E-Notes - BA I Sem Unit-III

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Kautilya and Ancient Indian Political Thought

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E-Notes* on PAPER-II Indian Political Thought (Part-1) BA I Sem Unit-III: KAUTILYA :

E-Notes* on PAPER-II Indian Political Thought (Part-1) BA I Sem Unit-III: KAUTILYA Prepared by Santwana Pandey, Asstt. Prof., Deptt. of Political Science, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh * Students are strictly advised to refer the Text Books prescribed during the classroom interaction

Contents: :

Contents: About ‘Arthashastra’ About Kautilya Political Ideas in Arthashastra Seven Organ Theory of the State Origin and Nature of the State Power and Position of the King Control on Kings Power Role of the Councils of Ministers Theory of Punishment and Espionage System Theory of State (Mandal System)

About Arthashastra:

About Arthashastra ‘Arthashastra’ has been divided into 150 Chapters , 180 sections and 6000 shlokas . The ontent of the book are mentioned as below; Book I Concerning Discipline Book II Duties of Government Servants Book III Concerning Law Book IV Removal of Thorns Book V Conduct of Courtiers Book VI The Sources of Sovereign States Continued………

Book VII The End of Six-fold Policy Book VIII Concerning Vices and Calamities Book IX The Work of an Invader Book X Relating to War Book XI The Conduct of Corporations Book XII Concerning a Powerful Enemy Book XIII Stretegic Means to Capture a Fortress Book XIV Secret Means Book XV The Plan of a Treatise :

Book VII The End of Six-fold Policy Book VIII Concerning Vices and Calamities Book IX The Work of an Invader Book X Relating to War Book XI The Conduct of Corporations Book XII Concerning a Powerful Enemy Book XIII Stretegic Means to Capture a Fortress Book XIV Secret Means Book XV The Plan of a Treatise

About Kautilya:

About Kautilya According to Kautilya the king is also a ‘a wage earner equal to other wage earners in the state’ and ‘kingdom is to be enjoyed by all’ Happiness of the king lies in the happiness of the subjects and a welfare state should be established by the king Kautilya preferred kings of high birth because people have an easy acceptability and loyalty to the king Kautilya was acutely aware of the dangers of anarchy He is known for his exceptional frank and candid ideas To Kautilya goes the credit of making political economy as an independent discipline. He dealt with immediate practical concerns of polity.

Arthasastra is more of treatise on administration than on politics and statecraft Kautilya had written ‘Arthshastra’ when there was a development of Aristotle’s ‘politics’ in european world of thought. Politics deals with ‘the acquisition of what has not been gained, the preservation of what has been acquired, the increase of what has been preserved, and the bestowal of the surplus upon the deservers’ There was A situation of constant war and no peace within the state :

Arthasastra is more of treatise on administration than on politics and statecraft Kautilya had written ‘ Arthshastra ’ when there was a development of Aristotle’s ‘politics’ in european world of thought. Politics deals with ‘the acquisition of what has not been gained, the preservation of what has been acquired, the increase of what has been preserved, and the bestowal of the surplus upon the deservers’ There was A situation of constant war and no peace within the state Kautilya as a realist thinker

The king must be courageous, wakeful and concerned for the welfare of the people, must provide for the orphans, the aged, the helpless and the afflicted The king must ensure that the people of the four castes and four orders of life keep of their respective path, respective duties and occupations maintenance of safety and security of the subjects is the duty of the king If the king has to become ‘chakravartin’ he must have all these three assets military power, financial prudence and wisdom The king has all the power to impart rewards and punishments and the tAxation system should be in the interest of the people :

The king must be courageous, wakeful and concerned for the welfare of the people, must provide for the orphans, the aged, the helpless and the afflicted The king must ensure that the people of the four castes and four orders of life keep of their respective path, respective duties and occupations maintenance of safety and security of the subjects is the duty of the king If the king has to become ‘ chakravartin ’ he must have all these three assets military power, financial prudence and wisdom The king has all the power to impart rewards and punishments and the tAxation system should be in the interest of the people Power and Position of the King

Like human body state is also supposed to possess the seven elements of the state mentioned blow; 1. King (swami) 2. Ministers (Amatyas) 3. Territory (janapada) 4. forts (Durg) 5. treasury (kosh) 6. Royal Sceptre (dand) 7. allies (Mitra):

Like human body state is also supposed to possess the seven elements of the state mentioned blow; 1. King (swami) 2. Ministers ( Amatyas ) 3. Territory ( janapada ) 4. forts ( Durg ) 5. treasury ( kosh ) 6. Royal Sceptre ( dand ) 7. allies ( Mitra ) Seven Organ Theory of the State

THE RULER IS ABOVE OTHERS BUT NOT ABOVE DHARMA AMONG THE SPIES OF KING ARE INCLUDED FALSE HERMITS, THE FALSE ASCETICS AND THE FALSE MENDICANTS INDEPENDENT STATUS ON THE SUBJECT OF POLITICS SEPERATED FROM RELIGION THE ONLY END ACCORDING TO KAUTILYA IS WHICH JUSTIFIES THE MEANS IS THE PRESERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE STATE, PUNISHMENT OF THE WICKED AND PROTECTION OF THE GOOD KAUTILYA HAS ALSO BEEN CONSIDERED AS THE ‘MACHIAVELLI OF INDIA’ :

THE RULER IS ABOVE OTHERS BUT NOT ABOVE DHARMA AMONG THE SPIES OF KING ARE INCLUDED FALSE HERMITS, THE FALSE ASCETICS AND THE FALSE MENDICANTS INDEPENDENT STATUS ON THE SUBJECT OF POLITICS SEPERATED FROM RELIGION THE ONLY END ACCORDING TO KAUTILYA IS WHICH JUSTIFIES THE MEANS IS THE PRESERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE STATE, PUNISHMENT OF THE WICKED AND PROTECTION OF THE GOOD KAUTILYA HAS ALSO BEEN CONSIDERED AS THE ‘MACHIAVELLI OF INDIA’ Theory of Punishment and Espionage System

According to Kautilya no state can be stable unless it takes care of its foreign or international relations and expansion of his empire. To maintain this in this “Mandal Theory” he explains these 12 types of state mentioned below and their ever changing behaviour as neighbours; 1. VIJIGEESHU: Nation which want to conquer the whole world 2. ARI: Neighbouring front enemy nation having negative relations with vijeegeeshu 3. MITRA: Neighbour of Ari but friend to Vijeegeeshu 4. ARI-MITRA: Neighbour of Mitra having negative relations with his neighbour 5. MITRA-MITRA: Friend of the neighbouring state and having positive relations with Vijigeeshu 6. ARIMITRA-MITRA: Neighbouring state of friend’s friend nation. He will be friend of Ari-Mitra :

According to Kautilya no state can be stable unless it takes care of its foreign or international relations and expansion of his empire. To maintain this in this “Mandal Theory” he explains these 12 types of state mentioned below and their ever changing behaviour as neighbours; 1. VIJIGEESHU: Nation which want to conquer the whole world 2. ARI: Neighbouring front enemy nation having negative relations with vijeegeeshu 3. MITRA: Neighbour of Ari but friend to Vijeegeeshu 4. ARI-MITRA: Neighbour of Mitra having negative relations with his neighbour 5. MITRA-MITRA: Friend of the neighbouring state and having positive relations with Vijigeeshu 6. ARIMITRA-MITRA: Neighbouring state of friend’s friend nation. He will be friend of Ari-Mitra Theory of State ( Mandal System)

7. PASHNIGRAH: Neighbouring back enemy state having negative relations with Vijeegeeshu 8. AAKRAND: Back state of Pashnigrah having positive relations with Vijigeeshu 9. PASHNIGRAH SAAR: Back side enemy neighbouring state of Aakranda having negative relations with Vijigeeshu 10. AAKRANDASAAR: Back side friend state having friendly relations with Vijigeeshu 11. MIDDLE STATE: Some states act as ‘Buffer State’ and are always helpful both at the time of peace and war 12. NEUTRAL STATE: It can play a major role among Vijigeeshu, his friend and Middle state. It can also fight with all of them simultaneously:

7. PASHNIGRAH: Neighbouring back enemy state having negative relations with Vijeegeeshu 8. AAKRAND: Back state of Pashnigrah having positive relations with Vijigeeshu 9. PASHNIGRAH SAAR: Back side enemy neighbouring state of Aakranda having negative relations with Vijigeeshu 10. AAKRANDASAAR: Back side friend state having friendly relations with Vijigeeshu 11. MIDDLE STATE: Some states act as ‘Buffer State’ and are always helpful both at the time of peace and war 12. NEUTRAL STATE: It can play a major role among Vijigeeshu, his friend and Middle state. It can also fight with all of them simultaneously

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