God, Gold, and Glory

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A Power Point over the motivating and technological factors that lead to the Age of Exploration.

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The Age of Exploration: “God, Gold, and GLORY”:

The Age of Exploration: “God, Gold, and GLORY”

Connections to the renaissance :

Connections to the renaissance - Spirit of adventure - Curiosity

European knowledge of the world :

European knowledge of the world Isolated from world until 1400s Marco Polo – 1275 – but Europeans had neither the interest or ability to explore foreign land Early 1400s: 1) desire to grow rich 2) desire to spread Christianity 3) advances in sailing technology

“God”:

“God” Crusades left feeling of hostility between Christians and Muslims Europeans believed they had a sacred duty to fight Muslims and convert non-Christians throughout the world Bartolomeu Dias described his motives as an explorer: “To serve God and His Majesty, to give light to those who were in darkness and to grow rich as all men desire to do”

“Gold” :

“Gold” Desire for new sources of wealth Benefit from profitable trade of goods from Asia Introduced to goods during Crusades After Crusades – demand for these goods continued to rise High demand = High prices Muslims and Italians controlled East/West trade By 1400s merchants and monarchs from the rest of Europe wanted to bypass Italian merchants

Glory:

Glory Renaissance spirit gave men sense of pride in individual achievement Renaissance also created a sense of curiosity about the world Both individuals and countries were seeking the recognition of being the first to make never before made voyages of exploration

Technology makes exploration possible :

Technology makes exploration possible Caravel – new sturdier vessel for long-distance sailing – light and fast

Portolan Maps:

Portolan Maps A type of nautical chart used from the 13th to 16th centuries for commercial navigation in the Mediterranean. The coastline was indicated in detail, as were many geographical designations; the inland portions were usually left blank. For determining and plotting a ship’s course, compass grids indicating the position of the points of the compass and sailing directions were drawn at a series of points on the chart; linear scales were also shown, for the first time. In the late 15th and early 16th centuries the portolan chart was replaced by charts with a network of meridians and parallels.

The Astrolabe:

The Astrolabe The astrolabe was used by navigators . It was a ring marked in degrees for measuring celestial altitudes.

The Sextant:

The Sextant

PowerPoint Presentation:

Triangular sails – adopted from Muslims, that allowed ships to sail against the wind

Portugal leads the way :

Portugal leads the way Had strong government support for exploration Led by Prince Henry “the Navigator” who was determined to rich the source of treasures in the East and wished to spread Christianity He set up navigation schools By the time he died, Portugal had set up trading ports along western Africa The next move was to find a sea route to Asia

Portuguese reach asia :

Portuguese reach asia 1488: Bartolomeu Dias sailed around southern tip of Africa – Cape of Good Hope 1497: Vasco da Gama explored eastern coast of Africa 1498: da Gama reached port of Calicut in south- western India - filled ships with spices - cargo worth 60X cost of voyage - 27,000 mi. gave Portugal direct sea route to Asia

Spain also makes claims:

Spain also makes claims Spain became envious of Portugal’s fortunes 1492: Christopher Columbus convinced Spain to finance a bold plan (he had been turned down by Portugal) Columbus believed he could find a route to Asia by sailing west across the Atlantic - he miscalculated size of ocean - he didn’t know 2 continents were in the way

PowerPoint Presentation:

Columbus reached an island in the Caribbean with the Nina, Pinta, Santa Maria Called the people he came into contact with “Indians” - thought he had reached the East Indies Explored the area on subsequent trips Voyage opened the way for European colonization in the Americas Immediate impact was increased tensions between Spain and Portugal

Treaty of tordesillas :

Treaty of tordesillas Portugal also believed Columbus had indeed reached Asia and had claimed lands for Spain that Portuguese sailors might have reached first Rivalry between Spain and Portugal intensified 1493: Pope Alexander VI stepped in and suggested the Line of Demarcation - lands west of line would be Spain’s - lands east of line would be Portugal’s Portugal complained and line was moved farther west Treaty of Tordesilas signed in 1494

Trading Empires in the Indian Ocean :

Trading Empires in the Indian Ocean With da Gama’s voyage, Europeans opened direct sea trade with Asia They also opened an era of violent conflict in the East As the Portuguese moved into the region they took control of the spice trade from Muslim merchants – accomplished by cannons aboard ships Built a fort at Hormuz in 1514 and controlled the straits there which connected the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea – stopped Muslim traders from reaching India

PowerPoint Presentation:

1510: Portugal captured Goa on India’s west coast and made it the capital of their trading empire They then sailed east to Indonesia – the East Indies 1511: they attacked Malacca and seized control of the straits there – this allowed them to control the Moluccas Because these islands were so rich in spices, they became known as the Spice Islands

Implications of Portugal’s success :

Implications of Portugal’s success Portugal did break the old Muslim-Italian domination on trade from the east Portuguese merchants brought back goods from Asia at about 1/5 of what they cost before As a result more Europeans could afford these items Portugal’s success attracted the attention of other European nations – by the early 1600s the rest of Europe had begun to descend upon Asia

The dutch republic – the netherlands:

The dutch republic – the netherlands 1600s: English and Dutch began to challenge Portuguese dominance over Indian Ocean trade Ruled by Spain since early 1500s 1581: Became independent from Spain Became a leading sea power Once the English and Dutch broke Portuguese control over the Asian region, they began to battle each other

The East India Companies :

The East India Companies The Dutch and British each formed an East India Company Companies had power to: - mint money - make treaties - raise their own armies **The Dutch East India Company was richer and more powerful than England’s and established dominance over the area

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