HIV AIDS ppt

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HIV / AIDS:

1 HIV / AIDS A Concise Presentation By Mr. Deepak Sarangi M.Pharm . 1

CONTENTS:

CONTENTS HISTORY OF HIV/AIDS EPIDEMIOLOGY HIV AND AIDS CASES BY YEAR ETIOLOGY AND STRUCTURE TYPES AND CLASSIFICATION MODES OF TRANSMISSON PHASES OF ILLNESS AIDS DEFINING CONDITIONS SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSIS RISK FACTORS PREVENTION TREATMENT REFERENCES 2

PowerPoint Presentation:

HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV) HIV is a virus which attacks a human body's immune system. It infects the white blood cells which normally defend the body from viral infections. Without the white blood cells, the body has no defense against other viral infections and can allow rare diseases, normally easily fought, to flourish. There are treatments available to slow the spread of the infection, delaying the onset of AIDS. ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROME (AIDS) AIDS is the end result after HIV has eliminated the body's immune system. At this stage, it is more logical to treat the other infections that the body has been made susceptible to after HIV has completely spread throughout the immune system. 3

HISTORY OF HIV/AIDS:

HISTORY OF HIV/AIDS HIV came from a similar virus found in chimpanzees - SIV. HIV probably entered the United States around 1970 CDC in 1981 noticed unusual clusters of Kaposi’s sarcoma in gay men in NY and San Francisco, which led to the disease to be called GRID (Gay Related Immune Deficiency). By 1982 the disease was apparent in heterosexuals and was renamed AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency). 1984- Scientists(Dr. Luc Montagnier , Dr. Robert Gallo) identify HIV (initially called LAV or HTLV-III) as the cause of AIDS 1987- AZT is the first drug approved for treating AIDS 4

EPIDEMIOLOGY:

Males>females Occurs in all ages and ethnic groups AIDS is now the second leading cause of death for all men aged 25-44 years EPIDEMIOLOGY 5

HIV AND AIDS CASES BY YEAR:

HIV AND AIDS CASES BY YEAR 6

CASES OF HIV INFECTION AND AIDS:

CASES OF HIV INFECTION AND AIDS 7

TYPES AND CLASSIFICATION:

TYPES AND CLASSIFICATION Virus classification: Group: Group VI (ssRNA-RT) Family: Retroviridae Genus: Lentivirus Species : Human immunodeficiency virus A Human immunodeficiency virus B SIV: Simian Immunodeficiency virus from monkeys SIV-CPZ (Chimpanzee/ Pan troglodytes) is similar to HIV-1 8

ETIOLOGY & STRUCTURE:

ETIOLOGY & STRUCTURE Causative agent: Human Immuno-deficiency Virus 9

MODES OF TRANSMISSON:

MODES OF TRANSMISSON 10

STAGES OF HIV:

Category A (A1-A3: > 500 to <200 CD4+ T cells/µl): Acute and asymptomatic HIV infection +persistent generalized lymphadenopathy Category B (B1-B3: 500 to <200 CD4+ T cells/µl) : symptomatic but not conditions in C Category C (C1-C3: 500 to <200 CD4+ T cells/µl) : AIDS defining conditions AIDS: A3, B3, or C1-3 STAGES OF HIV 11

PHASES OF ILLNESS:

PHASES OF ILLNESS 12 PERSON

DIAGNOSIS:

DIAGNOSIS ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay): Done to detect HIV antibodies in patient’s serum. Detection of Anti-p24 viral titres in late infection. Env antigens show major antigenic variation NOTE: ELISA for p24 useful in early injection. 13

RISK FACTORS:

Anyone of any age, race, sex or sexual orientation can be infected with HIV, but you're at greatest risk of HIV/AIDS if you: Have unprotected sex with multiple partners. You're at risk whether you're heterosexual, homosexual or bisexual. Have unprotected sex with someone who is HIV-positive. Have another sexually transmitted disease, such as syphilis, herpes, Chlamydia, gonorrhea or bacterial vaginosis (rupture risk). Share needles during intravenous drug use. Received a blood transfusion or blood products before 1985 (mixed bloods). RISK FACTORS 14

SYMPTOMS:

SYMPTOMS EARLY SYMPTOMS Fever Headache Tiredness Enlarged lymph nodes in the neck and groin area. 15

SYMPTOMS:

SYMPTOMS LATER SYMPTOMS Rapid weight loss Recurring fever or profuse night sweats Extreme and unexplained tiredness Prolonged swelling of the lymph glands in the armpits, groin, or neck Diarrhea that lasts for more than a week Sores of the mouth, anus, or genitals Pneumonia Red, brown, pink, or purplish blotches on or under the skin or inside the mouth, nose, or eyelids Memory loss, depression, and other neurologic disorders. 16

AIDS DEFINING CONDITIONS:

AIDS DEFINING CONDITIONS 17

PREVENTION:

PREVENTION There's no vaccine to prevent HIV infection and no cure for AIDS. Prevention includes educating yourself about HIV and avoiding any behavior that allows HIV-infected fluids — blood, semen, vaginal secretions and breast milk — into your body. HIV-negative Individual prevention: Educate yourself and others. Know the HIV status of any sexual partner. Use a new latex or polyurethane condom every time you have sex. Consider male circumcision. Use a clean needle. Be cautious about blood products in certain countries. Get regular screening tests. Don't become complacent. 18

PREVENTION:

PREVENTION HIV positive individual prevention: Follow safe-sex practices. Tell your sexual partners you have HIV. If your partner is pregnant, tell her you have HIV. Tell others who need to know. Don't share needles or syringes. Don't donate blood or organs. Don't share razor blades or toothbrushes. If you're pregnant, get medical care right away . 19

TREATMENT:

TREATMENT Treatment HAART: Highly Affective Anti-Retro Viral Therapy: Physicians consider 200 to 350 lyphocyte cells/mm3 as the range to consider starting HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy). HAART combines two types of antiretroviral drugs RTI’s (Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors): Zidovudine (AZT/ZDV), Didanosine (DDI), Zalcitabine (DDC), Stavudine (D4T), Lamivudine (3TC) NNRTI’s (Non-Nucleoside RTI’S) : Delavirdine, Nevirapine, Efavirenz Protease Inhibitors: Indinavir, Ritonavir 20

PowerPoint Presentation:

I recommend the same therapies for all humans with HIV. There is no reason to believe that physiologic responses to therapy will vary across lines of class, culture, race or nationality. -Paul Farmer HIV does not make people dangerous to know, so you can shake their hands and give them a hug: Heaven knows they need it. -Princess Diana 21

REFERENCES:

REFERENCES http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/basic.htm#hivest http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/stateprofiles/Louisiana/Louisiana_Profile.html http://www.avert.org/aids-timeline.html Ingelheim , B. (2004). Additional information on clinical trials with Nevirapine in pMTCT [PDF document]. Retrieved October 14, 2008, from http://www.boehringer- ingelheim.com/ hiv /news/download/medical_attach_HIVNET.pdf. 22

PowerPoint Presentation:

23 THANKS for viewing the ppt For more ppts on pharma related topics plz contact sarangi.dipu@gmail.com Or find me at following link www.facebook.com/sarangi.dipu

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