ENGLISH PROJECT WORK : ENGLISH PROJECT WORK PRESENTED BY :-
ANUSHIKA ENVIRONMENT : ENVIRONMENT WHAT IS ENVIRONMENT ? : WHAT IS ENVIRONMENT ? The term ̀environment ́means ̀surroundings ́. The word environment is formed by two words ̀environ ́and ̀ment ́which means encircle or all around . Environment is a group of those special conditions which affect all organisms as well as man on all sides . It includes air, water, earth, human beings , flora, fauna, animals etc; and it includes their interactions . Environment is our basic life support system . It provides the air we breath , the water we drink , the food we eat and the land where we live . ENVIRONMENT : ENVIRONMENT COMPONENTS OF ENVIRONMENT : COMPONENTS OF ENVIRONMENT COMPONENTS OF ENVIRONMENT : COMPONENTS OF ENVIRONMENT ABIOTIC ENVIRONMENT :- The non-living components of the environment (rocks, minerals, soil, water and climate) is known as ABIOTIC ENVIRONMENT .
LITHOSPHERE :- It is the solid crust or the hard top layer of the earth . It is made up of rocks and minerals and covered by a thin layer of soil . It is an irregular surface with various landforms such as mountains, plateaus, plains, valleys , etc . Slide 7: Landforms are found over the continents and also on the ocean floors . Lithosphere is the domain that provides us forests, grasslands for grazing , land for agriculture and human settlements . It is also a source of mineral wealth . The land mass covers about 29 percent of earth area and provide habitat to plants and animals .
2. ATMOSPHERE :- An envelope of colorless , odourless and tasteless gases which surround the earth is called atmosphere .The survival of any form of life needs the quantities of oxygen , nitrogen , carbon and hydrogen . Slide 8: The gravitational force of the earth holds the atmosphere around it. It protects us from the harmful rays and scorching heat of the sun. It consists of a number of gases, dust and water vapour . The changes in the atmosphere produce changes in the weather and climate.
3. HYDROSPHERE :- The domain of water is referred to as hydrosphere. It comprises various sources of water and different types of water bodies like rivers, lakes, seas, oceans, etc. It is essential for all living organisms. Slide 9: BIOTIC ENVIRONMENT :- Animals ( including man ) , plants and micro- organisms comprise the biotic components of geo- ecological environment . Plant and animal kingdom together make biosphere or the living world. It is a narrow zone of the earth where land, water and air interact with each other to support life. It is a zone of life . DOMAINS OF THE ENVIRONMENT : DOMAINS OF THE ENVIRONMENT Atmosphere Biosphere Hydrosphere Lithosphere ECOSYSTEM : ECOSYSTEM All plants, animals and human beings depend on their immediate surroundings. Often they are also interdependent on each other. This relation between the living organisms, as well as the relation between the organisms and their surroundings form an ecosystem. There could be an ecosystem of large rain forest, grassland, desert, mountains, lake, river, ocean and even a small pond. ECOSYSTEM : ECOSYSTEM IMPORTANCE OF ENVIRONMENT : IMPORTANCE OF ENVIRONMENT Importance of Environment : Importance of environment means protection and conservation of our indiscriminate release of pollution into the environment. Development of mankind impacts and, in turn, is impacted by the Environment. Both are not only inter-related but are also inter-dependent WHAT WILL WE DO TO PROTECT AND ADVANCE IT ? : WHAT WILL WE DO TO PROTECT AND ADVANCE IT ? We will neither advocate to maintain status-quo nor encourage exploitation of natural resources for short term economic objectives. Instead, through sound and sustainable practices, we shall establish a creative partnership between development and environment. Increase in green cover, conservation of scarce resources, control of pollution, promotion of economic progress are important guiding lights we will follow for nurturing such a relationship. ENVIRONMENT POLICY : ENVIRONMENT POLICY This policy shall be communicated to all those working for, on behalf or under the control of the organization and shall be made available to public and interested parties on request. Environment policy upload the commitment through :-
Compliance to applicable environmental, occupational heath & safety legal and other requirements which relate to environmental aspects and occupational health & safety hazards Slide 16: 2. Prevention and control of pollution by minimizing generation of process waste, optimum utilization of raw materials, energy, water and other inputs and reducing the sound and dust level in the manufacturing process.
3. Conservation of natural resources like water and wood through promotion of Plastic Pipes and Micro Irrigation System for water management and Plastic Sheets for timber conservation in building, construction, advertisement and other industries.
4. Prevention of injury and ill health by risk assessment, appropriate processes, practices and incident investigation and analysis system.
5. Ensuring awareness about environment protection, health and safety among all concerned by training, display & other communications and securing their involvement.
6. Continual improvement of environmental, occupational heath and safety performance by setting & reviewing objectives and targets and by adopting economically viable technologies and active participation of trained and skilled associates. ENVIRONMENT POLICY : ENVIRONMENT POLICY DEGRATION OF ENVIRONMENT : DEGRATION OF ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION : POLLUTION Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms . Pollution can take the form of chemical substances, or energy, such as noise, heat, or light. Pollutants, the elements of pollution, can be foreign substances or energies, or naturally occurring; when naturally occurring, they are considered contaminants when they exceed natural levels. Slide 21: 1. AIR POLLUTION :- Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment, into the atmosphere.
The atmosphere is a complex, dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems. CAUSES OF AIR POLLUTION : CAUSES OF AIR POLLUTION Humans probably first experienced harm from air pollution when they built fires in poorly ventilated caves. Since then we have gone on to pollute more of the earth's surface. Until recently, environmental pollution problems have been local and minor because of the Earth's own ability to absorb and purify minor quantities of pollutants. The industrialization of society, the introduction of motorized vehicles, and the explosion of the population, are factors contributing toward the growing air pollution problem. At this time it is urgent that we find methods to clean up the air. Slide 23: The primary air pollutants found in most urban areas are carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter (both solid and liquid). These pollutants are dispersed throughout the world's atmosphere in concentrations high enough to gradually cause serious health problems. Serious health problems can occur quickly when air pollutants are concentrated, such as when massive injections of sulfur dioxide and suspended particulate matter are emitted by a large volcanic eruption. EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION : EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION Air pollution can affect our health in many ways with both short-term and long-term effects. Different groups of individuals are affected by air pollution in different ways. Some individuals are much more sensitive to pollutants than are others. Young children and elderly people often suffer more from the effects of air pollution. People with health problems such as asthma, heart and lung disease may also suffer more when the air is polluted. The extent to which an individual is harmed by air pollution usually depends on the total exposure to the damaging chemicals, i.e., the duration of exposure and the concentration of the chemicals must be taken into account. AIR POLLUTION : AIR POLLUTION Slide 26: 2. WATER POLLUTION :- Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater. All water pollution affects organisms and plants that live in these water bodies and in almost all cases the effect is damaging either to individual species and populations but also to the natural biological communities. It occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful constituents. CAUSES OF POLLUTION : CAUSES OF POLLUTION The causes of water pollution may be due to direct and indirect contaminant sources. The former are effluent outputs from refineries, factories, waste treatment plants. Fluids of differing qualities are emitted to the urban water supplies. In the United States and some other countries, these methods are controlled. However, still pollutants can be found in the water bodies. The latter are the water supply from soils/groundwater systems that have fertilizers, pesticides and industrial wastes. Also those through the atmosphere like bakeries, factories emission and automobile discharge. Contaminants can also be divided into inorganic, organic, acid/base and radioactive. EFFECTS OF WATER POLLUTION : EFFECTS OF WATER POLLUTION Human infectious diseases are among the most serious effects of water pollution, especially in developing countries, where sanitation may be inadequate or non-existent. Waterborne diseases occur when parasites or other disease-causing microorganisms are transmitted via contaminated water, particularly water contaminated by pathogens originating from excreta. These include typhoid, intestinal parasites, and most of the enteric and diarrheal diseases caused by bacteria, parasites, and viruses. Among the most serious parasitic diseases are amoebiasis , giardiasis , ascariasis , and hookworm. WATER POLLUTION : WATER POLLUTION Slide 30: 3. NOISE POLLUTION :-Noise pollution (or environmental noise) is displeasing human-, animal- or machine-created sound that disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life. A common form of noise pollution is from transportation, principally motor vehicles. The word noise comes from the Latin word nausea meaning seasickness.
The source of most noise worldwide is transportation systems, motor vehicle noise, but also including aircraft noise and rail noise. Slide 31: Poor urban planning may give rise to noise pollution, since side-by-side industrial and residential buildings can result in noise pollution in the residential area.
Other sources are car alarms, emergency service sirens, office equipment, factory machinery, construction work, grounds keeping equipment, barking dogs, appliances, power tools, lighting hum, audio entertainment systems, loudspeakers and noisy people. NOISE POLLUTION : NOISE POLLUTION Slide 33: 3. SOIL POLLUTION :- Soil pollution is caused by the presence of man-made chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment. This type of contamination typically arises from the rupture of underground storage tanks, application of pesticides, percolation of contaminated surface water to subsurface strata, oil and fuel dumping, leaching of wastes from landfills or direct discharge of industrial wastes to the soil. The most common chemicals involved are petroleum hydrocarbons, solvents, pesticides, lead and other heavy metals. This occurrence of this phenomenon is correlated with the degree of industrializations and intensities of chemical usage. Slide 34: Effects occur to agricultural lands which have certain types of soil contamination. Contaminants typically alter plant metabolism, most commonly to reduce crop yields. This has a secondary effect upon soil conservation, since the languishing crops cannot shield the Earth's soil mantle from erosion phenomena. Some of these chemical contaminants have long half-lives and in other cases derivative chemicals are formed from decay of primary soil contaminants. SOIL POLLUTION : SOIL POLLUTION GREEN HOUSE EFFECT : GREEN HOUSE EFFECT The greenhouse effect is the heating of the surface of a planet or moon due to the presence of an atmosphere containing gases that absorb and emit infrared radiation. Thus, greenhouse gases trap heat within the surface-troposphere system. This mechanism is fundamentally different from that of an actual greenhouse, which works by isolating warm air inside the structure so that heat is not lost by convection. The greenhouse effect was discovered by Joseph Fourier in 1824, first reliably experimented on by John Tyndall in 1858, and first reported quantitatively by Svante Arrhenius in 1896. Slide 37: In the absence of the greenhouse effect and an atmosphere, the Earth's average surface temperature of 14 °C (57 °F) could be as low as −18 °C (−0.4 °F), the black body temperature of the Earth. Anthropogenic global warming (AGW), a recent warming of the Earth's surface and lower atmosphere, is believed to be the result of an "enhanced greenhouse effect" mainly due to human-produced increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases. GREEN HOUSE EFFECT : GREEN HOUSE EFFECT HOW TO SAVE ENVIRONMENT ? : HOW TO SAVE ENVIRONMENT ? STEPS TO SAVE ENVIRONMENT : STEPS TO SAVE ENVIRONMENT Turn off unneeded lights even when leaving a room for a short time.
Eliminate mercury from your home by purchasing items without mercury, and dispose of items containing mercury at an appropriate drop-off facility when necessary (e.g. old thermometers). Slide 41: 3. Reuse items like envelopes, folders and paper clips.
4. Check and fix any water leaks.
5. Don't wash dishes with the water running continuously.
6. Avoid using leaf blowers and other dust-producing equipment.
7. Buy items in bulk from loose bins when possible to reduce the packaging wasted.
8. Plant more and more trees . LOOK OUTSIDE ( POEM ) : LOOK OUTSIDE ( POEM ) Look Outside, see the treesWatch the flowers in the breezeThings won't be like this in a year or twoIf polluting is all we doSeize the nightSeize the dayThings won't always be this wayThousands of people are dyingIn the night you hear children cryingLet's stop the warOur people are soreThe world can't help itselfWho cares about your wealthHelp me to help youShow the world what you can do. PRESENTED BY :-ANUSHIKA : PRESENTED BY :-ANUSHIKA