Biomedical equipments ppt

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BIOMEDICAL EQUIPMENTS :

BIOMEDICAL EQUIPMENTS A Concise Presentation By Mr. Deepak Sarangi M.Pharm

DEFINITION:

DEFINITION Medical equipment is designed to aid in the diagnosis monitoring or treatment of medical conditions.

Cervical Traction :

Cervical Traction

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Cervical traction has been applied widely for pain relief of neck muscle spasm or nerve root compression. Traction occurs when a force is applied to a part of the body to decrease muscle spasms by stretching soft tissues. Therapy of 10-15 minutes feels good.

SYRINGE DRIVE :

SYRINGE DRIVE

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A syringe driver or syringe pump is a small infusion pump used to gradually administer small amounts of fluid to patient. This prevents the use of multiple tablets especially in people who have difficulty swallowing. Syringe drivers are also useful for delivering IV medications over several minutes.

PULSE OXIMETRY :

PULSE OXIMETRY

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It monitors the oxygenation of a patient's hemoglobin. Light of two different wavelengths is passed through the patient to a photodetector . A pulse oximeter is useful in any setting where a patient's oxygenation is unstable, including intensive care, emergency.

Electrosurgical Unit :

Electrosurgical Unit

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A radical change in surgery is brought by electrosurgical unit High frequency electric currents (500KHz) are used to cut, coagulate, dehydrate tissues. It gets heated up resulting in evaporation of the water which ultimately destroys the cells. By this we can perform bloodless surgery.

Laser microtome :

Laser microtome

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The laser microtome is an instrument used for non-contact sectioning of biological tissues or materials. In contrast to mechanically working  microtomes , the laser microtome does not require sample preparation techniques such as freezing, dehydration or embedding. It has the ability to slice tissue in its native state. Depending on the material being processed, slice thicknesses of 10 to 100 micrometers are feasible.

Anemostat :

Anemostat An  anemostat  is a device used to regulate airflow and pressure in a room or system requiring complex airflow patterns. Anemostats are used in hospitals to stabilize room conditions, and to prevent the spread of airborne pathogens. In laboratories with fume hoods, anemostats help to ensure adequate conditions for optimum ventilation .

Cardiopulmonary bypass:

Cardiopulmonary bypass

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cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a technique that temporarily takes over the function of the heart during surgery, maintaining the blood circulation and oxygen content of the body. Cardiopulmonary bypass consists of two main functional units, the pump  and the oxygenator which remove oxygen-deprived blood from a patient's body and replace it with oxygen-rich blood through a series of tubes

Aesthesiometer :

Aesthesiometer

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An  aesthesiometer is a device for measuring the tactile sensitivity of the skin (or mouth, or eye, etc.). The measure of the degree of tactile sensitivity is called  aesthesiometry . An non-intrusive device called a corneal aesthesiometer  is used to test cornea nerve sensitivity by using a controlled pulse of air as stimulation.

Home ultrasound :

Home ultrasound

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Home ultrasound is the provision of therapeutic ultrasound via the use of a portable or home ultrasound machine. This method of medical ultrasound therapy can be used for various types of pain relief and physical therapy. Ultrasound energy is transferred based on the frequency(operate between 1 and 5 MHz) and power output of the ultrasonic waves that an ultrasound machine or device creates.

Nasogastric intubation :

Nasogastric intubation

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Nasogastric intubation is a medical process involving the insertion of a plastic tube ( nasogastric tube or NG tube) through the nose, past the throat, and down into the stomach. A nasogastric tube is used for feeding and administering drugs and other oral agents such as activated charcoal. For drugs and for minimal quantities of liquid, a syringe is used for injection into the tube.  Nasogastric aspiration can also be used in poisoning situations when a potentially toxic liquid has been ingested.

Lung counter :

Lung counter

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A Lung counter is a system consisting of a radiation detector, or detectors, and associated electronics that is used to measure radiation emitted from radioactive material that has been inhaled by a person and is sufficiently insoluble as to remain in the lung for weeks, months or years. As a lung counter is primarily measuring radioactive materials that emit low energy gamma rays or x-rays.

Dermatome:

Dermatome

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A dermatome is a surgical instrument used to produce thin slices of skin from a donor area, in order to use them for making skin grafts. One of its main applications is for reconstituting skin areas damaged by grade 3 burns. Electrical dermatomes are better for cutting out thinner and longer strips of skin with a more homogeneous thickness.

Hirtz compass :

Hirtz compass

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The  Hirtz compass is a medical device used to determine the location and aid the removal of bullets and shrapnel in a patient's body. The device would usually give a location within 1 or 2 millimeters of the foreign object.  the average success rate of projectile removal when the device was used by local surgeons reached approximately 90%

Rhinoscope :

Rhinoscope

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A  Rhinoscope  (or  Nasoscope ) is a thin, tube-like instrument used to examine the inside of the nose. A rhinoscope has a light and a lens for viewing and may have a tool to remove tissue. Rhinoscopy is performed by two procedure. Anterior Rhinoscopy Posterior Rhinoscopy

Plethysmograph :

Plethysmograph

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A  plethysmograph  is an instrument for measuring changes in volume within an organ or whole body (usually resulting from fluctuations in the amount of blood or air it contains). Pulmonary plethysmographs are commonly used to measure the functional residual capacity (FRC) of the lungs, the volume in the lungs when the muscles of respiration are relaxed and total lung capacity. The difference between full and empty lungs can be used to assess diseases and airway passage restrictions. 

References:

References A View Through-Distinguishing Acute Otitis Media From Otitis Media With Effusion THE OTOSCOPE. Glaab T, Taube C, Braun A, Mitzner W (2007) Invasive and noninvasive methods for studying pulmonary function in mice.  Respiratory Research " Cardiotomy Suction: A Major Source of Brain Lipid Emboli During Cardiopulmonary Bypass“. Laser microtomy : opening a new feasibility for tissue preparation. http://cardiacsurgery.ctsnetbooks.org/cgi/content/full/2/2003/317. http://mmcts.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/collection/cardiopulmonary_bypass http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8762770?dopt=Abstract http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMvcm050183 http://books.google.ca/books?id=apA1KYAKAyEC&lpg=PR2&pg=PR2#v=onepage&q&f=false http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/broughttolife/objects/display.aspx?id=4328 http://www.ezultrasound.com/faqs.aspx

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