Civil War

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An overview of the United States Civil War

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The Civil War 1861-1865:

The Civil War 1861-1865

Economy of the South:

War brought economic ruin Income tax- 1/10 of crops go to government Wild inflation of Confederate dollar Cotton trade collapses (N blockade, Britain buys from Egypt instead) Low supplies of weapons and food Economy of the South

Economy of the North:

Bonds issued and income tax established Printing of money lead to inflation Farm production increased during the war Manufacturers made huge profits through profiteering (charging excessive prices for goods such as clothing, shoes, guns) Economy of the North

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Southern Leaders Thomas “Stonewall” Robert E. Lee Jackson Commander of CA

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Jefferson Davis -Attended West Point -Secretary of War -Spent much time arguing with his military officers -President of Confederacy

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Northern Leaders George McClellan Ulysses S. Grant

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Abraham Lincoln Strong but patient leader Sense of humor Little experience in national politics or military matters President of the Union

Strategies for the North:

Blockade Southern ports to halt trade with Europe Seize Richmond, VA the Confederate capital Seize the Mississippi River to prevent South from supplying their troops Once supply lines were seized, wear down the South until they had nothing left Strategies for the North

Southern Strategies:

Fight a defensive war until the North tired of fighting Count on European supplies and money to fight the war (European countries relied on Southern Cotton) Southern Strategies

PowerPoint Presentation:

Goals of the War Northern Goals: To keep the Union together by forcing the South to rejoin Most did not want equality between blacks and whites Southern Goals Independence from the North To protect their way of life (slavery, states’ rights) Did not want equality between blacks and whites

Strengths and Weaknesses of the North:

Strengths and Weaknesses of the North 22 million free citizens (many soldiers, farmers, factory workers) 90% of factory production 70% of the railroad Strong navy and trade fleet Had to conquer a huge, unfamiliar area Did not have the strongest military leaders

Strengths and Weaknesses of the South:

Strengths and Weaknesses of the South Believed that they were fighting a war for Southern independence (reason to be brave) Fighting a defensive war Good leaders Shooting is a part of Southern life Few factories to produce weapons Few railroads to move supplies Weak central government (difficult to get things done) Only 9 million people (and 1/3 are slaves) Small navy and trade fleet

Fort Sumter: April 11th, 1861:

Fort Sumter: April 11 th , 1861 First Shots of the Civil War The fort was under UNION control The Confederates (Southerners) asked them to surrender The Union (Northerners) refused Confederates attacked

Battle of Bull Run: July 1861:

First actual battle of the Civil War People came to have a picnic and watch the soldiers fight “Stonewall” Jackson earns his nickname Brigadier-General Barnard E. Bee stated, "There is Jackson standing like a stone wall." Union is defeated Confederate troops could have taken Washington, D.C Battle of Bull Run: July 1861

PowerPoint Presentation:

Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson Drawing of the Battle of Bull Run(Manassas)

General Grant Captures Ft. Donelson and Ft. Henry in Tennessee:

General Grant Captures Ft. Donelson and Ft. Henry in Tennessee February, 1862 One of the early UNION (Northern) victories General Grant captured these forts near the Mississippi From there, moved onto Shiloh

Battle of Shiloh: One of the Bloodiest Battles of the Civil War:

Battle of Shiloh: One of the Bloodiest Battles of the Civil War April 6 th , 1862 Shiloh is a village on the Tennessee River Confederates (Southerners) won on the first day of battle Grant did not give up and won the battle in the end

PowerPoint Presentation:

Union soldier charge Killed Confederate soldier

Monitor vs. Merrimack: Clash of Iron-clad Ships:

Monitor vs. Merrimack: Clash of Iron-clad Ships March 8 th , 1862 Confederates covered a warship called the “Merrimack” with Iron plates 4 inches thick The ship took out several Union naval ships

Union Makes the Monitor:

Union Makes the Monitor The Union navy made its own iron-clad ships The iron-clad ship the “Monitor” took on the Confederate iron-clad ship the “Merrimack” Neither ship damaged the other, so both withdrew

Union Navy Takes New Orleans:

Union Navy Takes New Orleans April, 1862 The Union navy captured the Mississippi River by taking over Memphis, TN and New Orleans, LA

Battle of Antietam:

Battle of Antietam September 17 th , 1862 No clear winner 23,000 casualties S withdraws: Leads to Lincoln issuing the Emancipation Proclamation Northern General McClellan Southern General Robert E. Lee

PowerPoint Presentation:

Photographs taken of killed soldiers after the battle Northern General George C. McClellan

Lincoln Issues the Emancipation Proclamation: September 22nd, 1862:

Lincoln Issues the Emancipation Proclamation: September 22 nd , 1862 " all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free ”

PowerPoint Presentation:

In which states have slaves been freed? In which states have slaves not been freed? Why is this? How did Europe feel about slavery? Why might Lincoln be trying to make the South’s slavery more obvious to them? How does this change the purpose of the war? (Lincoln signing the Emancipation Proclamation)

Battle of Fredericksburg, VA: December, 1862:

Battle of Fredericksburg, VA: December, 1862 Northern General Burnside Southern General Lee Confederates took position at the top of a hill and mowed down approaching Union soldiers North was defeated

PowerPoint Presentation:

View of the town of Fredericksburg, VA from the river (Soldiers are along the side of the river) Soldiers removing the dead and wounded after the battle

Battle of Chancellorville, VA: May, 1863:

Battle of Chancellorville, VA: May, 1863 The South won but sustain losses that were too heavy S: Lee and Jackson N: James Hooker Jackson was accidentally shot by his own soldier and died from his wounds

PowerPoint Presentation:

Location where Stonewall Jackson was shot

Battle of Gettysburg, PA: June 30th, 1863:

Battle of Gettysburg, PA: June 30 th , 1863 General Lee is attempting to take Washington, D.C. General George Meade meets him at Gettysburg, PA On the third day, the S charges Union forces who are on higher ground South fails; this is the TURNING POINT of the war

PowerPoint Presentation:

Hill where the Union soldiers held back the Confederate charge Aerial photo of the battle field at Gettysburg

The Gettysburg Address: November 19th, 1863:

Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate -- we can not consecrate -- we can not hallow -- this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us -- that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion -- that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain -- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth. The Gettysburg Address: November 19 th , 1863

PowerPoint Presentation:

Copy of the original Address

Battle of Vicksburg, May 18th, 1863- July 4th, 1863:

Battle of Vicksburg, May 18 th , 1863- July 4 th , 1863 N General Grant attacks in order to get control of the Mississippi River The Union solders starve out the Confederates and win

PowerPoint Presentation:

Picture of the fighting at Vicksburg The table where the Confederates signed their surrender of Vicksburg

Battle of the Wilderness, 1864:

Battle of the Wilderness, 1864 N General Grant attempts to move towards Richmond, VA (the S capital) Grant runs into Confederate soldiers, looses a lot of men, but continues on to Richmond

William T. Sherman’s March to the Sea: Summer and Fall, 1864:

N General Sherman marches through the Southern Shenandoah Valley He destroys everything in his path (TOTAL WAR) They burned homes, crops, farms, pulled up railroads, and killed livestock William T. Sherman’s March to the Sea: Summer and Fall, 1864

Grant Takes Richmond, VA: April, 1864:

Grant Takes Richmond, VA: April, 1864 S Army was surrounded and knew they would be slaughtered Robert E. Lee surrendered at Appotomax Courthouse

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