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Research Methodology : 

Research Methodology

Research Methodology:-Basics : 

Research Methodology:-Basics What is Research ? What is Research Methodology? What are Research Methods & Techniques? Research in Management : Why & Where & what

1. What is Research ? : 

1. What is Research ?

Research:- : 

Research:- information knowledge solution

Research :- : 

Research :- Research can be defined as a Systematic & Scientific Search or investigation for pertinent information/knowledge/solution on a specific topic/subject/problem.

Slide 6: 

Search Information/ Knowledge Research:- (Diagram) on a Topic

What is Research Methodology ? : 

What is Research Methodology ?

Slide 8: 

Research Methodology :

Research methodology :- : 

Research methodology :- To do/conduct Research systematically scientifically & The way/science

Research Methodology:- : 

Research Methodology:- Research methodology is the way or Science to do/ conduct research systematically & scientifically.

Research methodology : 

Research Methodology says that how to do/conduct research systematically & scientifically. Research methodology not only provides the knowledge of various types of methods & techniques for Sampling , data collection, data analysis & report writing etc. but also guides that which particular method or technique for sampling/data collection/data analysis should be used or not & why should /shouldn't do so. Research methodology

Research Methodology:- (Diagram) : 

Research Methodology:- (Diagram) The Way/Science To Do/Conduct Research Systematically Scientifically

Research Methods & Techniques : 

Research Methods & Techniques

Research Methods & Techniques : 

Research Methods & Techniques Research methods & Techniques are the tools or approaches which are used while doing/conducting research. Research Methods : Probability & Non Probability approach (Sampling) Observation, Interview, Questionnaire, Scheduling, etc. (Data collection) Charts, Central tendency, Variance, ANOVA, MDS etc. (Data analysis) Research Techniques: Simple random, systematic, convenience, judgement (Sampling) Participant & Non Participants Observation, Personal & Telephonic Interview, Structured & Unstructured Questionnaire (Data collection) One dimensional & Two dimensional Chart, Mean, Mode &Median, One way Anova & Two way Anova etc.(Data Analysis)

Research in Business & Management:-(Why & Where & What) : 

Research in Business & Management:-(Why & Where & What)

1. (Why?) : 

1. (Why?)

(Why?) : 

(Why?) In general life a man may take decisions just based on luck (i.e. without any basis). But in Business , as high investment is involved & intense competition exists, so irrational decisions (decisions without sufficient logical information base)related to various issues can lead to failure which can results in heavy loss & difficult to survive in market. So in Business, almost decisions are being taken Rationally on the basis of substantial information for reducing risks of failure/loss, making better strategies, increasing efficiency, creating effectiveness & ensuring Success for the organization. For e.g.- A Company has 4 factories, running all over India ,suddenly get heavy loss, so can one(owner) just shut down/invest more any one unit(factory) & chosen randomly (means without any investigation/enquiry).? -Surely no! first he/she(owner/mgmt.)should enquire/investigate properly (systematically & scientifically) that which unit is making loss to company. -Then check the problem/s then take require corrective measures(actions) either for solve the problem/improve the systems or shut down if it is advised to do so -as per information obtained from the systematic enquiry/investigation i.e. called Research. Here imp. thing to note, is, in business we do have to take risk but should not be taken without substantial logical information base. Means risk can not be avoided but can be reduced to a great extent For which Research is conducted.

1.Why? : 

1.Why? Research Rational & Better Decisions Substantial Information base

Where? : 

Where?

Where? : 

Where? in Science Research is done in Laboratory

Where? : 

Where? In Management Research is done in Society & Total business environment

Where? : 

Where? in Science, the field for research is laboratory . But Management discipline mainly comes under Social science. So for Management, the field/object for the research is “Society & Organizational total environment” for/in which it operates.

On What object & What exactly we study? : 

On What object & What exactly we study?

Slide 24: 

BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT:- Business influencing factors (its characteristics, Dynamism & Complexity ) internal Environment ( Management Employees, Procedures, Leadership Style, Structure, culture etc.) Efficiency, productivity, Effectiveness, satisfaction, levels of the above. External Environment (Technological.,Socio-cultural, Natural, Economical, Political, Legal, etc.) Potential,feasibilty,viablity,intensity,etc. SOCIAL PHENOMENA:- Market’s Current trend (what is happening?) Customers – shopping & Consumption patterns & Their general characterstics, needs,wants,desires, Tastes,preferences,interests demography,psychography,etc. Competitors-Their Strategic patterns for competition. What?

Slide 25: 

welcome

Research Methodology : 

Research Methodology

Now : 

Now As per Syllabus

Unit - 1 :- : 

Unit - 1 :- Nature & Scope of Research Methodology Problem formulation & Statement of research Problem Cost & Value of information. Types of Research. Objectives of research (importance/Role) Research organizations in India.

Nature & Scopeof Research Methodology : 

Nature & Scopeof Research Methodology

1.Nature of Research Methodology : 

1.Nature of Research Methodology it is systematic. It is scientific. it has objectivity. It has verifiability. It has definiteness. It is art & science both. It has wider scope. It’s a tool for new product development. It serves as basis of management principles. It aids in decision making. It is qualitative & quantitative both. It is helpful in prediction & control. It has psychological approaches too. It relies on empirical evidences. It explores new insights/describes in detail/obtain cause & effect relationships.

Nature of Research Methodology : 

Nature of Research Methodology It is Systematic:- it is systematic because it has step by step process. starts from problem formulation & continues through literature review, hypotheses formulation, research design, data collection, data analysis & ends at Report-writing. It is Scientific:- it is scientific because it contains Rules, Principles, methods, techniques for conducting the research . such as Questionnaire, scheduling, Psychological Techniques, Mean, Mode, Median, ANOVAs etc. It has objectivity:- As it always has some topic/issue & has an objective to collect information related for the same. It has verifiability :- Because research results can be verified by new researcher. It has definiteness : because it has some particular direction & a specific(definite) topic to doing/conducting research.

Nature of Research Methodology : 

Nature of Research Methodology It is art & science both :- it is art because it provides the researcher necessary skill to collect, analyzing, presentation. it is science because it uses various scientific tools for data collection, data analysis like observation, interview, psychological techniques, mean, mode, median, Anova etc. It has wider scope. as it is used in almost all areas of knowledge like Physics, chemistry, agriculture, aeronautics, space & also in Management like Marketing, HRM, finance, etc. It’s a tool for new product development.: because by research marketers able to know needs,wants,desires,tastes,preference,problems,demography,psychography etc. of consumers. on the basis of which organizations develop new products. It serves as basis of management principles. As it helps & guides to make principles, policies, Rules, Regulations, systems, procedures related to management. It aids in decision making: As it provides sound & substantial information base on which management can take rational & better decisions related to various important issues of organizations.

Nature of Research Methodology : 

It is Qualitative& Quantitative both : As sometimes it goes for collect qualitative information like attitude, satisfaction level, perception etc. of consumers, retailers, employees ,hence it is qualitative & sometimes it collects & present information in numerical forms too like number of people, percentage of consumers/retailers/employees, etc. so it is quantitative too. It is helpful in prediction & control :- it provides substantial informational base to predict the amount of demand which in turn helps in determining production quantity more accurately. Which reduce the risk of over production & also reduce the risk of of opportunity loss to a great extent. It has psychological approaches too. as it uses attitude measurement techniques & Motivational Research techniques. Viz. Thematic test, word association test, sentence completion test, Rorschach Test, inkblot holtzman test etc. It relies on empirical evidences. As in research data collected is based on experiences of people/consumers/retailers etc.. Nature of Research Methodology

Nature of Research Methodology : 

Nature of Research Methodology It explores new insights/describes in detail/obtain cause & effect relationships: As helps to explores an issue/subject for more /new insights when the researcher has either no information or little information (in Exploratory research) And/or goes into detailed investigation & describe the topic thoroughly. (in Descriptive Research) or develop cause & effect relationship between two variables. (in Experimental Research)

Scope of Research Methodology in management:- : 

Scope of Research Methodology in management:- Although Research has wider scope & it is performed almost all areas of knowledge. But here, we are notifying main areas of management in which research is conducted. Environment level Organizational level Marketing level

Scope: : 

Scope: Environmental Level Organizational Level Technological innovations Socio-Cultural Env. Political-Legal Env. Economical Env. Natural Env. Competitors Analysis Industry fears New Market Entry New product development HRM Finance Marketing Production Overall Organizational Effectiveness Marketing Level Product Price Place Promotion Sales Customer

Scope of Research Methodology in management:- : 

Scope of Research Methodology in management:- 1.Environmental level- Research is conducted to know environmental changes reactively & proactively. Technological innovations: Research is conducted to know & adapt new technological innovations, developments in machinery , method, etc. used . For e.g. To know level of use of information technology e.g. Networking, Tally, SAP, etc. in the organization. Economical, Socio-Cultural, Natural, Political - Legal Environments : Research is also done to know the characteristics, complexity, dynamism of socio-Cultural, economical, political- legal, which ultimately gives the idea of the potential, feasibility, viability etc. of the market. Competitors Analysis : Companies conducts research for studying the strategic patterns of competitors, their strengths & weaknesses for making better strategies for competing effectively in order to survive & thrive in the market.

Scope of Research Methodology in management:- : 

Industry fears :- Research is conducted sometimes to know the survival & growth opportunities of an industry. it may be due to the extinction of raw material/sources of raw material . E.g. Finishing stock of Petroliam ,coal may cause the extinction for automobile & power industry thus research for alternative sources/solutions is conducted. For the above e.g. the solutions are electric car(automobile), CNG gas generated Automobile, Battery driven Automobiles. New Market entry Before making any entry into any new market , companies conduct research/pilot survey to know market potential, commercial feasibility, growth rate for the acceptance level of the consumers. New product development: Research is mainly conducted to know needs,wants,desires,tastes,preference,problems,demography,psychography etc. of consumers. On the basis of which Organizations may develop new products & Services. Scope of Research Methodology in management:-

2. Organizational level- : 

2. Organizational level- HRM: it is related to Efficiency, productivity, Effectiveness, performance, Satisfaction level etc. of Employees, structure, culture etc. of the organization. Finance: It may be related to any operation like Financial analysis, Capital structure, Ratio analysis etc. research is done to evaluate the performance or viability of the existing systems/procedures/approaches for the same, in order to improve the existing one or develop new methods for the same. Ultimately the motive remains for reducing loss & increase profitability. Production: here research is related to know & improve the efficiency, Productivity, effectiveness level of workers , process planning, materials planning, layout, purchasing etc. (like work study, time study etc.) which ultimately have objectives of cost minimization & Profit maximization. Organizational Effectiveness & Success: It is related to effectiveness, efficiency, Rationality, viabilty of general management, administration, systems, procedures, operations , Policies, Rules ,Regulations etc. prevailing currently in the organization. Any research which can contribute to enhance the effectiveness of the organization or towards the success of the organization. Scope:

3. Marketing Level:- research in management is mainly done in marketing level in the areas like Product, Price , Place, Promotion, Sales, Customer etc. : 

3. Marketing Level:- research in management is mainly done in marketing level in the areas like Product, Price , Place, Promotion, Sales, Customer etc. Product : Research is conducted to improve viz.quality, features, design, packaging, labeling, differentiation etc. of the products or services. Price Research is conducted for the cost minimization, determining Pricing methods(strategies), develop new pricing strategies etc. for the product in order to attract & retain the customers. Place Research is also conducted for evaluating & improving the performance, satisfaction, effectiveness of the distribution channels ( Retailers, Dealers, agents etc.) Promotion Research is also conducted to determine & develop appropriate & new approaches/methods for Advertising, Sales promotion as per the target market. Sales : Research is conducted to know the sales performance(sales audit), effectiveness & efficiency of the sales force, Determination of Sales Quota, defining Sales Territory, developing innovative & effective sales training & motivating techniques. Customer: current trend of shopping & Consumption patterns of consumers Scope:

Problem Formulation : 

Problem Formulation & Statement of Research

Slide 42: 

Problem Formulation

Problem formulation:- : 

Problem formulation:- What is Problem formulation (Definition) Process Steps for Problem Formulation (with Diagram) Examples Statement of Research (How it develops?) Examples Importance/Advantage/Need of Problem formulation

What is Problem formulation? : 

What is Problem formulation? Problem Formulation is finding/deciding the problem/topic & for the research study. Research problem refers to some subject or difficulty which researcher experiences in business scenario & wants to find out solution for the same. Problem formulation is the first & foremost step of research process. In problem formulation The researcher defines the research Problem, statement of research & objectives of research. In the process of Problem formulation & Statement of Research the researcher goes general to specific.

2. Process Steps for Problem Formulation : 

2. Process Steps for Problem Formulation

Steps for Problem formulaton:- : 

Steps for Problem formulaton:- Defining the Research Objectives Specific to General Generating research ideas Examining Strengths & weaknesses Searching the literature Exploring The personal Preferences Looking at Limitations Integrating the ideas

3. importance/Advantages/Need of Problem formulation : 

3. importance/Advantages/Need of Problem formulation First & foremost advantage is : Clarity of Research topic & objectives of research. Base for deciding further plan for the research(Research Design)(Base for choosing most appropriate Research & Sampling Strategies and data collection & analysis techniques.) Clarity of direction to collect data. Specification of topic reduces wastages of time, effort & money. Defining the research problem helps the researcher to specify his/her needs for conducting research . Turn the ideas into research questions & objectives.

Examples : 

Examples A Study on effectiveness of Advertising Program of Pepsi Co. A Comparative Analysis between Café coffee day & Barista. A Study on job Satisfaction level of the employees of Microsoft Corporation. A study on Brand preference in Banking industry. A study on effectiveness of Social Welfare program of Jaypee Cement.

Statement of Research : 

Statement of Research After deciding the topic a researcher needs to make Statement of Research. Statement of Research is the specific & clear description of the research problem/topic. Process of making Statement of Research is actually defining the research problem specifically & clearly research problem. it makes clear the place, time, type, area of interest, etc. for the research study.

Example (Statement of Research) : 

Example (Statement of Research) Why productivity of Japan is higher than India.? We are taking the above example of research Problem for making/developing a statement of Research for it by making it more specific & clear by following considerations(asking questions). Which type of productivity is talking about? Ans .: Laborers productivity For which industry it is talking about? Ans. : Textile industry For which specific period of time it is talking about? Ans. : 2008-2009 So now the Topic(Research Problem) would become as follows. Why laborers productivity of textile industry was higher than that of India in 2008-2009?

Cost & Value of information : 

Cost & Value of information

Cost & Value of : 

Cost & Value of

Cost & Value of information : 

Cost & Value of information Cost of information Value of information Cost of information Vs Value of information

Cost of information: : 

Cost of information: Cost Related to access to secondary data. ( library, internet access charges etc.) Cost related to Research Design 1. Cost related to Research Design : in Experimental design is more costlier than other research design. 2.Generally Probability Sampling is costlier than Non Probability Sampling. 3.Sample Size: as the size of sample increases, cost of Research also increases. 4. Cost Related to Data collection Technique : cost related to contacting the respondent, Collecting & recording Cost, Stationary charges E.g. Personal interview is costlier than Telephonic interview, Questionnaire is economical than Scheduling. Cost Related to Data analysis Technique.(use of Staff, Software, etc.) Cost Related to Report Writing (Printing Charges, Stationary Charges etc.)

Value of information : 

Value of information The level of indecisiveness in the case of absence of that particular information. Degree of variation in

Cost of information Vs Value of information : 

Cost of information Vs Value of information In any research, Research Design (including Sampling design) should be carefully & rationally planned so that there should be proper balance between Cost of information & Value of information Means neither the cost (Money, effort & time) of the research study should increase unnecessarily nor the accuracy of the research shouldhuld be compromised.

Types of Research:- : 

Types of Research:-

Types of Research:- : 

Types of Research:- Descriptive Vs Analytical Fundamental Vs Applied Quantitative Vs Qualitative Conceptual Vs Empirical Some other types (on different bases) Time-> One time Vs Longitudinal Environmental setting-> Laboratory Vs Field setting

Types of Research:- : 

Types of Research:- Descriptive Vs Analytical: Fundamental Vs Applied Quantitative Vs Qualitative Conceptual Vs Empirical Some other types (on different bases) Time-> One time Vs Longitudinal Environmental setting-> Laboratory Vs Field setting

Research Objectives : 

Research Objectives

Research objectives: : 

Research objectives: To gain Familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it (when we either have no information or little information.) (Studies with this objective in view are termed as Exploratory or Formulative Research Studies) To Portray Characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group. & determine the frequency with which something occurs. (in this actually we go into the details & describe the issue thoroughly.) ( studies with this objectives are known as Descriptive Research studies & Diagnostic Research Studies respectively) To Test a hypothesis of a Cause-&-Effect relationship between variables. (Such studies are known as Hypothesis-Testing Research Studies.)

Criteria forA good Research : 

Criteria forA good Research

Criteria for good Research : : 

Criteria for good Research : The Topic & objectives of the research should be defined clearly & specifically. The Source of literature review should be authenticated & Reliable. The hypothesis should be formed carefully & it should define the relationship between (the independent & dependent) variables clearly. The Research Design should be described in sufficient detail to permit another researcher to repeat the research for further advancement. The Procedural design should be carefully planned to yield results that are as objective as possible. Means Research design should aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. (Value of information should be maintained with proper a care for economizing the cost of the research by Rational thinking) The data collection technique should be appropriate. The data analysis technique should appropriate. & The analysis of data should be sufficiently adequate to

Research Organizationsin india : 

Research Organizationsin india

Research organizations in india : 

Research organizations in india We are writing names of Research Organizations in India with classifying them into two broad areas. Market Research Organizations.(Related to Management ) General Research Organizations of India.(of Other fields)

Research Organizations in India : 

Research Organizations in India Research Organizations (Related to Management) General Research Organizations AC Neilson IMRB international ICMR (of IIPM) NCAER (of Govt.) GNN Pvt. Ltd. TISS Mumbai ISRO (Space) DRDO (Defence) ICAR (Agriculture) BARC (Atomic) AIIMS (Medical) BIOCON (BioTechnology)

Research Organizations in India : 

Research Organizations in India The above written Market Research organizations are either Indian or foreign organization but both are operating in India. In Business & Management, Generally Companies either conduct research by themselves through making a department for Research. or they give the contract to Market Research Companies.

Unit - 2 : 

Unit - 2

Unit - 2 : 

Unit - 2 Research Process Research Design Types of Research Design- Exploratory, Descriptive & Cause-effect . Sampling Design : Steps in Sampling Criteria for selecting a sample procedure Sample size Sampling Methods-(designs/techniques)

Research PROCESS : 

Research PROCESS 7 Steps

Technically Research is a PROCESS:- : 

Technically Research is a PROCESS:- 1. Problem formulation 2. Reviewing the Literature 3. Formulating hypothesis 4. Research DESIGN 5. Data - COLLECTION 6. Data - ANALYSIS 7. Report-writing Systematic & scientific search

Research Process : : 

Research Process : Problem Formulation: Review the literature: Formulating Hypothesis Research Design Data Collection Data Analysis Report Writing

Research Process : : 

Research Process :

Research Design : 

Research Design The Plan

Research Design : 

Research Design What is Research Design (Definition) Types of Research Designs- (Exploratory, Descriptive & Experimental) Parts of Research Design Need/objectives/Advantages of Research Design

What is Research Design: : 

What is Research Design:

Types of Research Designs: : 

Types of Research Designs: Exploratory or Formulative Research Studies When we either have no information or little information. So To gain Familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it .(Studies with this objective in view are termed as Exploratory or Formulative Research Studies) Descriptive Research studies & Diagnostic Research Studies To Portray Characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group. & determine the frequency with which something occurs. (in this actually we go into the details & describe the issue thoroughly.) ( studies with this objectives are known as Descriptive Research studies & Diagnostic Research Studies respectively) Hypothesis-Testing Research Studies. To Test a hypothesis of a Cause-&-Effect relationship between variables. (Such studies are known as Hypothesis-Testing Research Studies.)

Parts of Research Design : 

Parts of Research Design Observational Design: Relates to the conditions under which the observations are to be made. Sampling Design: Statistical Design: concerns with the questions of how many items are to be observed and how the data/information gathered & analyzed. Operational Design:

Need/objectives/Advantages of Research Design : 

Need/objectives/Advantages of Research Design

Types of Research Design : 

Types of Research Design (Exploratory, Descriptive & Experimental)

Types of Research Designs : 

Types of Research Designs Exploratory Descriptive Experimental

Sampling Design : 

Sampling Design : Steps in Sampling

Sampling Design : Steps in Sampling : 

Sampling Design : Steps in Sampling What is Sampling Design ? Steps in Sampling

Criteria for Selecting a Sample : 

Criteria for Selecting a Sample

Criteria for Selecting a Sample : 

Criteria for Selecting a Sample

  : 

  :

Criteria forSelecting a Sample : 

Criteria forSelecting a Sample

Criteria for Selecting a Sample : 

Criteria for Selecting a Sample

Sampling Methods : 

Sampling Methods (Probability & Non-Probability Sampling Designs )

Sampling Methods : 

Sampling Methods Probability Sampling Methods Non-Probability Sampling Methods Simple Random Sampling Systematic Random Sampling Stratified Random Sampling Cluster (& Area) Random Sampling Convenience Sampling Judgment Sampling Quota Sampling Snow-ball sampling

Sampling Methods : 

Sampling Methods Probability Sampling Methods

Sample Size : 

Sample Size

Sample Size: : 

Sample Size: Precision Required Cost/Budget Available Variance in Population

Unit 3 : 

Unit 3

Unit 3 : 

Unit 3 Collection of Primary data Observation Method Interview Method Questionnaire Method Questionnaire Design Questionnaire Vs Schedule Attitude Measurement Techniques Motivational Research Techniques

Collection of Primary Data : 

Collection of Primary Data

Research PROCESS : 

Research PROCESS

Research PROCESS:- : 

Research PROCESS:- 1. Problem formulation 2. Reviewing the Literature 3. Formulating hypothesis 4. Research DESIGN 5. Data - COLLECTION 6. Data - ANALYSIS 7. Report-writing

Research Design : 

Research Design

Research Design : 

Research Design What is Research Design (Meaning & Definition) Parts of Research Design Importance /objectives /Advantages of Research Design Types of Research Designs- Exploratory, Descriptive &Experimental

introduction : 

introduction

What is Research Design (Meaning & Definition) : 

What is Research Design (Meaning & Definition) Research Design is the blueprint for a Research Project. Research Design is the Conceptual Structure of Research Design is layout/framework for a Research Project.

Sample Size : 

Sample Size

Sample size : 

Sample size Based on four factors Cost/budget Accuracy desired variance in population on variable of interest subgroup analysis planned

Criteria for a good Research : 

Criteria for a good Research

Introduction:- : 

Introduction:- Research is done in almost all areas. Science - (e.g.- physics, chemistry, botany, Zoology, Aeronautics, Agriculture, etc.) Art (Social science) (e.g.-Sociology, philosophy, Economics, Politics ,Anthropology etc.) & also in Management But in detail why ,on what & how etc. Research is done in business & management ?

Criteria for a good Research : 

Criteria for a good Research The topic of the research should be clearly defined. Also the purpose/objectives of the research should be defined clearly.

Technically Research is a PROCESS:- : 

Technically Research is a PROCESS:- 1. Problem formulation 2. Reviewing the Literature 3. Formulating hypothesis 4. Research DESIGN 5. Data - COLLECTION 6. Data - ANALYSIS 7. Report-writing Systematic & scientific search

Introduction:- : 

Introduction:- Holistic(Comprehensive), scientific & better understanding of total business environment. Strategy making as per characteristics of consumers & competitors. Better & effective Management Style. Change Management in internal environment with reactivity for survival & growth in present. Continuous Development in existing internal environment with proactivity for survival & growth in future. So, in business & management Research is done for:- (what)

Introduction- Research is done for:- (why/Results) : 

Introduction- Research is done for:- (why/Results) Rational & better decisions in imp. Issues. Reduce risk of loss/failure to a great extent. Solve the currently arisen problem logically. Better understanding of bus. Environment. Evaluating & controlling the performances. increasing efficiency & productivity in existing systems. Improving satisfaction level of imp. Peoople. Making better Strategies for competition . improving organzational effectiveness. Ensure Organisational success to a great extent.

Slide 123: 

Research Search new facts Verifying old facts Total business Environment & social Phenomena Research in Business management (diagram):-

Slide 124: 

Research (Extra):- In Common parlance :- “Research is a search for knowledge.” If define Technically , (given by Clifford woody) “Research comprises problem formulation, Reviewing Literature, hypotheses formulation, research design, data collection, data analysis & finally report writing.” It is a movement from unknown to known. It is an original contribution into existing stock of knowledge.

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