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AN overview of Imperialism


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United States Imperialism 1890-1920:

United States Imperialism 1890-1920

Social Darwinism :

Foxborough History Department 2 Social Darwinism The application of Darwinism to the study of human society, specifically a theory in sociology that individuals or groups achieve advantage over others as the result of genetic or biological superiority.

The Monroe Doctrine (1823):

The Monroe Doctrine (1823) Part of annual Presidential message to Congress Warned European powers not to interfere with affairs in the Western Hemisphere Also stated that the U.S. would not involve itself in European affairs Effects of the Doctrine Made the U.S. a power player on the world stage

American Expansionism:

American Expansionism America had always sought to expand the size of their nation. America wanted to join imperialist powers in Europe and establish colonies overseas. Imperialism - policy in which stronger nations extend their economic, political, or military control over weaker territories.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Causes of American Imperialism Political / Military Foreign military bases needed to protect American business interests Economic -Raw materials needed to fuel American Industries -New markets needed to buy American products Cultural -Belief in Social Darwinism (racial superiority) -Moral responsibility to “Christianize” and civilize “inferior peoples”

Admiral Alfred T. Mahan and American Imperialism:

Admiral Alfred T. Mahan and American Imperialism Saw the need for U.S. to establish global presence Wrote “The Influence of Sea Power on History; 1660-1783” Urged U.S. gov’t to build up American naval power To compete with other powerful empires To protect commercial shipping lanes 1883-1890: 9 new modern warships were built and the battleship was created

The U.S. Acquires Alaska:

The U.S. Acquires Alaska William Seward- Secretary of State under presidents Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson. 1867: U.S. bought Alaska for $7.2 million from Russia Known as“Seward’s Icebox” or “Seward’s Folly” 1959 became a state Land rich with minerals, timber, and oil.

The U.S. Focuses on Hawaii:

The U.S. Focuses on Hawaii 1867: U.S. took over the Midway Islands just north of Hawaii 1887: Hawaiian gov’t allows U.S. to build ship refueling station at Pearl Harbor Becomes major U.S. Navy Base 1890-1897: Sugar Planters fight for Hawaiian Annexation Sugar planters did not want to pay duty (tax) to export sugar to U.S. Planters rebelled against and overthrew Hawaiian monarchy with American military support 1898: Hawaii annexed as a U.S. territory 1959: Hawaii becomes the 50 th state

Hawaiian Islands:

Hawaiian Islands

Spanish American War (1898):

Spanish American War (1898) Causes of the War American Interests in Cuba Heavy investments in Cuban sugar plantations American railroad companies wanted to control Cuban railroad expansion The U.S.S. Maine, 1898

Spanish American War (1898):

Spanish American War (1898) Causes of the War The DeLome Letter (1897): Letter sent by Spanish Minister Enrique DeLome that was captured by Cuban rebels It criticized President McKinley, calling him weak These insults angered Americans and opened the door for talks of war with Spain There were also American investors that wanted war for financial reasons The U.S.S. Maine, 1898

Spanish American War (1898):

Spanish American War (1898) Causes of the War The U.S.S. Maine 1898: The U.S.S. Maine was sent by Pres. McKinley to bring home American citizens February 15, 1898: The U.S.S. Maine exploded in the harbor at Havana killing 260 men The explosion was blamed on the Spanish The U.S.S. Maine, 1898

To Hell with Spain Remember the Maine:

Foxborough History Department 13 To Hell with Spain Remember the Maine At 9:40pm on February 15, 1898, the battleship U.S.S. Maine exploded in Havana Harbor 268 men were killed, shocking the American population What or who caused this explosion?

Yellow Journalism:

Foxborough History Department 14 Yellow Journalism Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers.

What is Yellow Journalism? :

What is Yellow Journalism? Yellow Journalism is an attention-grabbing and sensationalized type of reporting. Uses images that are twisted into misleading illusions. Yellow Journalism Picture. [Online Image] . September 28, 2009

Intro to Yellow Journalism :

Intro to Yellow Journalism Yellow Journalism was introduced to the world by Pulitzer and Hearst during the Spanish-American War. Their feud started with a cartoon called “The Yellow Man” This is where the name Yellow Journalism comes from. Hearst and Randolph fighting over who has control of the War. [Online Image] September 28, 2009

The Yellow Man Cartoon:

The Yellow Man Cartoon William Randolph Hearst stole the cartoonist from Joesph Pulitzer to make the strip his Pulitzer made another cartoonist copy the cartoon in his paper Soon they were engaged in a furious contest to see who could sell the most papers To sell papers, they created yellow journalism.. And so it begun Joesph Pulitzer [Online Image] October 1, 2009. William Randolph Hearst {Online Image} October 1, 2009.

How Yellow Journalism Helped to Cause War:

How Yellow Journalism Helped to Cause War This rivalry between Hearst and Pulitzer came to its peak in 1898, when the Spanish-American war occurred Both of their newspapers helped guide America to war It played a huge role in American history Remember the Maine [Online Image] October 2, 2009

Theodore Roosevelt Assistant Secretary of the Navy. :

Foxborough History Department 19 Theodore Roosevelt Assistant Secretary of the Navy . “I should welcome almost any war, for I think this country needs one” First Volunteer for Cavalry, nicknamed the "Rough Riders.“

PowerPoint Presentation:

Menger Bar Menger Hotel San Antonio, Texas

July 1, 1898: San Juan Hill taken by "Rough Riders":

Foxborough History Department 21 July 1, 1898: San Juan Hill taken by "Rough Riders"

The War is Ended:

The War is Ended Treaty of Paris: December 10, 1898 Cuba, Guam and Puerto Rico were turned over to the U.S. Spain sold the Philippines to the U.S. for $20 million Treaty Sparks Debates Many Americans felt that annexation of territories and not giving them self governance violated the Declaration of Independence Booker T. Washington argued that America should remedy the concerns of African Americans before taking on issues elsewhere

Foreign Influence in China:

Foreign Influence in China Weakened by war and foreign intervention, China became vulnerable to foreign countries. European nations set up trade markets and gave themselves special privileges Open Door Notes (1899) Issued by John Hay, U.S. Secretary of State Notes proposed that imperialist nations share trade privileges in China with the U.S.

The Boxer Rebellion:

The Boxer Rebellion Secret societies formed to rid China of foreign influence and dominance Righteous and Harmonious Fists (aka “Boxers” Killed missionaries, traders, and Christian converts 1900: Eight nation force was assembled to put down the “Boxer Rebellion”

T. Roosevelt’s Foreign Policy:

T. Roosevelt’s Foreign Policy “Big-Stick” Diplomacy was the slogan describing TR’s corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. The United States he claimed had the right not only to oppose European intervention in the Western Hemisphere, but also intervene itself in the domestic affairs of their neighbors if they proved unable to maintain order and national sovereignty on their own.

T. Roosevelt's Foreign Policy:

T. Roosevelt's Foreign Policy Roosevelt was the 1 st President to play a significant role in world affairs Imperialism in the Western Hemisphere: “Speak softly but carry a big stick {and} you will go far.” Disciple of Alfred Thayer Mahan Proponent of domination of Western Hemisphere Military and naval strength Isthmian Canal (Panama) Need for overseas bases & coaling stations Export American products, ideas, and values worldwide


PANAMA CANAL Spanish -American war showed the need for a canal to connect the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. U.S. now had major interests in both spheres (Puerto Rico, Hawaii, and the Philippines)


STEPS to a CANAL Clayton-Bulwer Treaty (1850) Ferdinand de Lesseps (of Suez fame) fails in Panama due to diseases in the swampy marshes around canal zone (1887-1889) Hay- Pauncefote Treaty (1901) – Britain agreed to give U.S. right to build canal and right to fortify it as well Columbian Senate rejected a treaty with the U.S. for a canal in Panama (which was part of Columbia) Panama Revolution (1903) - U.S. naval forces didn’t allow Columbian troops across the isthmus (GUNBOAT DIPLOMACY) Hay- Bunau Varilla Treaty- US paid Panama Canal Co. $40 million and canal zone was widened from 6 to 10 miles. TR -> “I took the canal….now let Congress debate what to do next…” Latin America resented “The Colossus of the North” after its taking Puerto Rico, Cuba, and now Panama. “ARE WE NEXT?” Canal completed in 1914 at a cost of $400 million


GREATEST CHALLENGE TO BUILDING THE CANAL? DISEASE…Workers spent the first two years dredging and draining the swamps around the canal zone. Fumigating the jungles in the region also reduced the dominance of malaria and yellow fever.


WILLIAM H. TAFT Dollar Diplomacy - US foreign policy protected by Wall Street dollars invested abroad Using Wall Street dollars to uphold foreign policy…sought to reduce rival powers, e.g. Germany, from raking advantage of financial chaos in the Caribbean. U.S. bankers would strengthen U.S. defenses and foreign policies while bringing prosperity to the U.S. DOLLAR DIPLOMACY REPLACED THE BIG STICK!


WOODROW WILSON Wilson disliked imperialism…but Yet, Wilson would eventually intervene in Latin America more than any other president in American history.


WILSON’S ANTI-IMPERIALIST POLICIES Granted Philippines as “territorial” status and promised independence Initially proclaimed that US would no longer offer special support to American investors in Latin America… Made Puerto Ricans citizens  Jones Act (1917)

Imperialism under Wilson:

Imperialism under Wilson 1912- Wilson sent Marines into Nicaragua (became a protectorate) 1914-15- sent forces into Haiti (became a protectorate) 1914- Ordered navy and to intercept a German ship carrying arms to Mexico 1914-1917- MEXICO 1916- sent Marines into Dominican Republic (became a protectorate) ; remained until 1934 1917- US purchased Virgin Islands from Denmark

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