CONTINUING NURSING EDUCATION : CONTINUING NURSING EDUCATION K.J.PUSHPAKALA.,MSc(Nursing)., LECTURER, DEPARTMENT OF CARDIOTHORACIC NURSING, CHENNAI. Introduction: Introduction In a dynamic society , the need for continuing education is fundamental. Sir William Osler , advised Physicians to discontinue practice every fifth year and return to laboratory and hospital for renovation, reintegration and resuscitation. Acc to Miss Florence Nightingale , “ Nursing is a progressive area in which to stand still is to go back “. Continuing Nursing Education (CNE ): Continuing Nursing Education (CNE ) Continuing Education Program helps build capacities in the Profession and allows the Nurses to develop Professional competence, Ethical principles of conduct and Leadership qualities to adapt to changes in the society. The concept of continuing education is often used as a substitute for associated terms such as continuing professional development and Professional advancement (Lorraine Gallagher, 2007 ). Continuing Education Program seeks to address the problems of coping with the exploding knowledge while developing critical thinking and inter personal skills in the Nurses and also helps predict future challenges and helps articulate appropriate solutions. PowerPoint Presentation: CNE implies learning beyond the basic educational program, the experiences are designed to promote the development of knowledge, skill and attitude for the enhancement of Nursing practice. CNE are methods of staff and professional development , inservice education program and orientation programs are components of CNE. Relationship model between Continuing education and Staff development: Relationship model between Continuing education and Staff development Definitions of Concepts: Definitions of Concepts Continuing Nursing Education ANA defines Continuing Education Program as “ Those Professional development experiences designed to enrich the Nurses contributions to health”. It is a planned activity which is directed towards meeting the learning needs available following their completion of college program to keep the registered nurses abreast of their particular field of interest. 3. It is planned learning experiences designed to augment the knowledge, skill and attitude of Nurses for the enhancement of Nursing practice, Education, Administration and Research to the end of improving health care to the public. In-Service Education/ Staff Development : In-Service Education/ Staff Development It is the continuation of Education when the employee is in service. In-service Education is a part of continuing education, It is defined as those activities which contribute to the nurses development in the areas of knowledge, skills and attitudes. In organizing In-service education program, it is essential to become familiar with the policy of the agency, its philosophy and goals and with the people concerned. Planning the program depends on the need when the needs are determined. PowerPoint Presentation: Acc to Brain Cane “ In-service training is taken to include all those activities and courses in which a serving teacher may participate for the purpose of extending his professional knowledge, interest or skill. Preparation for a degree, diploma or other qualification subsequent to the initial is included in this definition.” The above definition implies that In-service Education involves all range of activities which develop the professional competence, knowledge, understanding of role which they have to perform. It means that it is aimed at improving the employees performance in the organization. PowerPoint Presentation: Acc to Signe E. Froberg , “ Inservice Education is a program of planned learning experiences providing opportunities within a working situation to improve the quality of care provided for patients by correcting information and skill deficiencies of personnel by assisting the inexperienced to acquire needed skills and attitudes, by keeping personnel abreast of changes in health care, and by stimulating the continuous development of occupational and personal abilities of each employee.” PowerPoint Presentation: It is a planned instructional/ Training programme provided to professional nurses by an employing agency in the employment setting and is designed to increase competence in a specific area A management program to aid staff in developing skills and knowledge which adds to their professional goals and at the same time increases their value as employees. It is an In-service oriented program, presenting a wide array of activities/ subject matter to meet organization or staff development needs. PowerPoint Presentation: The needs are classified as the purposes of staff development Upgrading the competencies of those who have been inadequately prepared Updating the knowledge and skills of those who are behind or those who would like to assume new tasks or go further in their position Preparing nurse leaders Motivating staff nurses to continue to learn through their own efforts PowerPoint Presentation: Nature and Scope of In-service Education and Training In-service Education is Education intended to support and assist the professional development . For effective implementation of In-service education programmes , the basic knowledge of employee need to be kept in mind. Organization of In-service Education Orientation Skill training Leadership and Management Continuing Education PowerPoint Presentation: Orientation Programme An orientation programme is a programme where a new member is introduced to a particular setting. It is part of the In-service curriculum It sets the stage for the employees relationship with the organization. PowerPoint Presentation: Purposes of an Orientation Programme For effective administration of the organization For efficient working To induce a wish to learn Points to be considered while developing orientation programme The first day in a new situation which may stimulate / destroy the interest of the new employee A definite plan for the first day should be made, so that employees feel expected and time is not waste PowerPoint Presentation: Allow new employee to know/ meet people with whom she is going to work Who should give Orientation ? Duration of Orientation Programme One week-4 weeks Who should be given Orientation ? Continuing Education process: Continuing Education process Process of Continuing Education: Process of Continuing Education Identifying Learning Needs Determination of learning needs is one of the very important element in the whole process of staff development. It helps create enthusiasm in the learner . A.Definition of Learning Need “Need “, is a lack of knowledge, Skill or Attitude that prevents an employee from giving a satisfactory job performance. PowerPoint Presentation: B.Types of Learning Needs Learning Needs may be classified as Individual Needs, eg - updating knowledge in any related field Organizational Needs, enabling the staff to be efficient in work after going through the programme . Community Needs, providing knowledge in giving efficient care to the community . Eg - prevention of AIDS. Drug abuse etc. PowerPoint Presentation: C. Sources of Identifying Needs The Needs may be identified from Learners Supervisors and Administrators Clients /patients who express their views on care received Society / Community where the data during survey reveal the need Education to community regarding hygiene Political commitment, eg - discussing awareness program on AIDS New technology and Scientific Knowledge such as incubators , C.P.R etc PowerPoint Presentation: D. Approaches to assess Learning Needs a.Observation of performance of Nursing personnel will help to know the deficit in performance of the Nursing procedure. b. Verbal Communication such as informal and formal discussions, interview, meetings with groups or individuals, feed back from work shop participants and discussion with advisory committees. c. Written Communication by questionnaire, slip technique in which the learner writes the topic, analysis of records and reports, incident reports and annual reports. Job analysis also helps assess learning needs. PowerPoint Presentation: E. Tools to assess the Learning Needs Questionnaire Rating Scale Check List Opinionnaire PowerPoint Presentation: Assignments 1.As an adult learner list five characteristics that you would like your teacher to keep in mind while teaching you. 2. Identify some of your learning needs as a PG student. 3.Assess the learning needs of staff nurses working in the cardio- thoracic unit using any one of the tools. PowerPoint Presentation: 2.Setting Goals and Defining specific Objectives Once the learning needs are identified then the most important felt need is identified for the continuing education program It is important to establish goals/ purposes and define the specific objectives. Goals/Purposes is a broad statement which gives direction in planning and assists in the determination of appropriate objectives. PowerPoint Presentation: Eg - learning need of the ward sisters is Ward Management Goal / purpose to enable the ward sisters to strengthen their knowledge and skill on ward management Objectives describe concept of ward management discuss the principles of administration Develop organization plans and channels of communication Identify the methods of patient care Develop plan for in-service education PowerPoint Presentation: 3. Planning and Organizing the course and designing learning experiences While planning, the following points have to be kept in mind What content is to be included What methods of teaching will be used What methods of evaluation Who will be the resource person/persons Who will be accountable etc The above will help us design the programme PowerPoint Presentation: Any format can be used for planning the programme Theme : Continuing Education Programme on ward management Participants : 30 ward sisters Date : 4-03-2010 Time : 9 AM to 4 PM Co- ordinator : X Purpose : Objectives : Methods of Teaching : Resource Person : Credit :Certificate of Attendance Evaluation : pre and post test and feed back from participants PowerPoint Presentation: Programme Schedule Monday ( 04-03-10) Programme Resource person 9.00 – 10.00 AM Registration 10.00 – 11.00 am Innaugural Session Welcome Address Unfolding of Theme 11.00 – 11.15 AM Tea Break 11.15 – 11.45 am Concept of Ward Management 11.45 – 12.15 PM Principles of Administration PowerPoint Presentation: 4. Selection of Resources Resources may be classified as A. Financial Resources ( Budget ) For getting finances a proposal should be prepared Guidelines for writing the proposal Name of the Institution Assessed Problem/ Need Organizer/ Co- ordinator Aim of the Programme Objectives of the Programme PowerPoint Presentation: Nature of the Programme Duration of the Programme The Participants Group Number Funds Required -Transport -Daily Allowance ( stipend) -Honorarium( Resource Persons ) -Stationeries / Supplies -Snacks -Certificates etc PowerPoint Presentation: B . Human Resources A speaker / Resource person can be selected from the faculty of the Institution/ outside, must be familiar with the special needs of the adult learner, have good knowledge on the assigned topic and be able to conduct an effective session. There should be a co- ordinator , who is an administrator/Senior faculty and should have Knowledge and Skills in Adult learning PowerPoint Presentation: Selecting the professional development staff to work in the planning, implementation and evaluation of staff development programs. There should be an advisory committee for identifying needs and resources Identification of learners need -felt need by the faculty Desired knowledge and skill Present level of skill Translate learning needs into objectives and Identify contents PowerPoint Presentation: Contents can be developed under the following models The Classical Model ( problem-solving model ) Identification of needs Work through objectives Develop contents Implement teaching Evaluate b.Naturalistic Model ( Decision –Making Model ) -Follow the text book PowerPoint Presentation: c.The Critical Model ( Social & Political Model ) Shape the contents with theories, issues of power, politics and knowledge. Select Teaching methods Select Instructional materials Develop evaluation strategies and feed back PowerPoint Presentation: 5. Implementing the Programme Check for the following aspects before implementing the program Filing system Purpose Planning and Direction Time, place and duration Desired participants Possible dates Time Table Mailing list PowerPoint Presentation: Methods of Instruction Desired topical coverage Desired faculty Expenses to be met Funding arrangement Plan for controlling finances B. Develop the Agenda State purpose of workshop State desired learning outcome on part of participants Determine time available for total workshop PowerPoint Presentation: Develop realistic time allocations that can be adhered to Allocate time for registration “ time for introduction of speakers “ time for speakers “ time for discussions C. Prepare correspondence to guest speakers Letter/ call of invitation Outline coverage required Include courtesy copy of agenda PowerPoint Presentation: Query as to support requirements Teaching –Learning strategies 6. Evaluating the Programme Learners evaluation through Observations Tests Feed back B. Programme Evaluation in terms of Objectives Contents Instructional Methods and Aids PowerPoint Presentation: Time Group work Suggestions PowerPoint Presentation: Statements SA A DA SDA The objectives of the programm were clearly stated The programm was well planned Concept of ward management was clear Group work was adequate Group discussions were beneficial Faculty development process: Faculty development process Faculty development is a comprehensive program and includes Induction First phase of staff development Carried out after the employee has been selected but prior to performing the job role Includes all the activities that educate the new employee about the organization as well as employment personal policies and proced ures PowerPoint Presentation: 2. Orientation Introduces employees to new situations Includes contents related to philosophy, goals, procedures, role expectations and physical facilities Orientation is required whenever the employees have a role change PowerPoint Presentation: 3. In-Service Education Provides learning experiences in the work setting for the purpose of refining and developing new skills and knowledge related to job performance Usually narrow in scope because The learning experiences are brief as they are aimed at only one competency or knowledge area 4. Continuing Education Planned and organized learning experiences which focus on competencies and knowledge Employees can use in a variety of settings instead of just a particular area PowerPoint Presentation: 5. Job related Counseling Involves promoting professional growth of employees by helping them to give their best job performance Also involves counseling on promotion, possibilities and assistance in obtaining formal training. Organization of Faculty development programmes: Organization of Faculty development programmes The Faculty development can be organized under two models 1.Centralized Model There is a staff development department The educational staff may consist of either Nurses or educators who are not nursing personnel There is a collaboration with all the departments to determine and plan the needs of the staff. PowerPoint Presentation: 2 . Decentralized Model In this model the nursing department has its own In-Service or staff development department. Administrators Role in organizing Continuing education/ Faculty development: Administrators Role in organizing Continuing education/ Faculty development Reactor Role be sensitive to the educators needs react with the environment and provide mechanisms to identify the faculty growth and need 2.Initiation Role Demonstrate willingness to help members to think, act and learn differently then they had in the past. Help the faculty read and translate information received from internal and external organizational environment to understand emerging needs PowerPoint Presentation: 3.Collaborative Role Understands the importance of collaborating with team members to achieve organizational goals. 4.Facilitator of organizational learning needs Be sensitive to the current instructional and educational strategies provider of financial resources Provider of human resources PowerPoint Presentation: 5.Policy maker Role Establish policies for faculty development Relieve faculty to attend such programmes Financing Policies for higher positions 6.Motivator Role Be a role model Help faculty assume responsibilities for their own professional develop PowerPoint Presentation: 6.Evaluator Evaluate effectiveness of faculty participation by Assessing quality education and quality care through follow up studies, observations and reports from peer groups. Adult Learning: Adult Learning The adult learner is generally perceived to have Characterestics that are unique Adults are motivated to learn as they experience needs. Adults orientation to learning is life centered Experience is the richest resource for adult learning, therefore the core methodology for adult education is the exchange and analysis of experience among participants of the course. Adult education must make optimal provision for difference in style, time, place and pace of learning, must respect adults strengths, their subjective theories and their personal aspirations. Principles of Adult Learning : Principles of Adult Learning Needs Assessment Safety in the environment and the process Sound relationship between teacher and learner and among learners Sequence of content and reinforcement Action with reflection or learning by doing Respect for learners as decision maker Involve cognitive,affective and psychomotor aspects of learning PowerPoint Presentation: Clear roles and role development Team work and use of small groups Engagement of the learner in what they are learning Accountability: how do they know they know. Distance Education in Nursing: Distance Education in Nursing Introduction Historically, Nursing always has been able to evolve continuously in its methods, structure and educational approaches to meet the changing needs of the health care needs of the society. Distance education methods has penetrated Nursing education since 1990 Just as nurses use their knowledge and assessment skills to diagnose and treat patients, Nurse educators also continue to diagnose , assess and develop innovative approaches to deliver excellent nursing education thus customizing education based on students needs and available proven technology PowerPoint Presentation: Distance education is no longer only for those who are unable to get to campus but is offered as a choice to those who prefer it Distance education should not be considered a threat to traditional education but rather an option in an ever expanding choices that will encourage life long learning in the new millennium PowerPoint Presentation: Definition Distance Education has been defined as “ the acquisition of knowledge and skills through mediated information and instructions, encompassing all technologies and other forms of learning at a distance It is planned learning that occurs in a different place from teaching, requiring interactive technology and a course design supportive of distance education Why Distance Education: Why Distance Education Technology provides practicing nurses and nursing students with the opportunity to learn, share information and collaborate through out the world. A distance education format will not meet the needs of all the learners, however it is ideal for the learner who is - motivated, needs flexibility and wants to maintain professional accountability through self- education and on- going education PowerPoint Presentation: Internet based education is a learning option based on the assumption that students will become a part of a community of learners even as they work separately from each other and their instructors Distance education helps meet today's challenges in traditional educational system Challenges in today's traditional educational system: Challenges in today's traditional educational system Provide first rate leadership and instructions in rapidly developing new areas of knowledge and specialization Meet the learning needs of an increasingly diverse student population Faculty that are flexible and have the ability to incorporate research findings and technology into everyday instructional practices Ensure quality learning standards and accreditation criteria that are comparable to face-face formats Advantages of Distance Education: Advantages of Distance Education Individualized pacing with active student involvement Instructional assistance during and outside of regular class times Multiple media formats resulting in greater interactivity On time assessment, feedback and re-enforcement Individualized and collaborative learning Optimum use of instructors expertise Information linked to student pace and performance Basic Models of Distance Education: Basic Models of Distance Education Synchronous and Asynchronous modes of interactivity Synchronous learning Here the student and teacher interact in real time, similar to traditional learning Decreases flexibility Requires all students to be online at the same time ( video conference ) PowerPoint Presentation: Asynchronous learning Here individuals access the educational materials independently and at times and places of their choice Independent learning occurs Promotes self – directed learning Elements shaping Distance Education: Elements shaping Distance Education 1.Collaboration Increased collaboration between students and teachers which includes diverse individuals in all parts of the world 2. Connectivity Includes activities like discussion boards, class room emails, conferences, group projects Students and teachers instruction can easily connect across time and geographic locations Students can interact directly with experts in their field of study PowerPoint Presentation: 3. Unbounded Internet offers online education that eliminates the walls of the class room Gives students access to information and people anywhere in the world 4.Virtual community A sense of community is important for learning to take place A community is only possible if a sense of presence is created Online learning helps define community around common interest and work related activities PowerPoint Presentation: 5. Student centered When experienced nurses return to school for further learning , they respond better to a program that is based on adult learning principles 6.Exploration Allows learners to integrate knowledge into their own behavior and belief system and to create new knowledge and insight that can only occur when there is the adventure of discovery Many online learning encourage discovery learning PowerPoint Presentation: 7 . Shared knowledge Through online learning learners can tap vast knowledge networks and can contribute as well Sharing knowledge is the core of education and is greatly achieved through online networks 8. Multisensory experiences Learning theories emphasize that learning is more effective when it involves multiple sensory channe ( edgars dales classic cone experience) PowerPoint Presentation: Multi media technology is available on online learning thus providing all kinds of learning experiences unlike traditional 9. Authenticity Internet education is highly authentic in nature Students can access actual data base Have direct access to research information, a critical component of nursing. IGNOU: IGNOU Established in 1985 under the act of parliament with the aim of delivering quality higher education in various disciplines through distance learning to 3 categories of students ie Those who reside in remote areas and do not have access to higher education Those who cannot join regular courses due to financial and other constraints Professionals aspiring for additional qualification PowerPoint Presentation: It is recognized that at present nearly 1.5 million students in India are enrolled in various programmes IGNOU promotes and maintains standards of distance education in and around the country IGNOU is recognized as a “ centre of excellence “ by the common wealth of learning ( COL ) Activities of COL: Activities of COL Promotes open university and distance education system in country Co-ordinates and determines standards of teaching, evaluation and research system of the country Allocates and disburses grants to various distance education institutions in the country References: References 1.B.T.Basvantappa, Nursing Administration,Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers. 2.Loretta.E.Heidgerken, Teaching and Learning in the schools of Nursing, Principlesand Methods, Konarch Publishers, 3 rd edition. 3.Jean Barret , Ward Management and Teaching,Konarch Publishers, 2005. 4.Jeane M.Novotny , RobertH.Davis,Distance Education in Nursing., Springer Publishing comp., 2 nd edition PowerPoint Presentation: 5.Neelam Kumari , A text book of management of nursing services and education,S.Vikas & Co, Jalandar , 1 st edition, 2009. 6..Marquis.Bessie.L.,Huston. Carol.J.,Mangement Decision mmaking for Nurses.,Philadelphia;J.B Lippincott Company, 2 nd edition. 7. Swansburg . Russel.c.,Management and Leadership for Nurse Managers.,Boston;Jones and Barlett Publishers. - Refer Journal of Continuing Education in India.