ppt of agriculture

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BY- SARTHAK PANDA SAI INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL CROP PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT

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CROP PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT AGRICULTURE Agriculture was known to the people thousands of years ago. the term ‘agriculture’ is divided from two latin words ‘ ager ’ which mean ‘ field ’ and “ culture ” meaning cul “ cultivation ”.

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\\ The term crop is used to describe plants of the same kind that are grown in quantities . CROP Crops can be classified on the basis of:- types like cereals, vegetables and fruits the season in which they grow i.e. kharif and rabi crops (i) Kharif crops : the crops which are sown in the rainy season are called kharif crops. the rainy season in India is generally from June to September. paddy, maize, soya bean, groundnut, cotton, etc., are kharif crops. (ii) Rabi crops : the crops grown in the winter season are called rabi crops. their time period is generally from October to march. examples of rabi crops are wheat, gram, pea, mustard and linseed.

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\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Cultivation of crops involves several activities undertaken by farmers over a period of time. BASIC PRACTICES OF CROP PRODUCTION These activities or tasks are referred to as agricultural practices. These activities are listed below. (i) Preparation of soil (ii) Sowing (iii) Adding manure and fertilisers (iv) Irrigation (v) Protecting from weeds (vi) Harvesting (vii) Storage

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\\\\ PREPARATION OF SOIL (i) TURNING AND LOOSENING OF SOIL This allows the roots to penetrate deep into the soil. The loose soil allows the roots to breathe easily even when they go deep into the soil. The loosened soil helps in the growth of earthworms and microbes present in the soil. These organisms are friends of the farmer since they further turn and loosen the soil and add humus to it. Turning and loosening of soil brings the nutrient-rich soil to the top so that plants can use these nutrients. The process of loosening and turning of the soil is called tilling or ploughing. This is done by using a plough. Ploughs are made of wood or iron. Plough shaft Ploughshare The ploughed field may have big pieces of soil called crumbs . It is necessary to break these crumbs with a plank .

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Ploughshare Plough shaft AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS Plough : This is being used since ancient times for tilling the soil, adding fertilisers to the crop, removing the weeds, scraping of soil, etc. This implement is made of wood and is drawn by a pair of bulls or other animals Hoe : It is a simple tool which is used for removing weeds and for loosening the soil. Grip Handle Beam Bent plate Rod PLOUGH HOE Cultivator : Nowadays ploughing is done by tractor driven cultivator. The use of cultivator saves labour and time. CULTIVATOR

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SOWING (i) SELECTION OF SEEDS Seed selection is done by soaking the seeds in a beaker containing water. Damaged seeds become hollow and are thus lighter. Therefore , they float on water. This is a good method for separating good, healthy seeds from the damaged ones. (ii) TOOLS USED FOR SOWING SEEDS Traditional tool : The tool used traditionally for sowing seeds is shaped like a funnel Seed drill : Nowadays the seed drill is used for sowing with the help of tractors. This tool sows the seeds uniformly at proper distances and depths. It ensures that seeds get covered by the soil after sowing. This prevents damage caused by birds SEED DRILL TRADITIONAL TOOL

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ADDING MANURE AND FERTILISERS The substances which are added to the soil in the form of nutrients for the healthy growth of plants are called manure and fertilisers . (i) MANURING Farmers have to add manure to the fields to replenish the soil with nutrients. This process is called manuring . S. No. FERTILISER MANURE 1. A fertiliser is an inorganic salt which are rich in a particular nutrient. Manure is a natural substance obtained by the decomposition of cattle dung, human waste and plant residues. 2. A fertiliser is prepared in factories. Manure can be prepared in the fields. 3. A fertiliser does not provide any humus to the soil. Manure provides a lot of humus to the soil. 4. Fertilisers are very rich in plant nutrients like urea, ammonium sulphate, super phosphate, potash, NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium). Manure is relatively less rich in plant nutrients.

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(ii) CROP ROTATION Another method of replenishing the soil with nutrients is through crop rotation. This can be done by growing different crops alternately. (iii) NITROGEN FIXATION Certain bacteria ( Rhizobium) are present in the nodules of the roots of leguminous plants. They fix atmospheric nitrogen. Advantages of Manure : The organic manure is considered better than fertilisers. This is because:- It enhances the water holding capacity of the soil. It makes the soil porous due to which exchange of gases becomes easy. It increases the number of friendly microbes. It improves the texture of the soil. (iv)ADVANTAGES OF MANURE

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IRRIGATION The supply of water to crops at different intervals is called irrigation . The time and frequency of irrigation varies from crop to crop, soil to soil and season to season. Water is absorbed by the plant roots. Along with water, minerals and fertilisers are also absorbed. Plants contain nearly 90% water. (i) SOURCES OF IRRIGATION The sources of irrigation are— wells, tube wells, ponds, lakes, rivers, dams and canals (ii) METHODS OF IRRIGATION TRADITIONAL METHOD OF IRRIGATION:- MOAT CHAIN PUMP

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DHEKLI RAHAT MODERN METHOD OF IRRIGATION:- (a) Sprinkler System : The perpendicular pipes, having rotating nozzles on top, are joined to the main pipeline at regular intervals and water is allowed to flow through the main pipe under pressure with the help of a pump, it escapes from the rotating nozzles. It gets sprinkled on the crop as if it is raining. Sprinkler is very useful for sandy so SPRINKLER SYSTEM

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(b) Drip system : In this system, the water falls drop by drop just at the position of the roots. So it is called drip system. It is the best technique for watering fruit plants, gardens and trees. The system provides water to plants drop by drop. Water is not wasted at all. PROTECTION FROM WEEDS (i) WEEDS In a field many other undesirable plants may grow naturally along with the crop. These undesirable plants are called weeds. (ii) WEEDING The removal of weeds is called weeding. Weeding is necessary since weeds compete with the crop plants for water, nutrients, space and light. Thus, they affect the growth of the crop.

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(iii) REMOVAL OF WEEDS Tilling before sowing of crops helps in uprooting and killing of weeds, which may then dry up and get mixed with the soil. Weeds are also controlled by using certain chemicals, called weedicides, like 2,4-D. These are sprayed in the fields to kill the weeds. They do not damage the crops. HARVESTING Harvesting of a crop is an important task. The cutting of crop after it is mature is called harvesting. Harvesting is done by:- Manually by sickle (b) Machine called as harvester SICKLE HARVESTER SPRAYING OF WEEDICIDES

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(i) THRESHING In the harvested crop, the grain seeds need to be separated from the chaff. This process is called threshing. This is carried out with the help of a machine called ‘combine’ which is in fact a combined harvester and thresher THRESHER (ii) WINNOWING Farmers with small holdings of land do the separation of grain and chaff by winnowing . It is done with the help of winnowing machine. WINNOWING MACHINE (iii) HARVEST FESTIVALS Special festivals associated with the harvest season are Pongal, Baisakhi, Holi, Diwali, Nabanya and Bihu.

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STORAGE Storage of produce is an important task. If the crop grains are to be kept for longer time, they should be safe from moisture, insects, rats and microorganisms. Before storing them, the grains are properly dried in the sun to reduce the moisture in them. This prevents the attack by insect pests, bacteria and fungi. Dried neem leaves are used for storing food grains at home. For storing large quantities of grains in big godowns , specific chemical treatments are required to protect them from pests and microorganisms. However, large scale storage of grains is done in silos and granaries to protect them from pests like rats and insects STORAGE OF GRAINS IN GRANARIES SILOS FOR STORAGE OF GRAINS

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ANIMAL HUSBANDRY Animals reared at home or in farms, have to be provided with proper food, shelter and care. When this is done on a large scale, it is called animal husbandry. Animal husbandry are of four types: Rearing cattles Poultry farming Pisciculture Apiculture

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REARING OF CATTLE Cattle husbandry is done for two purposes— milk and draught labour for agricultural work such as tilling, irrigation and carting. Ex- POULTRY FARMING Poultry farming is undertaken to raise domestic fowl for egg production and chicken meat. Ex- PISCICULTURE Fish production includes the finned true fish as well as shellfish such as prawns and mollusks. Ex- APICULTURE Bee-keeping is done to get honey and wax. Ex- The local varieties of bees used for commercial honey production are Apis cerana indica, commonly known as the Indian bee