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R M.Tech BT Anna university coimbatorePowerPoint Presentation: A pesticide is any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, repelling or mitigating any pest CLASSIFICATION: Algicides or algaecides for the control of algae Avicides for the control of birds Bactericides for the control of bacteria Fungicides for the control of fungi and oomycetes Herbicides (e.g. glyphosate ) for the control of weeds Insecticides (e.g. organochlorines , organophosphates , carbamates , and pyrethroids ) for the control of insects - these can be ovicides (substances that kill eggs ), larvicides (substances that kill larvae ) or adulticides (substances that kill adults) Miticides or acaricides for the control of mites Molluscicides for the control of slugs and snails Nematicides for the control of nematodes Rodenticides for the control of rodents Virucides for the control of virusesPowerPoint Presentation: Use of Pesticides in India New pesticides are very effective against most pests. They are extensively used for greater yield in agriculture.PowerPoint Presentation: Some Statistics about Pesticides Developing countries account for less than 30% of global pesticide consumption. The vast majority of pesticide poisonings occur in developing countries. In some developing countries pesticides account for as much as 14% of all occupational injuries in the agricultural sector and 10% of all fatal injuries.PowerPoint Presentation: Impacts of Pesticide Usage The excessive use of pesticides have resulted in the disorders of endocrine glands e.g., thyroid, parathyroid, pituitary, kidneys and adrenals. Along-with suffering humanity, the soil is also sick with severe deficiency of micronutrients. Decreasing carbon content of soil has resulted decrease in water & nutrient holding capacity. Pests may evolve and combat the effects of pesticide. But this leads to development of more toxic pesticides. Number of insecticide resistant pests-5 in 1918 to almost 504 in 1988.PowerPoint Presentation: DEGRADATIONPowerPoint Presentation: PESTICIDE BIOTIC TRANSFORMATION DEGRADATIVE REACTION Oxidation Reduction Hydrolysis Cleavage of important bonds CONJUGATIVE REACTION Chemical groups from the pesticides are conjugated to other chemicalsPowerPoint Presentation: Enzyme detoxification Immobilized enzymes Hydrolases , esterases PLASMIDS Toluene degradative Naphthalene degradativeWHAT IS ENDOSULFAN ?: WHAT IS ENDOSULFAN ? It is a toxic organochlorine pesticide of moderate mammalian toxicity which does not accumulate in the tissues of man or animals to any significant extent but undiluted endosulfan is slowly and incompletely absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract of warm-blooded animals.Uses of Endosulfan: Uses of Endosulfan It is effective against a wide range of insects by contact and stomach action, notably various beetles, caterpillars and aphids. It is particularly active against Colorado beetle and woolly apple aphid, but of low toxicity to bees. Used as a pre-harvest insecticide on a wide range of berry and tree fruits, nuts, vegetables, field and grain crops, including rice, and ornamentals.Health Effects: Health Effects It harms the reproductive system by affecting semen quality, sperm count, spermatogonial cells, sperm morphology and other defects in male sex hormones . Endosulfan ingestion is known to affect the kidneys and liver. It inhibits leucocyte and macrophage migration (this is the inhibition of the natural immune system by disrupting anti-body protection) causing adverse effects on humoral and cell-mediated immune system.Health Effects: Health Effects Endosulfan affects the central nervous system and prevents it from working properly. Hyperactivity, nausea, dizziness, headache, or convulsions have been observed in adults exposed to high doses. Severe poisoning may result in death. Endosulfan directly affects the central nervous system.What happened in Kasargod?: What happened in Kasargod? The residents of Padre moved the Kerala High Court, and in August 2001, the honorable Kerala High Court banned the use of Endosulfan in the State of Kerala. The NIOH report indicates that endosulfan is the cause for a number of health problems among schoolchildren living in the exposed area. These children had significantly lower intelligence level then the control group and a very high incidence of various sexual disorders.PowerPoint Presentation: Sainaba : The victim whose over-growth of head caused her death You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.