous release of antigen vehicle for transport of emulsified antigen accumulation of cells of the mononuclear series

Mineral Compounds : 

Mineral Compounds Al (OH) , Al (PO4),Ca( PO4) Alum-precipitated diphtheria toxoid more effect Universally used as adjuvants for the DPT Ca( PO4) used as diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio, BCG, yellow fever, measles and hepatitis B vaccines

Bacterial Products : 

Bacterial Products B. pertussis components diptheria and tetanus toxoids in the DPT vaccines Corynebacterium-derived P40 P40 abolishes drug-induced immunosuppression and increase non-specific resistance IL-2, tumour necrosis factor, and interferon alpha and gamma

Cont… : 

Cont… Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Mycobacterium and its components Cholera Toxin Liposomes phospholipids and other lipids in a bilayer

Immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) : 

Immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) stable but non-covalently-bound complex of saponin adjuvant Quil-A, cholesterol and amphipathic antigen Squalene is an organic polymer with some antigenic epitope experiments vaccines given to the participants in the Gulf War.

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