Lecture 2: C3 cycle, c4 cycle and CAM cycle

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Plant Physiology (C-3, C-4 and CAM Plants):

Plant Physiology (C-3, C-4 and CAM Plants) Presented by: Sarbesh D. Dangol September 7, 2012 Department of Genetic Engineering, SRM University

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Sarbesh Dangol ‘Kinsu’, M.Tech., Genetic Engineering, © 2012

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Sarbesh Dangol ‘Kinsu’, M.Tech., Genetic Engineering, © 2012

Rubisco:

Rubisco Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (fixes CO2 & O2) Enzyme in Calvin Cycle (1 st step) Most abundant protein on Earth 25% total leaf protein Sarbesh Dangol ‘Kinsu’, Department of Genetic Engineering, SRM University, © 2012

Photorespiration:

Photorespiration When rubisco “fixes” O 2 , not CO 2 Lose 1/2 C as CO 2 ; costs 2.5 extra ATP Take up O 2 Only occurs in light When O 2 reacts with ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate, the products are 3-phosphoglycerate plus the 2-C compound 2-phosphoglycolate . Sarbesh Dangol ‘Kinsu’, Department of Genetic Engineering, SRM University, © 2012

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Sarbesh Dangol ‘Kinsu’, Department of Genetic Engineering, SRM University, © 2012

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Sarbesh Dangol ‘Kinsu’, Department of Genetic Engineering, SRM University, © 2012

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Sarbesh Dangol ‘Kinsu’, Department of Genetic Engineering, SRM University, © 2012

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Sarbesh Dangol ‘Kinsu’, Department of Genetic Engineering, SRM University, © 2012

Net Reaction:

Net Reaction Sarbesh Dangol ‘Kinsu’, Department of Genetic Engineering, SRM University, © 2012

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Fig. 10.21 Hatch and Slack cycle Sarbesh Dangol ‘Kinsu’, Department of Genetic Engineering, SRM University, © 2012

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C4 Plants Possess special anatomy called kranz type. ( Leaves containing bundle sheath with abundant chloroplast) Sarbesh Dangol ‘Kinsu’, Department of Genetic Engineering, SRM University, © 2012

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C4 Plants Chlorophyll of mesophyll normal In BS, chloroplast are large, without grana or PS II Found in tropical (dry and hot) and subtropical regions Grow fast at high temperature and high light intensity No O 2 inhibitory effect, hence no photorespiration Sarbesh Dangol ‘Kinsu’, Department of Genetic Engineering, SRM University, © 2012

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Significance of C4 Plants Increases photosynthetic yield 3 to 4 times more. High rate of photosynthesis even when stoma is closed Adaptability Reduced rate of photorespiration. Sarbesh Dangol ‘Kinsu’, Department of Genetic Engineering, SRM University, © 2012

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Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM cycle) First observed in family crassulaceae Fix atm CO 2 in dark Accumulate large malic acid Accumulate organic acid in leaves at night, decrease in day Vacuoles for accumulation of malic acid Stomata closed during DAY, open during night Possess xerophytic character Sarbesh Dangol ‘Kinsu’, Department of Genetic Engineering, SRM University, © 2012

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CAM Cycle Sarbesh Dangol ‘Kinsu’, Department of Genetic Engineering, SRM University, © 2012

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Slow Photosynthesis Dark CO 2 fixation Adaptation Drought resistance Significance of CAM Cycle Sarbesh Dangol ‘Kinsu’, Department of Genetic Engineering, SRM University, © 2012

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References SK Verma, Plant physiology Cummings, Plant biology, Pearson education Sarbesh Dangol ‘Kinsu’, M.Tech., Genetic Engineering, © 2012

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Thank You Sarbesh Dangol ‘Kinsu’, M.Tech., Genetic Engineering, © 2012

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