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An Overview of FDR's New Deal


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Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal:

Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal Redefined Democracy: Political Rights  Economic Security  Social Justice online-history.org/us2-docs/

Causes of the Great Depression:

Causes of the Great Depression Agricultural overproduction Industrial overproduction Unequal distribution of wealth Over-extension of credit International economic situation

How Herbert Hoover Dealt with the Crisis:

How Herbert Hoover Dealt with the Crisis He played the game of confidence economics and just kept saying: “Prosperity is right around the corner.”

Voluntary Measures:

Voluntary Measures Hoover eventually established two privately-funded organizations: The National Credit Association provided $1/2 billion to businesses for emergency loans, but it was too under-funded to do much good. The Organization for Unemployment Relief was a clearing house for relief agencies. However, state and local governments were already in too much debt to benefit from it.

Limited Government Intervention:

Limited Government Intervention In the end, Hoover resorted to government intervention: The Reconstruction Finance Corp gave $1-1/2 billion in federal loans to banks, insurance companies, and industry to prevent bankruptcies, but it was too little, too late. The Home Loan Bank Act provided federal loans to homeowners to prevent foreclosures, but got bogged down in red tape.

Reasons for Ineffectiveness:

Reasons for Ineffectiveness Hoover thought business should be self-regulating. He had a mania for a balanced budget. He lacked political finesse.

Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Appeal:

Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Appeal In 1932 presidential election, FDR was perceived as a man of action. Hoover was viewed as a “do-nothing president.” Norman Thomas , the Socialist candidate, was viewed as a radical . Results: a landslide for Democrats and a mandate to use government as an agency for human welfare.

Situation When FDR Entered Office:

Situation When FDR Entered Office In March 1933, the country was virtually leaderless and the banking system had collapsed .

FDR Restored Confidence:

FDR Restored Confidence In his inaugural address, he said “The only thing we have to fear is fear itself….” He promised vigorous leadership and bold action , called for discipline and cooperation , expressed his faith in democracy, and asked for divine protection and guidance.

FDR’s Personal Qualities:

FDR’s Personal Qualities He was a practical politician who practiced the art of the possible. He was a charismatic person who exhibited a warmth and understanding of people. He knew how to handle press by focusing attention on Washington. He provided dynamic leadership in a time of crisis. He was willing to experiment

Purposes of the New Deal:

Purposes of the New Deal Relief: to provide jobs for the unemployed and to protect farmers from foreclosure Recovery: to get the economy back into high gear, “priming the pump” Reform: To regulate banks, to abolish child labor, and to conserve farm lands Overall objective : to save capitalism

Sources of New Deal Ideas:

Sources of New Deal Ideas Brains Trust : specialists and experts, mostly college professors, idea men New Economists : government spending, deficit spending and public works, government should prime economic pump Roosevelt Cabinet : included conservatives, liberals, Democrats, Republicans, inflationists , anti- inflationists -- often conflicting, compromising, blending ideas

First New Deal (1933-1934):

First New Deal (1933-1934) Emphasis: reform Political Position : conservative Primary aim: economic recovery Philosophy: economic nationalism and economic scarcity (i.e., raise prices by creating the illusion of scarcity) Objectives: higher prices for agriculture and business Beneficiaries: big business and agricultural business

National Recovery Act (NRA):

National Recovery Act (NRA) Purpose: recovery of industry Created a partnership of business, labor, and government to attack the depression with such measures as price controls, high wages, and codes of fair competition

First Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA):

First Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) Purpose: the recovery of agriculture Paid farmers who agreed to reduce production of basic crops such as cotton, wheat, tobacco, hogs, and corn Money came from a tax on processors such as flour millers and meat packers who passed the cost on to the consumer

Federal Emergency Relief Admin (FERA):

Federal Emergency Relief Admin (FERA) Purpose: relief Gave money to states and municipalities so they could distribute money, clothing, and food to the unemployed

PowerPoint Presentation:

The TVA was established by Congress in 1933 to address a wide range of environmental, economic, and technological issues, including the delivery of low-cost electricity and the management of natural resources Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

Civilian Conservation Corp (CCC):

Civilian Conservation Corp (CCC) Purpose: relief Gave outdoor work to unemployed men between the ages of 17 and 29 They received $30 per month, but $22 went back to the family

Second New Deal (1934-1941) :

Second New Deal (1934-1941) Emphasis: reform Political Position: liberal Primary aim : permanent reform Philosophy: international economic cooperation and economic abundance Objectives : increased purchasing power and social security for public Beneficiaries : small farmers and labor

PowerPoint Presentation:

The Works Progress Administration (WPA) was a relief measure established in 1935 offered work to the unemployed on an unprecedented scale by spending money on a wide variety of programs, including highways and building construction, slum clearance, reforestation, and rural rehabilitation . Works Progress Administration (WPA)

Social Security Act:

Social Security Act Purpose: reform Gave money to states for aid to dependent children, established unemployment insurance through payroll deduction, set up old-age pensions for retirees.

National Labor Relations Act:

National Labor Relations Act Purpose: reform Put restraints on employers and set up a National Labor Relations Board to protect the rights of organized labor to bargain collectively with employers.

Second Agricultural Adjustment Act :

Second Agricultural Adjustment Act Purpose: recovery for agriculture Paid farmers for conservation practices, but only if they restricted production of staple crops.

U.S. Housing Authority:

U.S. Housing Authority Purpose: recovery and reform Used federal funds to tear down slums and construct better housing .

The New Deal on Trial:

The New Deal on Trial By 1935, political disunity was evident. There were critics on the right and the left. NEW DEAL

Criticisms of Conservative Opponents:

Criticisms of Conservative Opponents Conservative opponents said the New Deal went too far : It was socialism (killed individualism) It added to the national debt ($35 billion) It wasted money on relief and encouraged idleness It violated the constitution & states rights It increased the power of the Presidency (FDR was reaching toward dictatorship, Congress a rubber stamp, independence of judiciary threatened, separation of powers shattered)

Anti-New Deal Organization:

Anti-New Deal Organization Conservative opponents to the New Deal had an organization called the American Liberty League . They had money but were small in numbers, so FDR was not worried.

Criticisms of Radical Opponents:

Criticisms of Radical Opponents Radical opponents said the New Deal did not go far enough. They were demagogues (rabble-rousers) and had popular followings, so FDR was concerned.

Senator Huey Long (LA):

Senator Huey Long (LA) Senator Huey Long said New Deal relief measures were mere crumbs and advocated a share the wealth plan (i.e., a guaranteed annual income of at least $5,000 for every American, financed by confiscating wealth of people who made over $5 million per year).

Father Charles E. Coughlin:

Father Charles E. Coughlin Father Charles Coughlin was a rabble-rousing radio priest from Detroit. His broadcasts were called the “Golden Hour of the Little Flower.” He claimed there was an international bankers conspiracy and Jews were responsible. He advocated nationalization of banking and currency and national resources and demanded a “living wage.”

Dr. Francis E. Townsend:

Dr. Francis E. Townsend Dr. Francis E. Townsend was an elderly physician from CA. He had a plan for the federal government to pay $200 per month to unemployed people over 60 . The program would be financed by a 2% national sales tax and each pensioner would be required to spend the money in 30 days. This would stimulate the economy.

Moderate Legislation :

Moderate Legislation FDR sponsored moderate legislation to silence radical opposition: Revenue Act of 1935 – Response to Huey Long. Increased taxes on large incomes and corporations. Banking Act of 1935 – Response to Coughlin. Extended federal control over private banking practices. Social Security Act of 1935 Response to Townsend. Included provisions for unemployables (dependent children, the disabled, blind), unemployment insurance, and old-age pensions.

The Election of 1936:

The Election of 1936 The Election of 1936: Made the Democratic party the majority party Created a new Democratic coalition composed of both traditional elements and new elements Showed that the American people rejected radical solutions to depression

The Election of 1936:

Candidate Party % Popular Vote Electoral Votes FDR Democratic 60.3% 523 Alfred E. Landon Republican 36.56% 8 William Lemke Radical 1.93% Norman Thomas Socialist 0.41% ( 2.21 in 1932) Earl Browder Communist 0.17 (0.25 in 1932) The Election of 1936

The Roosevelt Coalition:

The Roosevelt Coalition While Republicans were still relying on their traditional base of political support (big business, big farmers, and conservatives), Democrats broadened their constituency by appealing to small farmers in the Midwest , urban political bosses, ethnic blue collar workers, Jews, intellectuals, and African Americans .

Protection of New Deal Accomplishments:

Protection of New Deal Accomplishments Steps FDR took to protect New Deal accomplishments (both failed): Court-Packing Plan (proposed increasing Supreme Court from 9 to 15 members, caused in revolt in Dem. Party) Purge of the Democratic Party in the Election of 1938 (came out strongly in favor of liberal Dem. Candidates, evidence that he interfered in a state campaign, Republicans gained strength in both houses of Congress)

Decline of New Deal Reform after 1937:

Decline of New Deal Reform after 1937 Reasons for decline of New Deal reform after 1937: Court-packing plan made Congress irritable. Recession of 1937-38 weakened confidence in New Deal measures. Republicans gained strength in both houses. Attempted purge of Democratic party failed. Conservative Democrats were elected to office. Resentful of attempted party purge, they joined ranks with Republicans to block New Deal legislation. Increasing focus on foreign affairs.

The Significance of the New Deal:

The Significance of the New Deal

Physical Rehabilitation of Country:

Physical Rehabilitation of Country Attacked soil erosion Built dams and planted trees to prevent floods Reclaimed the grasslands of the Great Plains Developed water power resources Encouraged regional reconstruction projects like the TVA and Columbia River project

Human Rehabilitation:

Human Rehabilitation Established the principle that government has responsibility for the health, welfare, and security , as well as the protection and education of its citizens Embraced social security, public health, housing Entered the domain of agriculture and labor

Revitalization of Politics:

Revitalization of Politics Strengthened executive branch Reasserted presidential leadership Revitalized political party as a vehicle for the popular will and as an instrument for effective action.

Extension of Democracy:

Extension of Democracy Redefined the concept of democracy so that it included not only political rights but economic security and social justice as well.

Maintenance of a Democratic System :

Maintenance of a Democratic System The New Deal maintained a democratic system of government and society in a world threatened by totalitarianism. Increased size and scope of government to meet needs of the depression Provided the leadership that enabled Congress to put through the necessary relief, recovery, and reform measures. Sponsored moderate legislation to neutralize the popularity of radical opponents

Government Expenditures:

Government Expenditures The total cost of the current bailout now exceeds $4.6 trillion dollars. It has cost more than all of these government expenditures combined. Figures in parentheses have been adjusted for inflation: Marshall Plan : Cost: $12.7 billion ($115.3 billion) Louisiana Purchase : Cost: $15 million ($217 billion) Race to the Moon : Cost: $36.4 billion ($237 billion) S&L Crisis : Cost: $153 billion ($256 billion) Korean War : Cost: $54 billion ($454 billion) The New Deal : Cost: $32 billion est.($500 billion est.) Invasion of Iraq : Cost: $551billion ($597 billion) Vietnam War : Cost: $111 billion ($698 billion) NASA : Cost: $416.7 billion ($851.2 billion) TOTAL: $3.92 trillion online-history.org/us2-docs/

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