SEX EDUCATION FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS : SEX EDUCATION FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS HUMAN SEXUALITY : HUMAN SEXUALITY Human sexuality comprises the knowledge, belief, attitudes, values and behaviour of individual regarding sex. I. Human reproductive system.: I. Human reproductive system. In adolescence, changes in structure and function of reproductive system are most prominent. These changes (pubertal) are as a result of secretion of the hormones. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM EXTERNAL: MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM EXTERNAL MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM INTERNAL Male physiology: Male physiology Puberty in male is triggered by an increase of pituitary hormones. Hormone testosterone causes secondary sex characteristics Male sex cell is sperm . Occasionally there is anoverflow of semen (wet dreams) Night dreams . The production of sperm begins . (Semen is composed of sperm &fluids). FEMALE RERODUCTIVE SYSTEM: EXTERNAL : FEMALE RERODUCTIVE SYSTEM: EXTERNAL FEMALE RERODUCTIVE SYSTEM: INTERNAL Female physiology: Female physiology Puberty in females is triggered by hormones estrogen and progesterone . Secondary sex characteristics begins to appear, such as the growth of the body hair, breast enlargement, and so on. Store-house for female sex cell ovary. Female sex cell is OVUM SEXUAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT DURING PUBERTY: : SEXUAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT DURING PUBERTY: This period is also referred to as “puberty”. Puberty is the beginning of a person’s ability to reproduce. During puberty girls have menarche and boys have spermarche. At the end of puberty the sex organ are fully mature . GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN GIRLS: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN GIRLS Increase in height. Gain in weight. Increase in the size of breast. Darkness around nipples. Growth of the body hair. Menarche Menstruation: Menstruation Menstruation is the monthly Bleeding commonly called ‘periods’. It usually starts at the age of 11-15 yrs. Sometimes adolescent girls may experience heavy bleeding or it may last for a longer duration than the normal 3-5 days. Amount of bleeding varies and is different from girl to girl. ACCEPT MENSTRUATION AS A NORMAL PART OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT Discomforts during menstruation: Discomforts during menstruation The usual discomforts are: Cramps in lower abdomen. Swelling in feet, breast, and face. Weakness & Exhausted feeling. Backache and breast discomfort. Itching in the genital area . Problems seven to ten days before menstruation Irritability. Gastro intestinal tract upset- constipation, colon spasm. Feeling of fullness in breast, abdomen, face and feet. Some may have weight gain of 1-1.5 Kgs. HYGIENE AND CLEANLINESS DURING MENSTRUATION: HYGIENE AND CLEANLINESS DURING MENSTRUATION ● The pad should be changed. ● The undergarments’ should be properly washed. ●Pads should be disposed off properly. ●Take bath every day during. ●Genitals should be washed properly, avoid foul smell, itching and infection. ●Regular/ routine activities can continue as usual. How To Manage Discomfort during Menstruation: How To Manage Discomfort during Menstruation GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN BOYS: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN BOYS Increase in the height and weight. Increase in the size of penis and enlargement of testicles and scrotum. Voice begins to deepen. Growth of body and facial hair. In some adolescent boys there is increase in the size of breast which is normal. Spermarche NOCTURNAL EMISSION/ wet dreams: NOCTURNAL EMISSION/ wet dreams Boys during the adolescence may experience occasional erection particularly in early morning. Many of the adolescent boys may also experience ‘wet dreams’ (nocturnal emission) at night when they involuntary ejaculate (i.e. discharge semen). It does not represent loss of manhood or sexual weakness and are harmless and do not require any treatment. This is a normal part of growth and development and should be accepted as normal phenomenon. Personal hygiene in boys Boys should maintain normal personal hygiene measures, once in a while during bath the boys should gently pull back the foreskin of the penis and wash the area with plenty of water: this will help prevent infection. HOW DOES A WOMAN CONCEIVE?: HOW DOES A WOMAN CONCEIVE? Conception takes place when sperm from the male fuses with the ovum of the female A women can get pregnant only after the act of complete sexual intercourse. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF SEXUALITY EARLY ADOLESCENCE RESTRUCTURING OF BODY IMAGE: PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF SEXUALITY EARLY ADOLESCENCE RESTRUCTURING OF BODY IMAGE Need for acceptance by peers Experimentation and risk taking behaviour: Need for acceptance by peers Experimentation and risk taking behaviour MIDDLE ADOLESCENCE NEW THINKING SKILLS: MIDDLE ADOLESCENCE NEW THINKING SKILLS ESTABLISHING AUTONOMY NEW THINKING SKILLS ESTABLISHING IDENTITY: ESTABLISHING IDENTITY DISTANCING FROM PARENTS INTERACTION WITH OPPOSITE SEX LATE ADOLESCENCE : LATE ADOLESCENCE CLARIFICATION OF VOCATIONAL, PERSONAL GOALS INTERNALIZING A VALUE SYSTEM SENSE OF ACHIEVEMENT Preparation for adult role. : Preparation for adult role . General changes in adolescents: General changes in adolescents Mood changes. Friends become more important. Builds interpersonal relationships. Want to be more independent. Increase in the sexual urge. Curious to experiment. DURING TEENAGE : DURING TEENAGE ● Curiosity about sexual matters is normal. Attraction between boy and girl is normal. Interest in opposite sex is normal but adolescents should have control over their sexual impulses . Boys and girls should have healthy relationship. III. SOCIO-CULTURAL ASPECTS OF SEX: III. SOCIO-CULTURAL ASPECTS OF SEX Sexual relationships are the most sensitive of all relationships. In any society, boys and girls should be allowed equal freedom, in matters relating to acceptable sexual behaviours. If adolescent boys and girls exhibit interest towards members of the opposite sex, it should be considered perfectly normal and healthy. India is a country having many myths and misconception about SEX. SOCIO-CULTURAL ASPECTS OF SEX: SOCIO-CULTURAL ASPECTS OF SEX In the matters relating to sexual behaviours, the adolescents should approach their parents and seek advice. The boys and girls, who lead a social and outgoing life, can easily establish intimate & healthy relationships. Society’s attitude towards sex: Myths: Society’s attitude towards sex: Myths ● It’s not right to talk of sex, or hear of it. ● Sexual talks are considered immoral. ●Sex is dirty. ● It is just a physical act . ●Only couples can talk about it. ● Sex is only about genitals. ●Sex is only sexual intercourse. Facts about sex: sex is about : Facts about sex: sex is about ● The way you express your thought & feelings. The way you perceive others. The way you dress up, you project yourself. The way you talk and laugh . The way you smile, frown, cry. PRE-MARITAL SEX (sexual relationship before marriage) : PRE-MARITAL SEX (sexual relationship before marriage) REASONS TO ENGAGE IN PRE-MARITAL SEX The need for intimacy. The need for belongingness. Curiosity. Rebellion. A way to cope with stress. Experimentations. The most commonly used excuses for having Premarital relationships: The most commonly used excuses for having Premarital relationships 1)Afraid she/he will lose the relationship. 2)Is curious. 3)Does not want to appear old-fashioned. 4)Thinks it is the next step in the relationship. The most commonly used excuses for having Premarital relationships: The most commonly used excuses for having Premarital relationships 5)Imagines “everyone is doing it.” 6)Wants to prove that he is a real man or that she is real women. 7)Thinks that he/she “owes” it to the person. 8)Feels pressured or intimidated . 9)Seeks to gain affection & warmth. . ADVANTAGES OF NOT ENGAGING IN SEX BEFORE MARRIGE: ADVANTAGES OF NOT ENGAGING IN SEX BEFORE MARRIGE Freedom from: ► Unwanted pregnancy, Abortion or adoption. ►Sexually transmitted disease. ►Use of contraceptives. ►Marrying before you are ready. ►Exploitation. ►Guilt, depression, disappointment, worry, rejection. Freedom to: Be in control of your future. ►Use your energy to accomplish life goals. ►Develop healthy dating relationship. ►Respect yourself and others. ►Establish greater trust in marriage. ►Enjoy being a teenager. PowerPoint Presentation: PROBABLE EFFECTS OF PRE-MARITAL SEX Getting STI’s and AIDS. Tends to break up couples. Leads to more negative habits to unlearn. Increases the chances of associating sex with guilt and shame. May fool person into marrying the wrong person. Decreases trust between couples. Leads to comparison with former sex partners. IV -VARIETY OF SEXUAL EXPRESSIONS/BEHAVIUORS: IV - VARIETY OF SEXUAL EXPRESSIONS/BEHAVIUORS These are learnt behaviours, occurring during the complex of development. These behaviours have vital role to play in the development of adult sexuality. HETEROSEXUALITY . HOMOSEXUALITY GAY & LESBIANISM MASTURBATION.: MASTURBATION . Masturbation is described as self-stimulation of genitals to achieve sexual pleasure or to relieve sexual tension or anxieties. Masturbation is not harmful physically or emotionally . Masturbation does not leads to physical weakness, change in the shapes of genitals (curvature and size), future infertility. Masturbation has no side effects and it should be considered a normal part of growth and development, but too much indulgence to an extent that it hampers the normal activities needs to be checked. SEXUAL BEHAVIOURS THAT IS NOT ACCEPTED BY THE SOCIETY: SEXUAL BEHAVIOURS THAT IS NOT ACCEPTED BY THE SOCIETY EXHIBITIONISM SEXUAL EXPERIENCES WHICH ARE OF TRAUMATIC NATURE: RAPE DATE RAPE DRUG: ROHYPNOL SEXUAL EXPERIENCES WHICH ARE OF TRAUMATIC NATURE: : SEXUAL EXPERIENCES WHICH ARE OF TRAUMATIC NATURE: ●INCEST Sexual intercourse with a close relative. ● SADISM Gaining sexual satisfaction from inflicting pain or humiliation on others . Sexual abuse of children PEDOPHIILIA SOME MISCONCEPTION AMONG ADOLESCENT : SOME MISCONCEPTION AMONG ADOLESCENT 1.Masturbation is abnormal. (F) 2.Masturbation leads to weakness, and dysfunction of the organ. (F) 3.A drop of semen is equal to 20 drops of blood. Hence, the loss of semen weakness the body. (F) 4.Kissing and petting can cause pregnancy. (F) 5. Only girls are being raped. (F) 6.Increase in the size of breast in boys is abnormal. 7.A girl is virgin only if she has an intact hymen. VARIETY OF SEXUAL EXPRESSIONS/BEHAVIUORS: VARIETY OF SEXUAL EXPRESSIONS/BEHAVIUORS It is universally accepted that people who have a healthy and positive attitude towards sex and who are well adjusted in life, usually never suffer from any kind of sexual disorder. Sexual deviation is usually found to occur among those who are not well-adjusted in life : V. SEXUAL DISEASES The infections transmitted from one partner to the other during sexual contact are called Sexually Transmitted Infections (STD). Sexual disorders and disease arouse a feeling of anxiety and guilt. PowerPoint Presentation: STI can affect both males and females. Adolescents should be provide with adequate knowledge about sexual matters as it will have a positive bearing on them. Sexually transmitted diseases are most commonly spread by sexual contact. Example of common STD’s are Gonorrhea and syphilis. Gonorrhea and syphilis. : Gonorrhea and syphilis. Gonorrhea most commonly reported STD in the world, curable if treated with antibiotics. Syphilis curable if treated with antibiotics, however damage cannot be reversed. Hepatitis one of the most common sexually transmitted disease in the world. PowerPoint Presentation: SOME FACTORS THAT LEADS TO INCREASE IN STDs/RTI IN ADOLESCENTS ARE: The age of sexual maturity has decreased. The age at which adolescents initiate sexual activity has declined. Pre-marital sexual activity is on rise. Use of drugs are common with adolescents which increases causal sexual activity and chances of unsafe sexual practices. Print, internet and electronic media have become more accessible and may give conflicting messages on sexuality. Risk taking behaviour with regard to sex is common among adolescents. SYMPTOMS OF STD/RTIs in adolescent girls and boys: : SYMPTOMS OF STD/RTIs in adolescent girls and boys: Common symptoms in both male and females are: ● Genital ulcers (sores) ●Burning sensation while passing urine ●Swelling in the groin ●Itching in the genital region PowerPoint Presentation: In females the other symptoms are: ●Unusual vaginal discharge ●Pain in lower abdomen In males could also present with symptoms of: ●Discharge from penis PowerPoint Presentation: Adolescent boys and girls should follow some steps in order to prevent STD/RTIs: Maintaining proper genital hygiene is important for both boys and girls. Having responsible sexual behaviour. Be faithful to one partner. Practicing safe sex. Avoiding sexual contact if any of the partners is having STD/RTIs. By not neglecting any unusual discharge. By not having sexual relationship before marriage. AIDS: AIDS Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome caused by HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus.) ♥ACQUIRED : Not genetically inherited but getting it from somebody. ♥IMMUNO-DEFICIENCY : Inadequacy of the body’s main defence mechanism to fight external disease producing organisms ♥SYNDROME : A group of disease or symptoms. AIDS results from infection with HIV, which stands for human immuno-deficiency virus. There is no cure for AIDS; the only way to prevent AIDS is to avoid behaviors that put a person at risk. How HIV weakens the immune system: How HIV weakens the immune system HIV gradually destroys the body’s capacity to fight off infections by destroying the immune system. As a result a routine infection can turn life threatening, as the body is not able to produce antibodies to protect against them. The HIV infected person becomes more susceptible to a variety of infections known as opportunistic infections, like tuberculosis etc. PowerPoint Presentation: HIV attacks body cell soldier cell gets infected White cell, body soldier Body soldier kills germs that attack body HIV infects body Body soldier dies other germs invade body Hospital treatment needed No more soldier to kill germs body seriously infected AIDS: AIDS Sexually transmitted infections including HIV are most common among young people aged 15-24 years and it has been estimated that half of all HIV/AIDS infections worldwide have occurred among people aged 25 years (NACO 2003). AIDS is an STD but, unlike most STD’s it is not curable PowerPoint Presentation: There are number of obstacles which make it difficult for the young people to protect their sexual health: Adolescents/young people often have less access to information, services and resource. They often lack appropriate sex education and/ life skill training , as well as social support Inaccurate information about sex and sexuality that have been received from friends and other sources. HIV CAN BE TRANSMITTED THROUGH: : HIV CAN BE TRANSMITTED THROUGH : Different forms of sexual contact. From an infected mother to her child Sharing of infected syringes and needles : Sharing of infected syringes and needles Transfusion of infected/unsafe blood and blood products. HIV CANNOT BE TRANSMITTED BY : HIV CANNOT BE TRANSMITTED BY SHAKING HANDS AND EMBRACING SHARING TOWELS Sharing linen: Sharing linen Sharing crockery Use of public toilets Using public swimming pools: Using public swimming pools Eating and drinking together. Donating blood with new sterile needles Caring for and touching a person with HIV/AIDS. : Caring for and touching a person with HIV/AIDS . Mosquito bites Hugging and kissing. : Hugging and kissing. Coughing, sneezing and tears: Coughing, sneezing and tears PowerPoint Presentation: SOME SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF HIV INFECTION OR AIDS: An unexplained loss of weight, fever, cough,diarrhea,swollen glands lasting at least one month.: An unexplained loss of weight, fever, cough,diarrhea,swollen glands lasting at least one month. SOME STEPS TOWARDS PREVENTION OF AIDS : SOME STEPS TOWARDS PREVENTION OF AIDS Practicing safe sex Abstinence Is Best Avoid use of unsterilised needles and other injecting equipments PowerPoint Presentation: BUT DOES USING A CONDOM REALLY PROTECTS YOU All condoms have flaws or holes. These aren’t poked into them intentionally. They occur naturally in all latex condom. The average hole size is 5 microns . A sperm is only 2.5 microns . An HIV virus that causes AIDS is only .1 microns What this shows? It shows using a condom does not protect you from AIDS or pregnancy: What this shows? It shows using a condom does not protect you from AIDS or pregnancy Condom hole 5 microns Sperm 2.5 microns HIV virus .1microns Avoids drug abuse. : Avoids drug abuse. Pregnant women should have access to voluntary counseling and testing. . Avoid unsafe blood transfusion CONCLUSION:: CONCLUSION: Human sexuality is a function of one’s whole personality that is lifelong, starting from birth. It includes: ♥ How one feels about oneself. ♥ How one feels about being a MAN and or WOMEN. ♥ How one gets along with members of the opposite sex.