Unit-2 (OOAD).ppt1

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Unit-2 : 

Unit-2 Rumbaugh Methodology Booch Methodology Jacobson Methodology Patterns Frameworks Unified Approach Unified Modeling Language Use case class diagram Interactive Diagram Package Diagram Collaboration Diagram State Diagram Activity Diagram.

Slide 2: 

Chapter Objectives You should be able to define and understand Object Oriented methodologies. - The Rumbaugh OMT - The Booch methodology - Jacobson’s methodologies Patterns Frameworks

Slide 3: 

Rumbaugh’s Object Modeling Technique (OMT) A method for analysis,design and implementation by an object oriented technique. fast and intuitive approach for identifying and modeling all objects making up a system. Class attributes, methods, inheritance and association can be expressed easily. Dynamic behavior of objects can be described using the OMT dynamic model. Detailed specification of state transitions and their descriptions within a system

Four phases of OMT(can be performed iteratively) : 

Four phases of OMT(can be performed iteratively) Analysis: objects,dynamic and functional models System Design: Basic architecture of the system. Object Design: static, dynamic and functional models of objects. Implementation: reusable, extendible and robust code.

Three different parts of OMT modeling : 

Three different parts of OMT modeling An object model - object model & data dictionary A dynamic model - state diagrams & event flow diagrams A functional model - data flow & constraints

Object Model : 

Object Model structure of objects in a system. Identity, relationships to other objects, attributes and operations. Object diagram

Object Diagram : 

Object Diagram Classes interconnected by association lines Classes- a set of individual objects Association lines- relationship among classes (i.e., objects of one class to objects of another class)

OMT Dynamic Model : 

OMT Dynamic Model States, transitions, events and actions OMT state transition diagram-network of states and events

OMT Functional Model : 

OMT Functional Model DFD- (Data Flow Diagram) Shows flow of data between different processes in a business. Simple and intuitive method for describing business processes without focusing on the details of computer systems.

Data Flow Diagram : 

Data Flow Diagram Four primary symbols Process- any function being performed Data Flow- Direction of data element movement Data Store – Location where data is stored External Entity-Source or Destination of a data element

The Booch Methodology : 

The Booch Methodology Widely used OO method Uses the object paradigm Covers the design and analysis phase of an OO system Criticized for his large set of symbols

Diagrams of Booch method : 

Diagrams of Booch method Class diagrams- describe roles and responsibilities of objects Object diagrams describe the desired behavior of the system in terms of scenarios State transition diagrams state of a class based on a stimulus Module diagrams to map out where each class & object should be declared Process diagrams to determine to which processor to allocate a process Interaction diagrams describes behavior of the system in terms of scenarios

Booch method prescribes: : 

Booch method prescribes: Macro Development Process Micro Development Process

Macro Development Process : 

Macro Development Process Controlling framework for the micro process. Primary concern-technical management of the system.

Steps for macro development process : 

Steps for macro development process Conceptualization Analysis & Development of the model Design or create the system architecture Evolution or implementation Maintenance

Micro Development Process : 

Micro Development Process Steps: - Identify classes & objects - Identify class & objects semantics - Identify class & object relationship

JACOBSON METHODOLOGIES PATTERNS FRAMEWORKS : 

JACOBSON METHODOLOGIES PATTERNS FRAMEWORKS

JACOBSON METHODOLOGIES : 

JACOBSON METHODOLOGIES Use Cases. Object Oriented Software Engg. Object Oriented Business Engg.

Use Cases : 

Use Cases Understanding system requirements Interaction between Users and Systems The use case description must contain How and when the use case begins and ends. The Interaction between the use case and its actors, including when the interaction occurs and what is exchanged. How and when the use case will need data stored in the system. Exception to the flow of events How and when concepts of the problem domain are handled.

OOSE : 

OOSE Object Oriented Software Engg. Objectory is built models Use case model Domain object model Analysis object model Implementation model Test model

OOBE : 

OOBE Object Oriented Business Engg OOBE is object modeling at the enterprise level. Analysis phase Design and Implementation phase Testing phase E.g. Unit testing, integration and system testing.

PATTERNS : 

PATTERNS It is an instructive information that captures the essential structure and insight of a successful family of proven solutions to a recurring problem that arises within a certain context and system of forces.

Good Pattern will do the following : 

Good Pattern will do the following It solves a problem. It is a proven concept. The Solution is obvious. It describes a relationship. The pattern has a significant human component.

Patterns : 

Patterns

Patterns Template : 

Patterns Template Essential Components should be clearly recognizable on reading a pattern: Name Problem Context Forces Solution Examples Resulting context Rationale Related Patterns Known uses

Slide 26: 

Name -A single word or a short phrase refers to the pattern and the knowledge and structure it describes. -Good pattern name forms vocabulary for conceptual abstraction. -When the pattern has more than one name it is practice to document these nicknames as aliases. -Some pattern form provide classification in addition to name. Problem - A statement of the problem describes the goals and objective it wants to reach within the given context and forces. Context - The preconditions of the problem are called context. It is the initial configuration of the system before applying pattern.

Slide 27: 

Forces - A description of relevant forces and constraints and how they interact or conflict with one another and with the goals we wish to achieve. -Forces reveal the kinds of trade off that must be considered in the presence of tension. -A good pattern encapsulates all the forces that have an impact o Solution - Static relationships and dynamic rules describing how to realize the desired outcome. -The static structure tells the form and organization of the pattern, but often the behavioral dynamics is what makes the patterns “come alive”.

Slide 28: 

Examples - Examples help the reader understand the patterns use and applicability. -Visual examples and analogies are used. -Easy to comprehend examples are highly preferred in it. Resulting context - The state of configuration of the system after the pattern has been applied. -It describes the post condition and side effect of the pattern. -It is called resolution of forces because it describes which forces have been resolved and which unresolved and which patterns are applicable. -Documenting resulting context correlates initial context of other patterns.

Slide 29: 

Rationale -A justifiable explanation of steps or rules in the pattern. -It explains how forces and constraints are orchestral. -It tells how patterns works, why it works and why it is -Rationale provides insight into deep structures and key mechanism on the surface of the system. Related Patterns -The static and dynamic relationship between this pattern and other within the same pattern language or system. -Related patterns share common forces. -They frequently have initial or resulting context compatible with another pattern. .

Slide 30: 

Known uses - The known occurances of pattern and its application within existing systems. -It is a proven solution to a recurring problem. Good pattern begin with an abstract. -This gives a clear picture of pattern and informs of any problems they wish to solve. -A pattern has to identify the target audience.

Frameworks : 

Frameworks Way of delivering application development patterns to support best practice sharing during application development. Can be viewed as the implementation of a system of design patterns.

Benefits of Frameworks : 

Benefits of Frameworks Reusability Modularity Extensibility Inversion of Control

Difference between Patterns and Frameworks : 

Difference between Patterns and Frameworks Design patterns are more abstract than frameworks. Design patterns are smaller architectural elements than frameworks. Design patterns are less specialized than frameworks.

Model : 

Model An abstract representation of a system. Types of model Use case model Domain model Analysis object model Implementation model Test model

Model : 

Model Types of model Use case model  defines the outside (actors) & inside (use case) of the system’s behavior. Domain model  maps real world object into the domain object model. Analysis object model  how source code should be carried out & written. Implementation model represents the implementation of the system. Test model  test plans, specifications & reports.

Model : 

Model Model is an iterative process. It can represent static or dynamic situations. Model Static Dynamic Represents a system’s behaviors that, taken together, reflect its behavior over time. (e.g.) interaction & activity diagrams Provides a system’s parameters at rest or at a specific point in time. (e.g.) class diagram

Why modeling : 

Why modeling Blue print Clarity Familiarity Maintenance Simplification

Advantages of modeling : 

Advantages of modeling Easy to express complex ideas Reduce complexity Enhance & reinforce learning and training Low cost Easy to change the model

What is Unified Modeling Language (UML)? : 

What is Unified Modeling Language (UML)? The UML is a graphical / standard language for visualizing, specifying, constructing & documenting the artifacts of a software system.

History of UML : 

History of UML 1980 – 1990  Many different methodologies Booch method by Grady Booch Object Modeling Technique (OMT) by Jim Rumbaugh Object Oriented Software Engineering (OOSE) by Ivar Jacobson Each method had its strengths & weaknesses. Booch was great in design OMT & OOSE were great in analysis

History of UML : 

History of UML UML 1.0 (January 1997) UML 1.1 (November 1997) UML 1.3 (Current Minor revision 1999) UML 1.4 (Planned Minor revision 2000) UML 2.0 (Planned Major revision 2004)

UML Concepts : 

UML Concepts UML can be used to support your entire life cycle. The interaction of your application with the outside world (use case diagram) Visualize object interaction (sequence & collaboration diagrams) The structure of your system (class diagram) View the system architecture by looking at the defined package. The components in your system (component diagram)

What are Diagrams ? : 

What are Diagrams ? Graphical presentation of model elements. A diagram is a graphical means to view a system’s parts

UML Diagrams : 

UML Diagrams 8 diagrams You will model the following 5 diagrams only: Use case diagram Activity diagram Sequence diagram Collaboration diagram Class diagram The other UML diagrams that can be modeled in Rose are: State chart diagram Component diagram Deployment diagram Interaction diagram

Behavior Diagram : 

Behavior Diagram Sequence diagram Collaboration diagram State chart diagram Activity diagram Interaction diagram behavior diagram

UML Diagrams : 

UML Diagrams Class diagram Use case diagram Activity diagram Sequence diagram Collaboration diagram State chart diagram Component diagram Deployment diagram

1. Class diagram : 

1. Class diagram Class  a set of objects that share the same attributes, operations & relationships. It represented by a compartmentalized rectangle. It shows the structure of your software. 3 compartments Top Middle Bottom

1. Class diagram : 

1. Class diagram Top  shows class name Middle  shows class attributes Bottom  shows class operation

1. Class diagram : 

1. Class diagram Attributes  defines the characteristics or structure of a class.  displayed in the middle of the compartmentalized rectangle. Attributes

1. Class diagram : 

1. Class diagram 2. Operation  the service provided by the class.  displayed in the bottom of the compartmentalized rectangle. Operations

2.Use case diagram : 

2.Use case diagram It shows a set of use cases and actors and their relationships. Address the static view of a system. Actor  user (or) someone / something outside the system that interacts with the system (it must be a noun) & it is represented by a stickman. ……contd

2.Use case diagram : 

2.Use case diagram Use case  a sequences of actions (it must be a verb) & it is represented by an oval. Relationship illustrates a connection among model elements. Unidirectional Bi-directional It is created to visualize the interaction of your system with the outside world. (e.g.) ATM ……contd

2. Use case diagram (ATM) : 

2. Use case diagram (ATM)

2. Use case diagram (Pay roll) : 

2. Use case diagram (Pay roll) Actors  employee & account Use case  count leave, disburse salary, check loans, calculate PF, prepare IT returns, calculate HRA & check salary

3.Activity Diagram : 

3.Activity Diagram It shows the flow of events with our system & what is going on inside a use case. We draw the activity diagram for each & every use case. Login (use case) – (e.g.) ATM It is showing flow of control from activity to activity.

3.Activity Diagram : 

3.Activity Diagram Activity  it represents the performance of a task within the workflow. Activity is represented by a lozenge (horizontal top and bottom with convex sides) Start state shows the beginning of a workflow on an activity diagram. There is only one start state.

3.Activity Diagram : 

3.Activity Diagram A start state is represented by a solid circle. An end state represents a final or terminal state on an activity diagram. A end state is represented by a bull’s eye.

3.Activity Diagram : 

3.Activity Diagram A state transition shows what activity follows after another. It is represented by a solid line with an arrow.

3.Activity Diagram : 

3.Activity Diagram A decision is a point in an activity diagram where guard conditions are used to indicate different possible transitions. It is represented by a diamond. Guard conditions control the transition of a set of alternate transitions that follows after the activity has been completed.

3.Activity Diagram : 

3.Activity Diagram AND Joint Synchronization bar

3.Activity Diagram : 

3.Activity Diagram A synchronization bar allows you to show concurrent threads in a work flow of a use case. It represented by a thick horizontal or vertical line.

3.Activity Diagram : 

3.Activity Diagram A swimlane is used to partition an activity diagram to help us better understand who or what is initiating an activity.

3.Activity Diagram – Login Use case : 

3.Activity Diagram – Login Use case

4.Sequence Diagram : 

4.Sequence Diagram It shows step by step what must happen to accomplish a piece of functionality provided by the system. It has 2Ds. Vertical dimensions  represents time Horizontal dimensions  represents different objects. Vertical line is called the object’s life line.

4.Sequence Diagram : 

4.Sequence Diagram Life line  the existence object at a particular time. Objects are shown at the top. The object role is shown as a vertical dashed line, the life line.

4.Sequence Diagram : 

4.Sequence Diagram A message is the communication between 2 objects that triggers an event. It is represented by a labeled arrow. Each message is represented by an arrow between the life lines of 2 objects.

4.Sequence Diagram : 

4.Sequence Diagram A focus of control shows the period of time during which an object is performing an action, either directly or through a subordinate procedure. It represented by a tall, thin rectangle.

4.Sequence Diagram – login success : 

4.Sequence Diagram – login success

5.Collaboration Diagram : 

5.Collaboration Diagram It displays objects and their links to one other. It is also known as an interaction diagram.

5.Collaboration Diagram : 

5.Collaboration Diagram It is made up of the following basic elements : Actors Objects Links Messages

5.Collaboration Diagram : 

5.Collaboration Diagram Actors  user Objects  data + logic / the representation of some real world entity. 3. Links  a pathway for communication between objects.  represented by a solid line between 2 objects 4. Messages  the communication between objects that triggers an event.  represented by a labeled arrow above the link.

5.Collaboration Diagram – Login use case : 

5.Collaboration Diagram – Login use case

6. State Chart Diagram : 

6. State Chart Diagram It shows the sequence of states. A state is represented as a rounded box, which may contain one or more compartments. Name compartment  holds the name of the state. Internal transition compartment  list of actions / activities Start & end states

7.Component Diagram : 

7.Component Diagram It shows relationship between the components in the system. A component may be a software component [for (e.g.) a.h file in C++ (or) a .java file in Java], a run time component [for (e.g.) a.DLL file]

8. Deployment Diagram : 

8. Deployment Diagram It shows the configuration of run time processing elements & the software components, processes & objects that live in them. It shows the nodes in the system & the connections between them.

Review : 

Review Name the 2 benefits of visual modeling. What is UML? Name three UML diagrams. What are the elements of a use-case diagram? Define a use case. Define an actor. What is meant by a relationship?

Module Summary : 

Module Summary Visual modeling The interaction of your application with the outside world (use case diagram) Visualize object interaction (sequence & collaboration diagrams) The structure of your system (class diagram) View the system architecture by looking at the defined package. The components in your system (component diagram)

Module Summary : 

Module Summary UML The UML is a graphical / standard language for visualizing, specifying, constructing & documenting the artifacts of a software system.

Module Summary : 

Module Summary You can model the following 8 UML diagrams in Rational Rose. Use case diagram Activity diagram Sequence diagram Collaboration diagram Class diagram State chart diagram Component diagram Deployment diagram

Views and Diagrams in Rational Rose : 

Views and Diagrams in Rational Rose What is model? A model is a simplification of reality or the blueprint of the system. What is view? A view is a perspective of the model (ie) meaningful to specific stakeholders.

Views : 

Views Logical View Implementation View (Analyst / Designer) (Programmers) Structure Software Management Process View Deployment View (System integrators) (System Engineering) Performance, scalability System topology, Delivery, & throughput installation & Communication Use case view (end user functionality

Views : 

Views In Rose, you can create the following views Use-case view Logical view Process view Component view (Implementation view) Deployment view These views together create what we call the 4+1 Architectural View

Use Case View : 

Use Case View It specifies WHAT the system should do? Servers as a contract between customer and developer. Essential to analysis, design and test activities.

Logical View : 

Logical View It supports the functional requirements of the system. It includes use-case realizations, class and interaction diagrams. It can also include state chart and activity diagrams.

Process View : 

Process View Addresses the performance, scalability and throughput of the system. Is not necessary for a single Processing environment.

Component / Implementation View : 

Component / Implementation View Addresses issues of ease of development, management of software assets, reuse & etc.

Deployment View : 

Deployment View Addresses issues like deployment, installation and performance. .Used for distributed system only.

Rational Rose Interface : 

Rational Rose Interface It includes the following : Browser Diagram window Diagram toolbar Documentation window Log window Options window The options window is not technically part of the rose interface. However, it is important in your initial setup.

The Browser : 

The Browser The browser allow you to textually view and navigate the views and diagrams in rational rose. Display the elements that you have modeled. if an element doesn’t appear in the browser, it not a part of your modeled system.

Diagram window : 

Diagram window The diagram window allows you to create and update graphical views of the current model.

Diagram Toolbar : 

Diagram Toolbar The diagram toolbar includes the elements to build a diagram. Each diagrams toolbar unique to that diagram. It is active only when the diagram is displayed.

Documentation window : 

Documentation window Used to create, view or modify text that explains a selected item within a diagram.

Log window : 

Log window Reports progress, result and errors. For (e.g.) code generation commands post progress and error messages to this window. To display log window, go to View menu, click LOG to show or hide the window. To clear the contents of log window, click CLEAR LOG.

Options window : 

Options window Used to set all of your default for modeling. Note that if you change default, existing model elements are not changed.

Basic tool techniques : 

Basic tool techniques There are two basic tool techniques we will discuss before you begin the labs. They are Deleting diagram elements Adding diagram elements

Deleting diagram elements : 

Deleting diagram elements What happens when you delete an element from the browser? Rose does the following. Removes the selected elements from the model Removes all icons representing the elements from all diagrams on which they appear. Delete the specification for the element .

Slide 98: 

There are three ways to delete an element. Click the element in the diagram and then press ctrl-D Right click the element in browser, and then click delete Click the element in the browser or diagram. From the edit menu, click delete from model. Deleting Diagram Elements

Adding diagram elements : 

Adding diagram elements How do you add diagram elements? You add elements to a diagram from either the diagram tool bar or browser.

Review : 

Review What are views? Name a view in rose and discuss its purpose. Name two feature of the rose interface Discuss deleting from the browser versus the diagram.

Module Summary : 

Module Summary Rational Rose uses views & diagrams to depict varying perspectives and a system’s parts. There are 5 views in Rational Rose : Use case view Logical view Process view Component / implementation view Deployment view

Module Summary : 

Module Summary Diagrams are a graphical means to view a system’s parts. The browser shows all of your model elements Diagram window is to create a view Diagram toolbar includes the elements to build a diagram. Documentation window is used to create, view or modify text that explains a selected item within a diagram.

Module Summary : 

Log window reports progress, results & errors. Option window allows you to set your defaults. Deleting diagram elements  ctrl D, DEL key (or) go to edit menu, click DELETE FROM MODEL. Adding diagram elements  click the element & then click in the diagram window. Module Summary

Thank You! : 

Thank You!