Non con. Energy sources

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What is Energy :

What is Energy Energy is the power to change things. It is the ability to do work. Energy is defined as the ability or the capacity to do work. Energy lights our cities, powers our vehicles, and runs machinery in factories. It warms and cools our homes, cooks our food, plays our music, and gives us pictures on television.

Difference -Energy & Power:

Difference -Energy & Power Energy and Power Energy can be defined as capability to do work. Various forms of energy are thermal, mechanical, chemical, electrical, etc. Power can be defined as rate of doing work. Classification of Energy Sources Commercial Non-commercial Renewable Non-Renewable

Energy and its types:

Energy and its types There are two types of energy sources: Conventional sources : Energy sources which are available in less amounts and will one day be exhausted, are known as conventional sources of energy. Ex: fossil fuels, Non-conventional sources : Energy sources which are renewable and can be regenerated are known as renewable or non-conventional sources of energy.

PowerPoint Presentation:

As the population is increasing the energy consumption is also increasing. Hence, we need such sources of energy which can be renewed from time to time and they can meet our needs regularly.

Different Sources of Energy   :

Different Sources of Energy The different sources are:- Fossil fuels Hydro power plant Biomass Wind energy Solar energy Geo thermal energy Ocean thermal energy Tidal energy Wave energy Nuclear energy

Fossil Fuels   :

Fossil Fuels Coal, oil and gas are called "fossil fuels" because they have been formed from the organic remains of prehistoric plants and animals. Crude oil (called "petroleum") is easier to get out of the ground than coal, as it can flow along pipes. This also makes it cheaper to transport. Natural gas provides around 20% of the world's consumption of energy, and as well as being burnt in power stations, is used by many people to heat their homes. It is easy to transport along pipes, and gas power stations produce comparatively little pollution. Fossil fuels are not a renewable energy resource. Once we've burned them all, there isn't any more, and our consumption of fossil fuels has nearly doubled every 20 years since 1900. This is a particular problem for oil, because we also use it to make plastics and many other products.

Hydelpower generation :

Hydelpower generation

Hydropower generation:

Hydropower generation

Hydro Power Plant   :

Hydro Power Plant Electricity produced from generators driven by water turbines that convert the energy in falling or fast-flowing water to mechanical energy. Water at a higher elevation flows downward through large pipes or tunnels (penstocks). The falling water rotates turbines, which drive the generators, which convert the turbines' mechanical energy into electricity. The advantages of hydroelectric power over such other sources as fossil fuels and nuclear fission are that it is continually renewable and produces no pollution. There are now three types of hydroelectric installations: storage, run-of-river, and pumped-storage facilities.

Merits and demerits of hydroelectricity:

Merits and demerits of hydroelectricity merits They are environment friendly. The use a renewable source of energy i.e. water. demerits Ecosystem damage and loss of land. Methane emissions from rotten submerged vegetation. Relocation of people from the are where the reservoirs are planned. Cost of setting the plant is high

Bio fuel and its generation:

Bio fuel and its generation

Floating gas holder type biogas plant:

Floating gas holder type biogas plant

Biomass   :

Biomass Biomass is a renewable energy resource derived from the carbonaceous waste of various human and natural activities. It is derived from numerous sources, including the by-products from the timber industry, agricultural crops, raw material from the forest, major parts of household waste and wood. Biomass does not add carbon dioxide to the atmosphere as it absorbs the same amount of carbon in growing as it releases when consumed as a fuel. Its advantage is that it can be used to generate electricity with the same equipment or power plants that are now burning fossil fuels. At present, biogas technology provides an alternative source of energy in rural India for cooking. It is particularly useful for village households that have their own cattle. Through a simple process cattle dung is used to produce a gas, which serves as fuel for cooking. The residual dung is used as manure.

Advantages of bio fuel:

Advantages of bio fuel It burns without smoke and therefore causes no pollution. Its calorific value is high. Its is very clean and convenient fuel, and does not leave any residue. It does not involve any storage problems.

Wind energy:

Wind energy

Wind Energy   :

Wind Energy Wind energy is the kinetic energy associated with the movement of atmospheric air. It has been used for hundreds of years for sailing, grinding grain, and for irrigation. Wind energy systems convert this kinetic energy to more useful forms of power. Wind energy systems for irrigation and milling have been in use since ancient times and since the beginning of the 20th century it is being used to generate electric power . Wind turbines transform the energy in the wind into mechanical power, which can then be used directly for grinding etc. or further converting to electric power to generate electricity. Wind turbines can be used singly or in clusters called ‘wind farms’. Small wind turbines called aero-generators can be used to charge large batteries.

Merits and demerits of wind energy:

Merits and demerits of wind energy Merits The energy it uses is renewable. It is environment friendly. Demerits It requires a large area. It requires wind speed equal to or more than 15 km/h. The cost of setting up and the maintenance cost of the windmills is very high. It creates noise pollution.

Solar Energy   :

Solar Energy Solar energy is the radiant light and heat from the Sun that has been harnessed by humans since ancient times using a range of ever-evolving technologies. Solar power technologies provide electrical generation by means of heat engines or photovoltaics . Once converted its uses are only limited by human ingenuity. Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute sunlight. A partial list of solar applications includes space heating and cooling through Solar cooker, solar cell. Solar heater etc

Solar Cell   :

Solar Cell A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a machine that converts sunlight directly into electricity by the photovolts effect . Photovoltaics is the field of technology and research related to the application of solar cells in producing electricity for practical use. The photovoltaic effect, which causes the cell to convert light directly into electrical energy, occurs in the three energy-conversion layers.

Solar Heater :

Solar Heater Solar heating systems are generally composed of solar thermal collectors, a fluid system to move the heat from the collector to its point of usage. The system may use electricity for pumping the fluid, and have a reservoir or tank for heat storage and subsequent use. The systems may be used to heat water for a wide variety of uses, including home, business and industrial uses. In many climates, a solar heating system can provide up to 85% of domestic hot water energy. In many northern European countries, combined hot water and space heating systems are used to provide 15 to 25% of home heating energy.

Geothermal Energy   :

Geothermal Energy Geothermal energy is heat from within the earth. We can use the steam and hot water produced inside the earth to heat buildings or generate electricity. Geothermal energy is a renewable energy source because the water is replenished by rainfall and the heat is continuously produced inside the earth. Geothermal energy is generated in the earth's core, about 4,000 miles below the surface . Temperatures hotter than the sun's surface are continuously produced inside the earth by the slow decay of radioactive particles, a process that happens in all rocks.

Ocean Thermal Energy :

Ocean Thermal Energy The main objective of ocean thermal energy or Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) is to turn the solar energy trapped by the ocean into useable energy. This kind of energy is found in tropical oceans where the water temperature differs from surface to deeper into the sea. On the ocean surface it can be at least 20 C hotter or cooler than the temperature at a deeper sea level. Three approaches, open cycle OTEC, closed cycle OTEC and hybrid cycle OTEC have been created in the past fifty years. The variety of products and services are the major advantage of OTEC plants. Ocean thermal is also relatively clean and will not produce more pollutants that contribute to global warming. OTEC plants are most suitable for islands around the tropical region of the east Pacific Ocean. This is because OTEC plants can provide both energy and pure water at the same time with a relatively low cost. It is also because the ocean in that region has greater temperature differences, which is about 24 oC.

Tidal Energy :

Tidal Energy Tidal energy is the utilization of the sun and moon's gravitational forces - as tides are formed by the gravitational pull of the sun and moon on the oceans of the rotating earth. Tides can be found with varying degrees of strength on any coastline, and sometimes even at sea, although these are better known as currents. Tidal energy is one of the oldest forms of energy used as evidence of tide mills from before 1100AD .

Wave Energy:

Wave Energy In many areas of the world, the wind blows with enough consistency and force to provide continuous waves. There is tremendous energy in the ocean waves. WAVE POWER DEVICES  extract energy directly from the surface motion of ocean waves or from pressure fluctuations below the surface. Wave technologies have been designed to be installed in near shore, offshore, and far offshore locations. While all wave energy technologies are intended to be installed at or near the water's surface, they differ in their orientation to the waves with which they are interacting and in the manner in which they convert the energy of the waves into other energy forms, usually electricity.

Nuclear Energy:

Nuclear Energy Changes can occur in the structure of the nuclei of atoms. These changes are called nuclear reactions. Energy created in a nuclear reaction is called nuclear energy, or atomic energy. Nuclear energy is produced naturally and in man-made operations under human control.

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